The bending MOE established at 9.2 GPa (compared to 8.6 GPa in the experimental test). The stress corresponding to a defl ection of 11.06 mm is equal to 42.7 MPa, which means a variation of 9.3% regarding the experimental MOR. Those values show the accuracy of the FEM model when describing the elastic and nonlinear behavior of the fl at LVL. Regarding the prediction of failure, we set the model to display the failure criterion indexes along a “path plot” placed along the tension side of the ninth layer, on the tension side of the sample. This allowed us to get rid of the artifacts constituted by some nodes placed on corners of the outer layer of the veneer. Moreover, the experiments showed that fracture always starts from the ninth layer, just under the buttjoint of the tenth layer (Fig. 5). The results are shown in the Table 2.
Car body frame consist of many part that joined together by welding process. There are spot welding process for critical joints such as main body frame, butt TIG-C and SMAW welding process for buttjoint, and some more. Different type of joints required different types of welding process. However, errors occurred during the welding process which leads to some discontinuities, crack, and flaws on the welded part. This can be dangerous since the crack exist on the welded part can distribute to the fracture of the vehicle. Non-destructive method had been used to identify the cracks on different weld joint such as T-joint, buttjoint and dissimilar joint.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of friction stir welding (FSW) parameters, which are the tool rotation speed, Welding speed, Angle of the tool. The microstructure and mechanical properties of buttjoint Aluminum Alloy (Al 5083) sheets of thickness 4mm. The macroscopic and microstructure examinations and tensile test results indicated that the joint properties were significantly affected by FSW parameters. Due to high strength, good welding properties, increased wear and corrosion resistance and high strength-to weight ratio, Aluminium 5083 is widely used in Ship building, Rail cars, Vehicle bodies, Tip truck bodies, Pressure vessels. Friction Stir Welding is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non- consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters and tool profile play major roles in deciding the weld quality. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to understand the effect to tool rotational speed (rpm), welding speed (mm/min) and Tool tilt angle (degrees) on 5083 Aluminium Alloy Plates of thickness 4mm. A sound and defect-free weld was achieved with a tool rotation speed of 1100 rpm, welding speed of 100mm/min and tool tilt angle of 91 0 . From this investigation it has been found that the tool rotational speed had little effect a heat input and tensile properties, weld properties were dominated by thermal input rather than the mechanical deformation by tool tilt angle for the plate thickness 4mm. In our Investigation we are using straight cylindrical pin profiled tool produces mechanically sound. The effect of welding process on mechanical properties of welded joints was analyzed on tensile test and microstructures. The mechanical properties of weld joint is affected greatly with the variation of welding parameters i.e. Tool rotational speed, Welding speed and Tool tilt angle KEYWORDS: AA 5083 plates, Tensile strength, Yield strength, Percentage of elongation & Micro structural Properties, ButtJoint.
The effect of process parameters on width, height and penetration have been studied in pulsed gas metal arc welding for narrow “V” type buttjoint and the mathematical models from these experimental data is be employed to study the relation between process parameters width, height and penetration.
An artificial neural network based model is developed to predict the weld shape and dimensions in laser welding of galvanized steel in buttjoint configurations. The models building procedure is based on a fused data provided by a structured experimental investigation and exhaustive 3D finite element method simulation. The possible relationships between welding parameters such as laser power, welding speed, fibre diameter and gap, and geometric characteristics of the welds specifically depth of penetration and bead width are analyzed and their sensitiv- ity to the welding conditions evaluated using relevant statistical tools. Based on these result, various options for the prediction model building are established and evaluated using seven improved statistical criteria. The achieved results demonstrate that the resulting models present excellent performances and can effectively predict the weld shape and dimensions in laser welding with an aver- age predicting errors less than 10%. These results demonstrate that the proposed ANN based prediction approach can effectively lead to a consistent model able to accurately and reliably provide an appropriate prediction of weld bead geo- metry and shape under variable welding parameters and conditions.
In this research, things included and limitation of parameter for Multi – Passes for Friction Stir Welding will discussed. The area of study is optimal parameter and mechanical properties for tensile strength. The machine that will be used is Flamefast Friction Stir Welding. This is due to easy preparation of the machine. This machine also can do different parameter for spindle speed (rpm) and weld rate (mm/s) kind of process that we will use when running the experiment. The process that will involve in this experiment is parameter of Multi - Passes. These processes will use the same friction stir tool, the same parameter and same material. At the end of the process, the result of the Multi – Passes Friction Stir Welding ButtJoint that are being used in this research.
