mediates the host response to Gram positive bacteria via stimulation of NF-kB . Lipoproteins, peptidoglycans, porins, lipoarrabinomannans and zymogens are the targets of TLR2 . TLR2 has an important role in innate immune response against Bacillus anthracis due to which TNF alpha secretion was found to be mediated by TLR2 dependent pathway which is a therapeutic use . C. halicacabum belonging to Papindacae family grows all over the world especially in Asia and Africa where this plant is commonly known as balloon vine . The leaves are recommended for rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, and stiffness of limbs . Pharmacological validation and toxicological evaluation have proven its safety and not toxic nature of C. halicacabum (40 g/kg in rats). It suppressed the production of TNF alpha and nitric oxide in in vitro experiment with PMBC . Antioxidant, Anti- inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of this herbal extract have already been proven . With this prelude, the present investigation was carried out
Plants have the ability to synthesize numerous compounds for their biological functions. Many of these phytochemicals derived from plants, have been used to treat human diseases, since the dawn of medicine. Roughly 50% of new chemical entities introduced during the past two decades are from natural products. Recent technological advances have renewed interest in natural products in drug discovery. There are various medicinal plants and their extracts containing active chemical constituents that have significant antiulcer activity in in vivo experiments on animal models. In this context, extract or active principles from plants could serve as leads for the development of new safe and effective drugs (Gonzales et al., 2000). C. halicacabum Linn. (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal herbaceous climber, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. Toxicological and pharmacological studies carried out by various investigators revealed its analgesic, antipyretic, antiarthritic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties (Asha and Pushpangadan, 1999; Gopalakrishnan et al., 1976; Paakkari, 1994; Sadique et al., 1987; Sheeba and Asha, 2006, 2009; Ghosh and Sil, 2007; Das et al., 1997; Venkat Rao et al., 2006; Pratheesh Kumar and Girija Kuttan, 2010).
DNA based markers are increasingly being recognized as useful tools for assessing genetic diversity among germplasm. Being one of the plants in Dasapushpa, the detection of adulteration of the plant C. halicacabum, in Ayurveda drug industry is critical. RAPD analysis provided a molecular method for analyzin g th e genetic polymorphism among populations of C. halicacabum. This is the first report of partitioning of genetic variability within and among wild populations of C. halicacabum in Kerala, at the DNA level.
Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) popularly called as balloon wine belongs to Sapindaceae family. Phytochemical constituents such as flavones, apigenin, triterpenoidal glycosides fatty acids and volatile ester have been reported in C. halicacabum. In the present study the aerial parts of C. halicacabum were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating extract in simple ointment base B.P. in concentration of 2% (w/w) and 4% (w/w) and studied in three types of model in rats viz. excision, incision and burn wound model. The statistical data indicated that the wound with ointment containing 4% w/w alcoholic extract exhibited significant (P < 0.001) wound contracting ability and period of epithelization. Significant tensile strength was observed with both the ointment formulations 2% w/w and 4% w/w. The experimental data demonstrated that C. halicacabum displayed remarkable wound healing activity.
Rheumatoid arthritis [RA] is a disorder that makes the abnormal immune cells to assail the joints in the body leading to pannus formation and destruction of the synovium. Human DiHydroOrotate DeHydrogenase [hDHODH] inhibition is effective in controlling the proliferation of the abnormal immune cells. Though technology has benefitted science and medicine in many ways, certain indigenous cures are still considered a boom for various diseases. C. halicacabum an Indian medicinal plant is widely used as a home remedy for arthritis pain. The novelty of this study relies on the extensive validations performed to obtain robustness of the results. An E-pharmacophore model based on A771726- an experimentally resolved inhibitor of hDHODH was screened against the phytocompounds in the leaf of C. halicacabum. These compounds were docked and further validated statistical and ranking methods. Further, flexible docking was performed to understand the optimal pose of the docked structures of Apigenin 7O-glucornide and Luteolin 7O-glucornide. These optimal poses were then simulated for 10 ns in a SPC environment which gave a very low RMSD value of 1.5 Å. These results were comparable with the known inhibitor of hDHODH. Thus this study helps to understand and evaluate the different probable inhibitors of hDHODH from C.halicacabum and suggests a mode of action for phytochemicals of C. halicacabum against RA.
