these characters are positively associated. According to Quintus (1923) and Singh and Singh (1954), among the yield components affecting the cane yield of sugarcane, number of millable canes per unit area, single stalk weight, stalk diameter, stalk height and number of internodes are important. Chen et al. (1991) reported that genotypes with high cane yield and sugar content can be selected based on stalk height, stalk diameter, number of millable cane per clump and clump weight. Direct selection for elite clones with the high juice brix at 300 days in the family CoJ 72 x Co 62198 is also possible as it showed the highest variance for this character. The variance among the progenies of the family 985931 x Co 775 and 970311 x 986197 was found to be the highest for single stalk weight and it can be exploited for selecting clones with high single stalk weight. Also indirect selection for genotypes with higher cane yield in these families through single stalk weight can also be achieved since single stalk yield is one of the components that contribute to the cane yield. Punia et al. (1983) found that number of millable canes and single stalk weight among the cane characters that contributed most to cane yield. Among the characters, clump weight was found with the highest variance. The families 9869110× Co 1148 and 87 A 298 × Co 1148 which recorded the highest variance for clump weight (Table.1) indicated that selection for clones with high cane yield from these families will be effective and when repeated these crosses may further generate more variability for clump yield. The later family was also exhibited the highest variance for number of tillers among the family studied, indicated the presence of strong association between clump yield and number of tillers. Srivastava et al. (1993) reported that cane yield was mainly governed by production of tillers and number of millable canes. Thus direct and indirect selection for cane yield through number of tillers might be possible within this family.
Sweet sorghum unlike grain sorghum has potential to accumulate sugars in stalks similar to sugarcane. Short duration and lower water requirements of sweet sorghum are other advantages over sugarcane. Sorghum is usually grown in kharif and rabi seasons. As an energy crop, industry demands supply of green cane as raw material through out the year. Hence this agronomic study was conducted to determine suitable time of planting of sweet sorghum under the agro cli- matic conditions prevailing in India, so that continuous supply of raw material is assured for factory operations through out the year, especially during the lean period of sugarcane crushing. Various physical and chemical characters of plant and stem juice were studied by taking up bimonthly plantings at four locations using 12 genotypes of sweet sorghum in the first year and quarterly plantings at four locations using 10 genotypes (8 genotypes common in both years) in the second year. Of the six plantings, planting during August and April were found to be not suitable for good sweet sor- ghum yields, therefore, in the second year, four plantings were taken up i.e., June, October, December and February at six locations. The various attributes selected for observations include cane yield, percent brix of stem juice, percent juice extractability, percent total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in the stem juice. Highest green cane yield and percent juice extractability was observed in June planting in all genotypes followed by February, and December in both bimonthly and quarterly plantings. Juice extraction percentage was also highest in June plantings followed by October, April and December plantings. June plantings recorded highest percent brix followed by December and February plant- ings in bimonthly plantings, while in quarterly planting, highest percent brix and total sugars in juice was observed in February planting followed by planting in June.
This study revealed that the cane yield had significant positive correlation with the character viz., sugar yield, single stalk weight, number of tillers, stalk length, stalk internode length, number of internodes, the selection strategy based on these characters might result in significant genetic improvement in cane yield. The sugar yield could be improved by selection for higher juice pol per cent, CCS per cent and juice purity per cent as they had a significant positive correlation with sugar yield. The present study showed that the sugar yield, number of millable cane and stalk diameter had higher direct effect on cane yield and genotypes could be selected using a combination of these triats as a criteria in crop improvement programme.
Hegde 1998). The present study highlights that integrated nutrient management in sugarcane can be practiced by in situ green manuring with dhaincha intercrop and fertilizer N application. Green manuring with dhaincha intercrop in plant crop of sugarcane did not enhance the cane yield of plant crop. However, long- term effect of green manuring treatment was observed in the increase of ratoon growth (biomass and leaf area) and yield. It shows that the integrated nutrient management gives long-term benefit in sustaining the yield of sugarcane- ratoon system.
Comparative performance of six mid late maturing sugarcane clones were tested along with two standards in Advanced Varietal Trial in three crop cycles viz., plant I, plant II and ratoon at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani. Cane yield, sugar yield and seven other attributing traits like number of millable canes, cane height, cane thickness, internode length, Brix %, Pol % and commercial cane sugar % (CCS %) were studied in every crop cycles. The data observed in all three crop cycles were analysed separately and finally the data were pooled to carry out a pooled analysis. Significant differences were noticed among the test clones and standards for cane yield, sugar yield and its contributing parameters in plant I, plant II, ratoon and pooled analysis. Among the six clones tested, two test clones viz., Si 2009-13 and Si 2009-33 recorded significantly higher cane yield in plant I, II, ratoon and pooled analysis. The clone Si 2009-13 recorded significantly higher sugar yield in plant II, ratoon and pooled analysis. Similarly, the test clone, Si 2009- 33 recorded significantly higher sugar yield in plant I, II, ratoon and pooled analysis. These two clones also recorded significant performance in most of the characters studied in all crop cycles and pooled analysis. Hence, these two clones viz., Si 2009-13 and Si 2009-33 were selected and promoted to multi-location trial in various sugarcane research stations to judge the cane yield and sugar yield in diversified environment.
