An obligatory and significant part of the recruitment process for embedded systems programmers seems to be the "Ctest." Over the years, I have had to both take and prepare such tests and, in doing so, have realized that these tests can be informative for both the interviewer and interviewee. Furthermore, when given outside the pressure of an interview situation, these tests can also be quite entertaining.
First proposed in 1981 by Klein-Braley as an alternative to Cloze test, C-test has been the subject of a massive bulk of empirical researches since its introduction to the field of language testing, some on validating C-test as a measure of general language proficiency through qualitative and quantitative methodologies (Eckes & Grotjahn, 2006; Babaii & Ansary, 2001; Dörnyei & Katona, 1992), some particularly on comparison of C-test with cloze test procedure (Jafarpur, 1995; Jafarpur, 2002), and others on studying the C-test takers' performance, the strategies used and the processes involved in C-test taking (Feldmann, & Stemmer, 1987, Babaii & Ansary, 2001; Stemmer, 1991; Kamimoto, 1992). C-tests are usually not associated with vocabulary measurement and are used to measure overall language proficiency however, second language researchers, Singleton and Little, have suggested that C- test can be used in vocabulary research (Singleton & Little, 1991; Singleton & Singleton, 1998; Singleton, 1999).
As to the varieties of this kind of test, there are two main types of cloze test: C-test and Cloze-Elide test. The former consists of four to six short texts students might have seen before, in which instead of whole words, it is the second half of every second word which is deleted, beginning with the second word of the second sentence; both the first and the last sentences of the text are left intact. This is one of the techniques we have chosen to assess content knowledge and language use. It is claimed that the C-test has some advantages over the cloze test since regarding the variety of passages, a better sampling of content areas, styles, genres and certain and certain vocabulary items can be covered. There is also a more representative sample of all language elements since it is every second word which is removed; scoring is easy and objective because there is usually only one correct response. Unlike cloze tests, learners seem to enjoy doing C-tests –either as a classroom task or as a more formal assessment activity-, which in turn has a beneficial backwash effect on learners.
testing grammar, for deletions are not at the sentence but at the word level. In contrast, there are researchers who have found indications of micro-level processing in the C-test (e.g. Cohen et al., 1984; Kamimoto, 1992) with almost no trace of macro-level processing. Cohen et al. (1984) maintain that because half the word is given in each mutilation, the examinees who do not understand the macro- context could still mobilize their vocabulary skills to fill in the appropriate discourse connectors without indulging in higher-level processing. In the same vein, Kamimoto states that C-test tends to measure vocabulary and grammatical proficiency and this tendency lies in the deletion procedure of C-test. Babaii and Ansari’s investigation (2001) reveals that C-test can measure both macro- and micro- level features of language and is a reliable and valid procedure that mirrors the reduced redundancy principle. Following this study, Babaii and Jalali Moghaddam (2006) indicate that employing texts with more syntactic complexity and abstraction, along with eliminating clues with respect to the number of missing letters, can result in more difficult test tasks which, in turn, seem to encourage more frequent use of macro- level processing on the part of the test takers. Finding high correlations between the scores on a German C-test and TestDaF (Test of German as a Foreign Language), Eckes and Grotjahn (2006) also concluded that C- test is a highly reliable instrument, which measures the same general dimension as the four TestDaF sections: reading, listening, writing and speaking. Using Rasch analysis to examine the reliability and concurrent validity of the measure, Lee-Ellis (2009) also investigated the development and validation of C-Test in Korean context. The Rasch analysis demonstrated excellent reliability and validity indices, and the results revealed the potential of C-Test as a quick proficiency indicator.
