when irrigated with sewer mix canalwater was loaded with potassium, phosphorous, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nickel and lead . The evaluation of irrigation water for heavy metals contamination was studied in Akbarpura District Noshera. Comparative study on irrigation canal and Bara river water on heavy metals contents revealed that irrigation canal was less polluted as compared to Bara river water . The heavy metals contents were accumulated and distributed in agricultural soil when irrigated by canalwater mix with sewer and industrial wastewater . The present study was aimed at collection and physicochemical analysis of water samples from Lahore branch canal, so as to determine the extent of pollution, the impact of activities by residents of surrounding areas that is a continuous threat to canalwater resources its ecosystem and suitability for required use.
small scale agriculture and cultivate during the short rains but use canalwater for irrigation depending on the need. Main cultivated crops in this area are; Zea mays (maize), Phaseolus vulgaris (beans), Pennisetum glaucum (millet), Sorghum vulgare (sorghum), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Mangifera indica (mango), Citrullus lanatus (water melon), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Musa acuminata (banana) and Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato). To supplement household incomes, people also practice cattle herding, poultry and bee keeping (Figure 1).
Results: Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canalwater releases. Similarly, there was a strong positive correlation between bi-weekly vector density and canalwater releases lagged by two weeks. Furthermore, monthly malaria incidence was strongly correlated with monthly vector density lagged by a month in the irrigated villages. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the irrigation schemes resulted in intensified malaria transmission due to poor canalwater management. Proper canalwater management could reduce vector abundance and malaria transmission in the irrigated villages.
Abstract unjab has highest percentage of area under the canal and river network. The scarcity of land to develop road network has forced the road construction agencies to move towards the canal and river banks where roads can be constructed comparatively easily being the provincial government land by saving a lot of land acquisition cost. The performance of a road built on canal bank is always remain uncertain. The most of the canals and rivers passes through the alluvial planes, to keep the cross section of canal uniform a constant water level and bed slope is maintained, this necessitating the construction of fall structures and high side banks. The effect of capillary and water supply level always keep the Phreatic line moving up and down. The flowing water exerts the pressure on sides of canal banks thus increasing the stability, during drawdown,on one hand this pressure decreases, the pore water pressure creates rapid drawdown condition This rapid draw down along with vehicular load in rainy season put whole embankment and pavement structure into a vulnerable situation, as the factor of safety against slope failure comes well below below to unity. In this study effort has been made to find the effect of these forces on the stability of canal banks so that some precautionary measures can be adopted during such critical period. In this study four different conditions are tested. Condition No 1: Dry condition, when there is no rain and canal is also dry, most likely condition at the time of construction of canal. Condition No 2: Wet Condition at Full Supply Level (FSL), rainy weather condition when there is a long spell of rains and canal is running at Full Supply Level. Condition No 3: Rainy weather condition when there is long spell of rains and canal is running at Lowest Water Level (LWL). Condition No 4: Rainy weather condition when there is long spell of rains and canal is running at Lowest Water Level (LWL) and additional surcharge of traffic load is considered to create worst service life conditions for road pavement . The embankment material is tested for its in-situ properties, the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is conducted to draw the profile of canal embankment layers and location of phreatic line at various stages of water supply level in dry as well as rainy seasons. SLOPE/W, a software developed by GEO‐SLOPE International Canada, is used for slope stability analysis.
There was a great difference between the availability of Canalwater and famer’s needs; the difference between supply and demand of canal irrigation water was due to many reasons. The first reason was the increase in cultivable area; before the Canalwater people were cultivating small lands area but after the availability of Canalwater they have increased it and they grew two to three crops in a year on their fields. Second reason was the mechanized farming for which they have less physical work to do as they were doing before.