Total water use, which is the sum of soil profile water contribution before the onset of rainfall in 2001 and irrigations during the crop growth period increased with increase in IW/CPE ratios and the maximum water (3190 mm) was applied at IW/CPE = 1.2 (Table 2). Water use efficiency is a function of crop yield and total water use, and is affected by weather conditions and crop age. In this experiment, WUE increased with increasing IW/CPE = 1.0 for cane (5.43 kg m -3 ) and for sugar (0.57 kg m -3 ) yields and decreased thereafter at IW/CPE = 1.2. Water use efficiency therefore was the highest where cane and sugar yields were highest. More water applied under the IW/CPE = 1.2 did not give any advantage to the crop. These findings are similar to Sing et al. (24), and Wiedenfeld and Enciso (34) who reported increased cane yield with higher water application in plant crop. However, in Wiedenfeld and Enciso (34) study, WUE declined with increasing water application level since yields did not significantly increased with increased water application every year. These WUE values are below the generally accepted rule of thumb that 1 cm of water will produce 1 Mg ha -1 of cane (11). While Jones (10) reported cane yield vary from 180 to 304 Mg ha -1 for total water use of 2500 mm in Hawaiia, Sing et al. (24), and Wiedenfeld and Enciso (34) found WUE for cane of 71 kg mm -1 in subtropical India, and 7.2 Mg ml -1 for plant crop in south Texas, respectively.
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accuracy achieved is not to the desired research goal, yield maps were produced with satisfactory detail to make agronomic management decisions. The reliability of the sugar cane yield mapping system under field condition in a commercial operation was satisfactory. However, two techniques are proposed (“auto-zeroing” and “batch weighing” techniques) to improve the accuracy and reliability of the weigh pad readings during wet or adverse harvesting conditions.
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Results from the analysis of variance showed that both the main effects i.e. genotype (G) and location/ environment (E) and their interaction effect (G × E) had a significant influence on cane yield (Table 3). The relative magnitude of the variance explained by G, E and G × E is also shown in Table 3. The variation due to E was responsible for 16.1 % of the variance, while the variation due to G was 48.2 %. The variation due to G × E interaction had a contribution of 34.5 % to the total variation which is an indication of possible existence of differences among the locations in which the sugarcane varieties were evaluated. Zobel et al. (1988) and Mattos et al. (2013) reported that in multi-locational trials, the environment (E) normally explains up to 80% of the variation while G and G × E both usually represent around 10-20 % of each variation. Likewise, Luo et al. (2015) reported about 40% impact on cane yield only due to environment. However, in present study variations due to G and G × E is more suggesting that genotypes may be selected for specific environments as have been reported by other researchers (Xu et al., 2014; Akhter et al., 2015). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) also represented that G × E interactions were significant for yield response. The results also indicated that the genotypes can be characterized for environmentally induced variations (Mattos et al., 2013; Luo et al., 2015). The mean cane yield of different sugarcane varieties across various locations is shown in Table 5. Among the locations maximum cane yield (119 ton ha -1 ) was attained at
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All yield parameters number of millable cane, cane diameter, unstripped and striped cane yield were noted significantly higher in sole SC compared than different intercrops in SC. Significantly higher yield attributes in sole SC was due to availability of sufficient soil nutrients and there was no crop competition  . Among the intercrops, higher number of millable cane in gram was due to restorative in nature and lower number of millable cane was noted in potato . The difference in cane diameter among different intercrops was attributed to nature of intercrops and available size of spacing area . Raskar and Bhoi  also observed same trend due to variation in cane diameter with different intercrops. Significantly, higher unstripped and stripped cane yield was recorded in SC + Gram rather than other intercrops was due to uptake and availability of residual nutrients which was done by the plants roots  and row spacing . The LER of different intercrops compared to their sole SC was found higher. This showed that different intercrops geometries were biologically more efficient as compared to their sole SC. It revealed that to produce the combined mixture yield by growing sole stands would need 53% - 61% more land. Our results supported the findings of  .
Observations were recorded on each entry for the traits viz., no. of tillers at 120 DAP, shoot population at 180, 240 DAP, NMC at harvest, no. of green leaves at 90, 120, 240 DAP and at maturity, biomass per cane (kg), internode number, internode length (cm), stalk length (cm), stalk diameter (cm), stalk volume (cm 3 ), single cane weight (kg), fibre content (%), Brix (%), sucrose (%), CCS (%), juice purity (%), pol % cane, juice extraction (%), total sugars (%), fibre yield (tha -1 ), CCS yield (tha -1 ), theoretical yield of alcohol (g/100ml) and cane yield (tha -1 ). The genotypes were scored based on mean performance for diversified uses viz., biomass, fibre yield, theoretical yield of alcohol, cane yield and commercial cane sugar yield in second clonal stage. The technique of Discriminant function developed by Fisher (1936) was adopted for construction of selection indices which when applied to select plants can bring about effective improvement in a character compared to straight selection.