procedure, C-test, to overcome the problems of standard cloze test. Indeed, the 'C' in 'C-test' was abbreviated from the word 'cloze' to confirm to the relationship between cloze test and C-test (Klein-Braley, 1997). This test method, according to Read (2000), "tends to make a very embedded assessment of vocabulary, to the extent that it is difficult to unearth the distinctive contribution that vocabulary makes to test performance" (p. 115). Therefore, Lee (2008) regards C-test as a proper tool for measuring "previously targeted vocabulary" (p. 644). In C-test, "instead of the complete words, the second half of every second word is deleted" and "examinees get scores for only exact words" (Hughes, 2003, p. 71). Alderson (2000) asserts that deletions start in the second sentence of the text to provide a general perception of the topic and style of the materials. Hastings (1996) argues that applying the rule of two maximizes the representativeness of the text. In C- test, one-letter words are ignored, and "if the word has an odd number of letters, the larger half is deleted" (Babaii & Ansary, 2001, p. 211). This mutation process continues till its number reaches 100 (Khodadady, 2007, p. 3) which takes little space and time to complete (Hughes, 2003, p. 71). Examinees get credit for exact word restorations (Alderson, 2000; Hughes, 2003; Weir, 1990). The lower scores of native speakers on C-tests illustrate the necessity of a careful examination of the text for removing nonfunctioning items if needed (Klein-Braley, 1997). There are studies supporting the efficacy of C-test in measuring the same latent variable that most other test types measure (Eckes & Grotjahn, 2006; Klein-Braley, 1985; Lee & Ellis, 2009). Evidence on high practicality, reliability, and validity of C-test has turned it to a proper tool for reading comprehension (Lee-Ellis, 2009).
These finding indicated that the C-Test in this case did not effectively and reliably provide an assessment of students’ discipline-specific literacy competency, even though the expectations were somewhat higher. The authors accept this specific exercise in concurrent validation between the C-Test and an overall IELTS score is only preliminary and requires further research to be able to recommend the implementation of the C-Test as a reliable form of either a screening test, placement test, or a PELA. Although this research has provided limited evidence, previous re- search suggests there is potential for the C-Test to be utilised as a discipline-specific academic literacy and language competency assessment tool that can be delivered effectively online, if the preparation and design is more systematically engaged with. Therefore, an online C-Test has the potential to provide a cost-effective and practical system of linguistic assessment if its reliability and validity can be proven.
This study conducted to compare learners’ performance on C-test and Cloze-test and find out which kind of these two tests create more anxiety. To achieve the object, one university in Mashhad, Iran was selected, randomly and then, 60 Iranian female Junior students were chosen randomly among three classes with the total estimated average number of students 150 (both sex); since females are more anxious than males (Kendler, et. al, 1992, Aida, 1994,Shear,1997, Pigott, 2003, Buss, 2011, Chaplin, et. al., 2013, Caballo, et. al. 2014), subject must be of the same sex. All the subjects were studying Bachelor degree in English Translation. First of all, the researcher must determine anxious students, for doing this, they were given an anxiety test. For this research, Hamilton test was selected as a standard anxiety test. After this procedure, C- test and Cloze- test were given, simultaneously. Both tests must be similar together as much as possible. Proficiency and difficulty level and numbers of item should be the same, both tests must have the same length.
Materials and methods: Thirty platelet recipients with platelet antibodies (responders) and 20 platelet recipients without platelet antibodies (non-responders) were randomly selected. The -572 C>G (rs 1800796) SNPs in the promoter region of IL-6 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Solid phase red cell adherence assay (SPRCA) was used for platelet antibody detection.
DBS sent to the WoSSVC for anti-HCV and HCV PCR test- ing and subsequently stored at 4 ◦ C were used in this study. The samples came from clinics run by community addition ser- vices. Group 4 consisted of 65 DBS taken from known chronic patients (tested anti-HCV and HCV PCR positive for >1 year) and group 5 consisted of 68 DBS from resolved patients (tested anti-HCV and HCV PCR negative for an average of 6 years, range 1–14). The patients chosen for each group had had pre- vious HCV results from plasma samples on record at WoSSVC. Information on the number of patients treated and the dura- tion of HCV infection was unknown for both groups 4 and 5.