In this article the potential stoarativity of groundwater in the alluvial deposits along the King Abdullah Canal (KAC) in Deir Alla-Sulikhat area is studied. In this study geological, geo-electrical and Hydro-geochemical methods were used with the aim of storing some water of the Canal during water excess times in the underground to be extracted for use as drinking source for human during shortages in the Canalwater and in emergency causes of Canalwater pollution. The results show the existence of appropriate underground space in the alluvial deposits for water storage and that the water/ water and water/rock interactions are also be minimal and will not present and detriment to the different groundwater bodies. Implementing groundwater artificial recharge in the Jordan Valley area to create storage for King Abdullah Ca- nal (KAC) water will enhance the drinking water supply during the dry season and it will also serve as a reserve for emergency causes, especially pollution accidents in King Abdullah Canal (KAC), such as those taking place almost every year.
due to their solubility in water, non-biodegrad- able nature and their potential to build up in vari- ous body parts. These are even toxic and detrimen- tal to humans at very low concentrations as there is no proper route for their removal from the body. Waste water contains large quantity of noxious heavy metals such as lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), cop- per (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) etc. (), which affects plant growth (Nazir et al., 2015; Abstract | Polluted soils due to prolonged irrigated by f waste water are a reason of accumulation of heavy metals leads to the production of contaminated food which exerts serious health risks to the humans. In the present study, edible portions of five vegetables viz., okra, tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower, grown with canal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fib- er) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composition of canal, tubewell and sewage water irrigated vegetables. The vegetables grown with tubewell water had higher moisture, ash and fiber contents compared with those grown with canal and sewage water; whereas protein content detected was higher in okra, tomato and spinach irrigated with sewage water and in carrot and cauliflower grown with tubewell water. Significant variations were also recorded in heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents of these vegetables grown with different sources of irrigation water. The vegetables irrigated with sewage water had greater concentrations of these metals, which were higher than the safe limits recommended by WHO (1996). All the vegetables grown with tubewell water had signifi- cantly lower heavy metal contents, well below the critical limits. The concentration of Pb in tomato and cau- liflower, Cd in tomato and spinach, and Fe in spinach irrigated with canalwater were also detected beyond the safe limits. The study concludes that the continuous use of sewage water deteriorates or lowers the quality and increases heavy metal contents of vegetables.
Another justification for illegal withdrawal and water theft was explained by the village farmers was that when the construction and cleaning of the Canal was undertaken by the Irrigation Department, the farmer’s services were also utilized for the purpose without any payment or incentives, therefore they deserved a required quantity of water to fulfill their agricultural needs without engaging in the unjust way of water distribution. According to the local farmers, the maintenance and cleanliness of the Canal with their participation was reciprocity, they provided services to the Irrigation department and in return they were given the right to use the Canalwater for their fields. The phenomena explained, was a triangular network, which was operating in a very complex way.
Abstract: Sasthamcotta lake is Kerala's biggest fresh water lake and meets the drinking water needs of half a million people of Kollam district. The lake is facing degradation due to anthropogenic activities such as directing human waste, soil erosion due to destruction of vegetation etc. leading to the deterioration of environmental quality as well as a decrease in the surface area and depth. In the present study, we have compared physical and chemical parameters and two bacteriological parameters such as total coliform and Escherichia coli for Sasthamcotta lake water and Kallada Irrigation Project (KIP) canalwater. Studies showed that both Sasthamcotta lake water and KIP canalwater obeyed all the physical and chemical parameters of drinking water specification except pH. It was found that both samples contain total coli form and Escherichia coli (more in KIP water) and both samples are found to be unfit for drinking without sufficient purification.
The heavy metals are at very low concentrations in the natural environment. They are introduced to surface waters as waste by human activities. Some of the metals of concern for human and aquatic health are cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, selenium, and chromium etc. The content of Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn were recorded 0.04 mgL -1 , 0.06 mgL -1 , 0.03 mgL -1 , and 0.02 mgL -1 , 0.5 mgL -1 respectively while Cd, Cr and Pb were not detected in sub canalwater before the confluence. At confluence point these were increased Cd (1.96 mg L -1 ), Cu (2.88 mg L -1 ), Cr (1.12 mg L -1 ), Fe (4.56 mg L -1 ), Ni (1.76 mg L -1 ), Mn (0.68 mg L -1 ), Pb (0.89 mg L -1 ) and Zn (1.34 mg L -1 ) respectively. The metal contents increased significantly (P<0.01) in sub canalwater at all the sampling sites after discharge of textile effluent (Table 1).Health implications of high concentration of lead include anemia, kidney damage and cerebral edema [6, 8]. Chromium, zinc and potassium values lie within the permissible limits [24, 25, 26] as given by Yusuff and Sonibare [25, 26]. Sekhar et al. and Vinod and Chopra [21, 23, 24] have correlated heavy metal contamination to industrial effluent discharge.