(Sapindaceae family) was herbaceous climber, commonly found throughout India. C. halicacabum is commonly known as balloon vine (England), Jia hu gua (China) and mudakathan keerai (Tamil Nadu, India). Traditionally it was used in the treatment of rheumatism, nerve diseases, and as a demulcent in orchitis and in dropsy. Various pharmacological studies have proved the analgesic activitiy,
Cardiospermum halicacabum (Family: Sapindaceae): Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine), is a climbing plant (Figure 2) widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia . This plant has been reported to have bioactivity such as homoeopathic  and anti-diarrheal ef icacy , anti-microbial [50,51]. The ilaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. halicacabum against B. pahangi was previously reported is . The researchers found activity on adult worms and the amount of micro ilarial released by female worms was concentration and time dependent. For example, using 500 μg/ml, the authors observed the aqueous extract to signi icantly reduce motility of adult females after 24 h of exposure, the release of micro ilariae from female worms on day 2 and the motility of the adult males after 3 days. However, the aqueous extract at this concentration (500 μg/ml) did not affect the motility of micro ilariae with the exception of those in higher concentration extracts. In contrast, 500 μg/ml of the ethanol extract was found to rapidly reduce the motility of micro ilariae on day 2. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ethanol extracts (2 mg/ml) inhibit both the motility of adult worms and the release of micro ilariae from females .
Our results demonstrate that the whole-plant extract of C. halicacabum could possibly be a great source of bioactive agents capable of inhibiting the fungal growth by interfering with Hsp90, which can be considered a potential target for novel antifungal strategies. Overall, these evidences suggest that C. halicacabum extract, alone or in combination therapy with lower doses of conventional antimycotic drugs to reduce their side effects, can represent a new potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of infections caused by fungi which show resistance to the current antifungal therapies. However, all studies investigating the antifungal activity of C. halica- cabum have been carried out in vitro. Further investigations in experimental animal models of mycotic infections are necessary to assess in vivo the efficacy and safety of this natural compound for future potential translation of research into clinical practice.
DISCUSSION: Seed oils of C. halicacabum varieties significantly reduced the formation of gastric ulcer in ethanol induced ulcer rat model. A dose dependent response on the intensity of gastric ulceration was noted. However, statistically more effect was noted in var. microcarpum. The increase in potassium content is significant because it alters the hydrogen ion content there by increasing the mucosal protective action. The mucosal defense mechanism may be due to the epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa which are impermeable to hydrogen ions thereby forming a physical barrier 26 . Carbohydrate and protein ratio also supports the above observation. Difference between the two seed oils may be due to the quantitative variation of the biological compounds.
The C. halicacabum chloroform extract 10gm was applied to a silica gel column (60 – 120 mesh) packed in hexane and eluted with solvents of varying polarity of hexane, hexane: chloroform, chloroform, chloroform: ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: methanol and then methanol. Similar fractions were pooled based on TLC profiles. Fractions eluted with ethyl acetate: methanol (50:50) yielded crystals after concentration. It was soluble in methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform and insoluble in ether and hexane. It gave a pink color with concentrated hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon indicating it as a flavanoid. TLC of the fraction in BAW (4:1:5) gave a neat single streak of 0.77R f . Since the isolated fraction showed a band instead of a spot it
Aqueous, chloroformic, and methanolic extracts of the leaves of C. halicacabum have a pawned appearance of dark brown color; the solvent evaporation powder is highly soluble in water, chloroform, and methanol. The main active constituents of the plant are extracted from the flowered aerial parts, and the chemical composition is very complex. The analysis of an ethanolic extract highlighted the presence of several compounds including phenolic acids (P-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroquinone, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid); flavonoids (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin); glycosidic compounds; tannins; and sterols including β-sitosterina, Campestrina, and stigmasterin. All compounds have been isolated and evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. 6-8
of these radicals cause oxidative stress which leads to disease to human body. The harmful effects of these radicals are destroyed by the substances called antioxidants which may be natural or synthetic. Due to these dangerous side effects and expensive of synthetic antioxidants, finding the natural antioxidants from easily available sources is indispensable. Thus, the current study on forgotten, economical, and readily reachable plant C. halicacabum (Mudakathan keerai) revealed the momentous antioxidant activity. Addition of this plant in our day-to-day life may prevent the occurrence of many diseases to human health.