Imanaka et al.  investigated the behaviour of adhesively bonded GFRP pipe/steel rod joints and found that fatigue strength of the joint mainly depended on maximum tensile stress normal to the adhesive adherend interface at the lap end. Jiao et al.  studied the behaviour of butt-welded joint between very high strength (VHS) circular steel tubes, strengthened by GFRP and found that the joint failed with three kinds of modes, adhesive failure, fiber tear and mixed failure. Fawzia et al.  also studied the behaviour of very high strength (VHS) circular steel tubes strengthen by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) under axial tension and effective bond length of CFRP reinforcement was established. Zhaoa and Zhang  reviewed articles on fatigue crack propagation in the GFRP- steel system. Raykhere et al.  evaluated the dynamic shear strength of adhesive joints prepared using four different commercial adhesives at loading rates in the range of 0.6–1.2 MPa/μs. Ladhwe et al.  formed GFRP buttjoint between similar materials, aluminum and was characterized under tensile and flexural loading. Ladhwe et al.  developed buttjoint between the pipes of dissimilar materials, aluminum and steel using carbon fiber roving. The joint was tested experimentally under tensile and flexural loading. The experimental results were interpreted on the basis of numerical analysis carried out using ANSYS. W. Hufenbach, R. Böhm , has analysed that due to their high lightweight potential, fiber reinforced plastics have found a broad application in chemical apparatus and plant construction. Because of improved standards for safety, reliability and cost effectiveness of such composite components, numerous technical challenges arise for the producers of pressure vessels, tanks, reactors and pipe element systems. In this context, a multitude of problems appear during recurring acceptance inspections and equipment condition monitoring using non-destructive test methods(leak detection method).
Abstract— Now a days in shipping, aerospace and in process industry aluminium and its alloys are commonly used because of their valuable properties such as light weight, better corrosion resistance and weld ability. The current study aim is to Investigation of Strength of V & U Groove ButtJoint on mechanical properties of AA2025 and AA7025 for different groove angle and bevel heights keeping root opening, voltage and current constant. The specimens are prepared by using V and U groove butt weld joints. In this work gas Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process has been selected because TIG welding is the process of joining different materials with high quality in the presence of inert gas. Alternating current power source has been selected because of better cleaning action and due to alternating current the high heat concentration on the material can be avoided. Mechanical tests such as tensile test, impact test, hardness test have been conducted to find out the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength, toughness of HAZ.
For friction stir welding and tig welding same metal i.e AA 5083 sheets, 4 mm thickness for buttjoint is used. For tig welding different diameters of electrodes are use and the material is 5356 i.e same composition as base metal. For tig welding a vertical semiautomatic milling machine was used. The tool used for this process was made of H13 steel 18mm diameter with the length of the pin is 4.7mm. Firstly material cut by shear machine as required dimensions of 100 x 100 x 4 mm are prepared and weld was made by joining two pieces. The process of welding is FSW completed by one pass by using H13 steel and weld samples of weld at different conditions by changing one parameters and keeping two parameter constant such that total number of samples are 27 from each welding.
The paper presents an experimental investigation of laser welding low carbon galvanized steel in butt-joint configurations. The effects of welding parameters and conditions (laser power, welding speed, laser fiber diameter, gap between sheets and sheet thickness) on the variation of weld quality attributes (bead width, penetration depth, underfill and hardness) are studied. Analysis of vari- ance is executed to quantify the impact of each parameter on the welds quality and assess the parameters interactions. The combination of welding parameters and conditions that can give the best welds quality for various thickness with or without gap are identified.
Every joining process has its merits and demerits. In this study, we are using two mild steel specimens with a butt-joint between them. The FRP is dipped into epoxy adhesive solution and is wrapped over the buttjoint. After this, the joint is left to cure for 24 hours. The joint thus obtained is known as FRP buttjoint. The setup used in the experiment consist of a winding apparatus which helps in winding the FRP over the circumference of the buttjoint. The durability test of the joint is performed on UTM.
Abstract: Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an emerging solid-state joining technology that is being developed since last two decades. In this present study, three dimensional nonlinear virtual experiments is conducted using ALTAIR Hyperweld FSW software module for the buttjoint of Al6061 taking three different tool materials like Tungsten, Molybdenum and Tool Steel. Also during FSW simulation tool rotational speed is varied from 600 rpm to 1500 rpm with range of 300 rpm in case of each tool material. Then the thermal distribution for each simulation is analysed critically. This virtual experiment presents the temperature field in FSW process with variation in tool material, tool rpm and their comparative effects on workpiece on the basis of obtained contours which suggest the best rpm and type of tool material that is best suitable for FSW of Al6061. Altair hyper weld module is a new generation speedy tool for the analysis of the welded joint and the welding industries can be benefitted a lot. Also it is a best tool to conduct the virtual experiments to get the prediction of the various results prior to conduct the actual experiment or production in order to reduce to economical testing cost.
Wang, (2009) highlighted the importance of welding in industry as one of the material processing method. With the development of technology and the realization of the welding process, the requirements of welding quality are getting higher and higher. The application of welding robot seen as a revolutionary development, which totally changes the typical mode of rigid atomization to the flexible mode .Welding robot consists of few major components that is robot controller and welding power and other equipments. Welding robots have high stability of function and can enhance welding quality greatly, so it is an important application area for industrial robots. In addition, Alfaro and Drews, (2006) state that the welding automation able to guide the robot movements. Besides that, the automation in welding allowing the welding torch to be always inside the welding joint and controlling the welding parameters such as current, voltage, wire feed rate, heat input, and many.