This study is the first to examine the impact of CRP testing on clinical decision-making and to evaluate the evidence base for the utility of this test for different infections in children. Despite this study ’ s limitations, we were able to demonstrate the small contribution that this test makes to the diagnosis of bacterial infec- tions in children and the impressive increase in hos- pital bills due to its routine ordering. However, this study suffers from several limitations. First, its retro- spective design may introduce bias in accurately cap- turing the treating physician’s rationale behind CRP ordering and its effect on the management of patients if the rationale or effects were inadequately recorded in the patients ’ medical charts. This bias was kept to a minimum by our careful scrutiny of the written med- ical orders and the progress notes pertaining to each CRP test. Second, although the classification of CRP tests as EB or non-EB was based on the highest level of evidence available at the time of admission, most of this evidence came from studies with a low level of evidence, such as retrospective studies or case series, when systematic reviews were unavailable. Third, we found great variation in the optimal CRP cutoff level among studies, even for the same type of infection. However, these limitations make our calculations of the proportion of evidence-based tests and of the extra charges due to CRP ordering in our setting an under- estimate of the reality. The main strength of this study is the use of explicit criteria to classify CRP test order- ing as EB or non-EB based on a critical review of the literature.
HCV core antigen detection rapid test has good diagnostic potential for the early detection of HCV infection as anti-HCV antibody very weak positive serum samples which were detected negative in rapid immunoassay detecting anti-HCV antibodies those samples could be detected for the presence of HCV infection by detecting HCV core antigen in rapid immunoassay. Both NAT test positive samples (negative for anti-HCV antibody) were also detected positive in Core antigen detection test. In seroconversion panel study, early detection (approx. 12 days) could be done by HCV core antigen detection. In addition to above advantages of the HCV core antigen detection is that it indicates active multiplication of virus (current disease). However HCV core antigen detection assay should be combined with anti-HCV antibody detection assay for the diagnosis of HCV infection as HCV core antigen test becomes negative after appearance of anti-HCV antibody in patient serum.
A BiConiLog™ antenna combines a broadband biconical- like bow-tie antenna with a standard LPDA (log periodic dipole array) to replace the traditional use of two antennas in the 26-1000 MHz EMC test frequency range. Many EMC antennas are variations of a standard tuned dipole, which must be nearly half a wavelength long to transmit or receive energy most efficiently. Thus, at 26 MHz, a tuned dipole would have to be approximately 5.3 meters long, about 4.6 meters long at 30 MHz, and 2.8 meters long at 50 MHz. Unfortunately, this is too unwieldy for many anechoic chambers and test sites. The end plates of the Model 3140 T bow-ties make the bow-tie antenna segment look like an antenna twice as long as its 1.6 meter length. The result is about a 10-dB improvement in low frequency transmit gain compared to a same-length regular bow-tie.
Neutralization assay of CHRV by RPHA test. The heat-inactivated sera (56°C, 30 min) were serially diluted in twofold steps in MEM. The initial serum dilution used for the neutralization test was 1:32 or 1:64, because some sera showed nonspecific background reactions at lower dilutions. The stock of CHRV was diluted with MEM containing pancreatin (300 g/ml) to obtain virus samples that would yield an RPHA test titer of 8 at 3 days after infection. The same amounts (25 l) of diluted sera and virus samples were mixed, and the mixture was incubated for 1 h at 37°C. Residual infectivity was measured by inoculating the mixture into CaCo-2 cells prepared in 96-well microplates, and the amount of viral antigen at 3 days after infection was measured by the RPHA test. The maximum dilution of serum that exhibited a fourfold (75%) or more reduction in the RPHA test titer was defined as the endpoint of neutralization. We named this assay the neutralization (N)-(RPHA) test.