The impact of Climate Change on soils and its functions were remarkable. In agriculture, climate change will affect crop production as changes in soil, air temperature and rainfall affect the ability of crops to reach maturity and their potential harvest. The study was carried with the objective of water and soil analysis, to know impacts if water quality of Kharicut canal on the surrounding agriculture and evaluate the impacts of the crops grown in this region on human health and cattle and it was observed from the study that certain minerals and heavy metals and physical properties of the study areas soil and water was found above permissible limits due to extensive use of chemical fertilizers, dumping of effluents from the industries into the canalwater along with sewage water. Our estimates for pH ranges from between 6.9 to 8.5 for
Because of its environmental, social and humanitarian dimensions, the problem of urban character and absence of identity and authenticity is one of the issues of greatest concern in urban planning. There are thus several justifications for this research, including the importance of urban character for Suez Canal cities and the significance of place-identity and local character in Arab cities at large. This paper aims to observe and report on actual urban conditions in some of the districts in the Suez Canal governorates and to propose recommendations to support the process of development and urban conservation in an effort to ensure the continuity of the distinctive urban character of built-up areas of value. The methodology adopted in the first section of this paper to observe and assess existing urban conditions involves making use of earlier research and field studies dealing with the cities of Port Said, Ismailia and Suez where built-up areas developed in a natural, planned manner according to the needs and limitations of the cities. The Suez Canal Company traversed the Suez Canalwater barrier and built the district of Port Fouad on the east bank of the Canal, thus dividing the city’s built-up area into two districts or quarters: the eastern quarter (Al Sharq) and the western quarter (Al Gharb). (1)This paper also sheds light on the stages of growth and development of urban masses at different periods and examines the three growth axes in the cities concerned as well as the different types of land use. (2)The type of urban fabric, the characteristic attributes and the visual aspects of cities in the Suez Canal region are explored towards the end of the paper. Mixed residential land use is widespread while touristic, commercial and touristic / residential uses are concentrated mainly along the Mediterranean coast and (mixed with commercial land uses) eastward along the banks of the Suez Canal. Land use along the main streets of the cities is primarily residential / commercial – an attribute that has a visual and functional impact on city planning and that must therefore be taken into consideration by development plans and by all the parties involved in the planning process. (3)
The Imperial government took the first initiative in water resource development in the second half of the 1950s. Large- scale water projects for agricultural purposes and power generation were constructed from the end of the 1950s, and were concentrated in the Awash valley as part of the agro- industrial enterprises that were expanding in the area at the time. They subsequently spread to the Rift Valley and the Wabe Shebelli basin. Essentially, the government's interest at the time centered almost entirely on large-scale and high technology water projects: hydro-power dams, irrigation schemes, and water supply projects for Addis Ababa and a few major towns. Since then, all large-scale schemes in the country have been constructed at the initiative of the government, and managed by state or para-statal enterprises (Dessalegn, 1999). At the beginning of 1970’s, about 100 thousand hectares of land was estimated to be under modern irrigation. During the imperial regime, the main objective of irrigation was to provide industrial crops to the growing agro-industries in the country, many of which were controlled by foreign interests, and to increase export earnings (Gebremedhin and Peden, 2002). For much of the lifetime of the Derg, very little attention was paid to small-scale and traditional irrigation schemes constructed and managed by peasant farmers.
As a usual trend along river banks, irrigated agricul- ture indicated the era of development of human civiliza- tion in Sindh also. Early agriculture involving mainly food production changed slowly to modern agriculture through a continuous evolution of agriculture technolo- gies. The present irrigation system in Sindh depends on three barrages namely Sukkur, Kotri and Guddu con- structed in 1932, 1955 and 1962 respectively. Except Akram wah (canal) off taking from Kotri Barrage, all other canals are earthen canals. Large amount of irriga- tion water is lost from these canals in the form of seepage from banks and bed. It is estimated that 40 to 50 per cent of water is lost between the canal head works to the croplands .