A new concept for manufacturing tubular buttjoint specimens for biaxial film adhesive material characteristics is presented. While the different thermal expansions are the main problem for manufacturing tubular butt joints with film adhesives in the past, the presented new joining concept utilizes these to align both adherends during the cur- ing. The quality of bondline and the accuracy of orientation of the tubes are strongly increased. At this time the material tests show a decrease of variation in results of factor 4. The joining device is registered to Patent Number DE 102017114538.9.
The welding grooves of the butt joints are shown in Fig. 5. Figure 5 (a) shows the welding groove of the upper support shell which has the triangular-shape groove on the equator. Figure 5 (b) shows the buttjoint on the horizontal port after temporary assembly. The top surface is flat, and the narrow oval grooves and J-shape grooves are very clear. To achieve the symmetric residual stress distribution, the symmetric welding process was adopted in the practi- cal manufacturing. The welding heat input was reduced, and the small bead was formed little by little. Finally, the upper and the lower support shells were constructed with an excellent manufacturing tolerance.
Abstract A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glue application and placement of butt-joints on the com- pressive and tensile properties in a butt-jointed lamination. The aim was to provide background information for producing butt-jointed, glued, laminated timber. Three butt-jointed lamination models were prepared from spruce- pine-fir (S-P-F) dimension lumber with glued and nonglued butt joints, with different placements of the butt joints in the models. The axial stiffness and strength properties were assessed using both compressive and tensile tests. The re- sults of the study indicated that for the compressive lamina- tion model the application of glue at the buttjoint gave more stiffness than the nonglued buttjoint. Neither glue application nor placement of the joint had a statistically significant effect on the compressive strength. There were no significant differences between the glued and nonglued buttjoint for either tensile strength or stiffness.
Abstract LVL (Laminated-Veneer Lumber) has many advantages and economic values, which is important for wooden boat construction. The recovery of veneer, the main material of LVL, are higher than sawn-timber and their drying process are faster. LVL produced with a continuous press has been approved as an engineered material with reliable strength and stiffness. In a wooden boat processing, the easy forming into a curve shape and strength are main factor, because of the streamline shape of boats. LVL material is able to meet those requirements. As an endless-length LVL is made from a log limited-length hence LVL always contain joints. Buttjoint have numerous drawbacks, but they are inherently simple and less time to manufacture than other joints types. The purposes of this experiment are to investigate the basic characteristics of LVL which are important for deck and hull planking in the wooden boat constructions. Yellow meranti and red meranti were peeled by a veneer lathe and phenol formaldehyde adhesive were used. Result of experiment indicated that at the position 0 o (β), the flexibility and strength of LVL up to proportional limit increased with increasing number of layer and spacing of butt-joint (d/t). LVL at the position 45 o and 90 o (β), all types of LVL had lower flexibility and strength than the standard value for deck and hull planking. In bending experiment test speciment at position 45° with direction of grain, maximum width of LVL equal to the spacing of frame and at position 90° equal to the width of hull planking in wooden boat. Based on the interpretations of the above results, it can be concluded that (1). LVL of 9, 6 and 4 plies with upside (inside) veneer butt-joint is appropriate for deck and hull planking in wooden boat manufacturing, (2). LVL of 9, 6 and 4 plies with spacing of butt-joint (d/t) more than 20 is appropriate for deck and hull planking in manufacturing wooden boat.
Abstract- In this paper the study was done to investigate the effect of vibratory set up on the mechanical properties of 10 mm thick AISI 1018 Mild Steel welded buttjoint. The enhancement of the welding mechanical properties and the quality of the fusion metal was considered recently by using vibration during welding. During the welding of metals along with mechanical vibrations, uniform and finer grain structures can be produced. This increases the toughness and hardness of the metals, because of solidification effects at the weld pool surface. As the weld pool solidifies, grains are not only limited in size, but dendrites growing perpendicular to the fusion line are restricted.
In this study, the effect of various welding parameters on the weldability of Mild Steel specimens having dimensions 50mm× 40mm× 6 mm welded by metal arc welding were investigated. The welding current, arc voltage, welding speed, heat input rate are chosen as welding parameters. The depth of penetrations were measured for each specimen after the welding operation on closed buttjoint and the effects of welding speed and heat input rate parameters on depth of penetration were investigated.
ABSTRACT: Joining the two facing workpieces without melting them by using non-consumable tool is referred as Friction Stir Welding which is a solid state joining process. This economic and technically advantages process was invented in 1991 by The Welding Institute, United Kingdom. Joining of Non-Ferrous and Ferrous materials like Aluminium to Steel finds its application in various industrial applications. Due to the large differences in melting temperature, physical and chemical properties makes it difficult to control weld and defects during welding. Formations of intermetallic compounds at the interface due to very low solubility of Fe in Al are detrimental to joint efficiency. The aim of the present work is microstructural investigation of optimized Friction Stir Welding buttjoint between AA 6082-T6 and Soft Steel/Mild Steel. Radiography test is done to check weld joint is sound or not. Then microstructure evolution in friction stir weld joints was studied by optical microscopy. Fine recrystallized grains were observed in the weld nugget zone, while thermo-mechanically affected zone showed distorted and unrecrystalized grains. Further, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) investigations were implemented on the optimized specimen in order to study the development stages that occur during welding at the welding interface.