Using this method, we were able to successfully sequence and classify 89.4% of those 416 specimens demonstrating a positive HCV RNA test result. Of those 44 of 416 (10.6%) HCV RNA-positive specimens which could not be classified based on the 5⬘UTR, the majority corresponded to low-titer specimens as determined by the Chiron Quantiplex HCV RNA 2.0 assay (Fig. 2). Despite the fact that there were detectable levels of amplification products found in these reactions, these results suggest the lack of sufficient quantities of amplified material as the primary cause of direct sequencing failure. In turn, the most likely explanation for lack of amplification prod- ucts is limited quantities of viral RNA present in the original specimen. We could have performed nested amplification to generate sufficient product for sequencing, but this procedure would add delays, expense, and the risk of carryover contam- ination to the procedure (24). Ultimately, we decided against further amplification, since the sensitivity of the procedure already exceeded that of the NS-5 sequencing protocol (see below).
population for patients with congenital anomalies. In addition, for patients with mental retardation and developmental delay, this technology greatly improves diagnosis. The increased detection rate not only improves patient care but is cost effective. Once the patient receives a definitive genetic diagnosis no additional testing is needed, and key family members also are risk can be identified and evaluated. This test is performed based on clinical signs and symptoms.
HCV RNA (in international units per milliliter) are also con- sistent with those reported in earlier studies. Bouvier-Alias et al. (6) reported correlations of 1 pg of HCV core antigen per ml to 7,688 IU of HCV RNA per ml for genotype 1b and to 6,711 IU of HCV RNA per ml for genotype 3. Similarly, the correlations estimated from the differences between the mean concentrations of HCV core antigen and HCV RNA for each genotype reported by Veillon et al. (36) suggest that 1 pg of HCV core antigen per ml corresponds to HCV RNA concen- trations of 8,128 IU/ml for genotype 1, 8,511 IU/ml for geno- type 2, and 9,550 IU/ml for genotype 3. The variation among the reported correlations between HCV core antigen and HCV RNA concentrations may be explained in part by the use of different quantitative assays and specimens from different patient populations in the various studies. While our study used the third-generation HCV bDNA assay, Veillon et al. (36) used the second-generation version of this assay and the AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test (version 2.0; Roche Mo- lecular Diagnostics), and Bouvier-Alias et al. (6) used the third-generation HCV bDNA assay as well as the AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test (version 2.0) and the SuperQuant assay (National Genetics Institute, Culver City, Calif.). Even though the quantification results were expressed in the same interna- tional units, the quantification results reported from the dif- ferent HCV RNA assays may not be equivalent (25). Also, while our study population consisted exclusively of treatment- naïve patients, the studies of Veillon et al. (36) and Bouvier- Alias et al. (6) included patients undergoing therapy. Not only do the mean values for HCV core antigen and HCV RNA levels differ between these patient groups, but the relationship between HCV core antigen and HCV RNA concentrations may also vary between patients (6, 16). For all of these reasons, the reported correlations between the concentration of HCV core antigen and the HCV RNA concentration may vary from study to study.
Method 2 is a test method under the actual operation condition. This method allows testing without using an interoperability tester required by Method 1. If neither SU nor TR that has been verified in accordance with this document is available, both SU and TR shall be treated as units under test. Therefore, in the event that any test item fails, it is essential to specify which has nonconformity, either SU or TR. Also, even if a test item passes, it is necessary to fully verify that both SU and TR are in conformity with the specifications specified in REF  and REF . A configuration diagram for testing is described in the configuration for Method 1; however, unless otherwise specified, either of two test methods can be employed. Configuration of an interoperability tester is not specified in this document; hence, the configuration shall be prepared using an appropriate method by the respective manufacturer that performs the test.
CRP was tested by the latex agglutination semi- quantitative test kit. This test kit is standardized to detect CRP concentrations of approximately 6 mg/L or higher in undiluted serum samples (positive test). All women without a history of antenatal type 1 or type 2 diabetes undergo routine GDM screening with the 50-g oral glucose-loading test (GLT) between 24 and 28 weeks 'gestation, however any case discovered later on during routine antenatal care included in the study.