The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) in water is the measurement of the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ion. Acidic water has a pH value less than 7 and basic water have a value greater than 7. The pH in study area varies from 7.53 to 8.79 (Table 1) indicates that water is slightly alkaline. 99% of mean samples were not exceeding the permissible limit prescribed by WHO . The pH mean value of different samples (8.2) is within the desirable and suitable range. The spatial average variation of pH over a period of time is shown in Figure 2.
Kodaikanal is very famous for number of tourist places. Tourist and public consume food products, cool drinks, water bottles etc… in tourist places for their own enjoyment and happiness without knowing the impact of waste on Kodai Hills. The leave behind plastic covers, food waste, plastic bottles, cool drink bottles, alchololic bottles etc… after their trips. It has been reported that min of 15 to 20 kgs of plastic per day is being collected at Kodaikanal and Min 40 kgs per day is collected during peak season time April, May, June. This leads to huge accumulation of heaps and heaps of plastic waste which is not degradable, which leads to soil pollution, soil erosion, lack of proper water flow to the trees, landslides etc…. The animal life at Kodaikanal is endangered due to the consumption of plastic waste at Kodaikanal tourist place. Further most of the tourist uses the places around for urination and human waste. These unwanted human wastes are being carried through water to various water bodies at Kodaikanal leading to pollution. Various health problems like cold cough, diaries, skin diseases etc… are being caused due to tourist places pollution The main tourist places at Kodaikanal are..
In fact, the Dead Sea water level has been undergoing, since long time ago, from continuous reduction. Some evidences and researches show that its level was at 182 m. – level below the sea level and its water extended then along the depression from the limits of Tiberais in the north to Ein-Hasab location in Arava valley, 38 km. south of the Dead Sea. The passive escalation in the water level 8 , which reached within the last forty years, to 50-70 cm. per year, has influenced the Dead Sea area which went down from 1000 km. to 660 km in the present time. In areas of great slope, the Red Sea coast went down by less than one meter per year, and by 30 cm in areas with less slope. So, the reduction in the Dead Sea area reached to an average of 5-6 sq. km. per year. Yet in spite of the numerous reasons which contributed to such reduction including the climatic changes which occur all over the world in general and the Area in particular which led to draught and shortage of rains , the formative nature of the Dead Sea and the different evaporation rates , it can be said that the most important reasons of the Dead Sea level reduction within the last forty years can be attributed to the Israeli water projects 9 which were carried out for making full use of the water of the rivers which flaw into the Dead Sea for serving the Israeli settlement expansion especially in Bir Sheva . Among such projects the translocation of the Jordan River which was executed in 1964 where half of the water of this River has been pumped to Bir Sheva areas. On the other side of the coin the Jordanian – Israeli potash and other salts industries consume huge quantity of the water which also let to an increase in the reduction of the Dead Sea level. As a result the Dead Sea has lost about 90 % of the water which flew into it. This has naturally led to the disorder of the
A proper solution for optimum allocation and utilization of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas is application of deficit-irrigation. Proper water management and optimal cropping pattern is achieved by using the mathematical model and software facilities. Since 1960s, linear programming (LP) has been widely used to determine the optimal cropping pattern. The goal of LP is maximizing or minimizing the objective functions by considering constraints and decision variables. Linear programming is based on the certainty assumption, but some of the variables such as the amount of available water and agricultural water prices are uncertain. Thus, LP does not calculate the cropping pattern for optimization, precisely. A new method in optimization has been proposed which includes nonlinear programming, positive mathematical programming and possibilistic programming.
NWQIS was developed with the Python language. It was tooled to facilitate data representation and analysis. NWQIS is an open source that provides fast efficient numerical so as statistical analysis. It is widely used. It could provide spatial data representation of water quality status; could perform quick statistical analysis for water quality data and could present the main results in an easily saved form. Its script executes multiple tasks without intermediate data manipulation. Its main script workflow is presented the in figure (3). It includes descriptive statistics, percentile analysis and pollutant load representation by Box and Whisker Plots. NWQIS provides a map to the water quality status for the clustered parameters; figure (4). This would assist policy-makers and government personnel.