Plants have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Out of about 15,000 species of higher plants in India, medicinal uses have been attributed to 1500 species (Handa, 1998). Due to the technological advancements, the natural genetic setup of the plants experiences a drastic change. Therefore, we decided to work on genetic diversity in Cardiospermum halicacabum. Different parts of this plant are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago, cough, hyperthermia, nervous diseases, stiffness of limbs and snake bite (Chopra,1980). According to research work done by Krishnamoorthy Ganesan et al., 2011, C. halicacabum cures inflammation and collagen degradation. The alcoholic extract
The leaves of C. halicacabum also contain a proven antioxidant rutin which animal studies have shown to increase colonic glutathione levels, free radical- scavenging and iron chelating activity while a species belonging to Osbeckia had antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, osbeckic acid, a furan- carboxylic acid which also can be present in O. octandra due to the similar therapeutic effects of these two plants [3,20]. However, compared to the obtained total phenolic contents in the present study, C. halicacabum and O. octandra elicited lower antioxidant potentials. These observations could be due to the absence of antioxidant effect in some phenolics of the above leaf varieties.
Sub-acute inflammation was induced by cotton pellet granuloma. After shaving off the fur the animals were anesthetized; through a single needle incision, sterile preweighed cotton pellets (10 mg) one each were implanted in the axilla and groin region respectively of each rat. Mudakkatran Choornam (400 &800mg/kg), Aspirin (150 mg/kg) and 0.9% saline 10 ml/kg (control) were administered orally to the respective groups of animals for 7 consecutive days from the day of cotton-pellet implantation. On the eighth day the animals were sacrificed and the cotton pellets were removed and incubated at 60 O C overnight and the dry weights were taken. The increment in the dry weight of the pellet was taken as a measure of granuloma formation.
Linn, Family: Sapindaceae. As a wild climber through out the plains of India, ascending to 1300 m in the North Western Himalaya. Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn is a small genus of ornamental, herbaceous or shrubby vines. An annual or sometimes perennial climber, 3.5 m in height commonly found as a weed throughout India, ascending upto 1200m. Leaves deltoid, biternate, 3-8 cm long, leaflets deeply cut, acuminate, laterals obolong or ovate, terminal rhomboid- lanceolate, flowers white in umbellate cymer, with a pair of peduncles modified into tendrils; capsules depressed – pyriform ,covered with bladder like calyx, winged at the angles; seeds globose, black, smooth, 4-6mm, with a small, white, heart shaped aril. In literature review it was found that the Plant used as amenorrhea, anti arthritis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, antihemolytic and anti rheumatic. The root used as aperient in orchitis, diuretic, used in liver disorders and dysentery. The leaf juice used for asthmatic treatment and drooped into nostrils relives one side head-ache 1, 2 .
T he present study investigates the zcute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity in ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Cardiospermum canescens L using carrageenan, Acetic acid, Xylene , PMA induced edema in animals significantly swelling inhibited ***P<0.001 when compared to control group P<0.001when compared to test ethanolic extract dose 250mg, 500mgP<0.001 when compared to stabdard drug.And inchronic inflammatory study revealed that treatment of rats with both the extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Cardiospermum canescens (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.001) reduction in weight of cotton pellet induced granuloma, Formalin induced edema in mice with 500 mg/kg of both extracts significantly (P<0.001) reduced paw thickness whereas 250 mg/kg of both extracts showed lesser effect (P<0.01) in reducing the paw volume.
Superoxide anion scavenging activity was measured based on the described method by Robak and Gryglewski (1988). 14 Superoxide radicals were generated in nicotinenamide adenine dinucleotide, phenazine methosulphate (PMS–NADH) system by the oxidation of NADH and assayed by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT). In this experiment, the superoxide radical was generated in 3 ml of sodium phosphate buffer containing 1ml of 50Mm NBT solution, 1 ml of 0.1mM NADH solution, and different concentrations of the plant extracts (100 to 1000g) in water. The reaction was started by adding 1 ml of 50mM PMS solution to the mixture. The reaction mixture was incubated at 25°C for 5 min and the absorbance was measured against the corresponding blank solution. L-Ascorbic acid was used as the positive control. The decrease of NBT reduction measured by the absorbance of the reaction mixture correlates with the superoxide radical scavenging activity of the plant extrats. The superoxide radical scavenging activity was calculated using the following formula: Superoxide radical scavenging activity (%) = [(A 0 –A 1 /A 0 )