Moderate broad sense heritability estimates ranging from 0.599 - 0.480 were found in sugar %, brix%, leaf width, stalk count 10 months after planting, leaf area, tiller count 4 months after planting and number of inter- nodes. This suggests that a considerable proportion of the total variance is heritable and selection of these traits would be effective. High heritability estimate for millable cane number (0.88), stalk diameter (0.85) and single cane weight (0.84) was reported . Similarly  also reported high heritability for stalk diameter (0.928), number of millable canes (0.912), single cane weight (0.907), number of internodes (0.907) and moderate heri- tability for cane yield (0.515). However, the heritability values were relatively higher than the present study. The probable cause of the disparity could be due to the fact that the heritability of a given trait refers to a particular population under a particular condition or environment. Moreover the study by  was conducted in single en- vironment and considered only 32 sugarcane genotypes. Similarly  included only 14 genotypes in their study. High heritability estimate was also reported elsewhere for single cane weight  . Low heritability esti- mates were observed in sprout count 1 and 2 months after planting, tiller count 5 month after planting, inter- nodes length, leaf length and purity %. Selections might be considerably difficult or virtually impractical for a character with low heritability (less than 0.4) due to the masking effect of environment on genotypic effects  . Generally the heritability values for the important stalk characters studied were high to moderate paving the way for improvement of these characters through simple selection. Knowledge of variability and heritability of characters is essential for identifying those amenable to genetic improvement through selection . Results of the current study indicate that use of the traits with high heritability as selection criteria together with cane yield could lead to genetic improvement in cane and sugar yield. Under the conditions of this study stalk diame- ter, single cane weight, sugar yield, cane yield, millable cane number, stalk height and pol % were reliable se- lection parameters.
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other parameters alone. On the basis of the present study, sucrose yield, juice yield, cane yield, juice extraction per cent, sucrose per cent, juice volume, juice weight, millable cane weight, fresh cane weight, stay green trait, stem girth and plant height are the most important quantitative characters to be taken into consideration for effective selection in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotypes. Per se performance of the parents is one of the simplest selection criteria for identification of superior genotypes. The genotypes with high per se performance would be much useful as parent for producing better offspring in any breeding programme (Rai et al., 1999). Parents with significant per se performance are expected to yield recombinants in the segregating generations. It is worthwhile using them in hybrid breeding programmes which would result in some good hybrids. Thus, the various genotypes which recorded outstanding mean performance for different traits, may be used as potential parents and could be utilized in hybridizing programme of sweet sorghum for improving the yield and performance of trait of interest. For developing varieties and hybrids with high cane yield, juice yield, high brix , high sucrose content genotypes such as K05 154, K05 144, K05 176, K05 156, K05 242, K05 278, K05 291, S03 281 S03 479 can be used.
Sugar recovery in a factory depends upon regular crushing and quality of varieties besides various other working pa- rameters. Strategies for increased productivity and sugar recovery, varietal improvement can bring out through selection of parents to get maximum gains. These are governed by sugar content, fiber, rind hardness and cane yield. In order to assess the breeding value of different traits including rind hardness, study was undertaken at Sugarcane Research Insti- tute, Shahjahanpur, during 2011-2012. Phenotypic difference and correlations among agronomic characters, basic qual- ity characters and rind hardness in 120 segregating genotypes derived from contrast bi-parental cross (UP9530 × Co86011) of sugarcane cultivar were studied in this experiment. All the traits observed were found statistically significant among the mapping populations. The mean value of rind hardness was 5.91 with a range from 2.08 to 12.10 among 120 seg- regating population including their parents. Rind hardness (RHD) showed significant positive genotypic correlation with sugar yield-related traits viz; cane weight (CW, r = 0.325), cane yield (CYLD, r = 0.380) and sugar yield (SUYLD, r = 0.248). Significant negative correlation was observed for rind hardness with commercial cane sugar percent (CCS%, r = −0.388), number of millable cane (NMC, r = −0.216), hand refractometer brix %-October (HBR, r = −0.154), Brix% in juice (BR, r = −0.119) and Sucrose% in juice (SUC, r = −0.080). The simple correlation analysis showed that RHD, CW, CYLD and SUYLD showed significant positive correlation for agronomic characters, but for basic quality charac- ters had negative correlations. Result indicated that rind hardness was found to have economically important trait due to showing significant positive and negative correlation with sugar yield and sugar content, respectively. The study also re- vealed that with the reduction in rind hardness, sugar recovery may increase. Present findings indicated that the rind hardness could play as a key role in the selection of elite genotypes in breeding program to develop high sugar, high yielding, erect, non-lodging, disease and insect resistant varieties. The details of the study were discussed in the manuscript.
Weed control is essential for economical crop production. Weeds reduce sugarcane yields by competing for moisture, nutrients, and light during its growing period. Khan et al. (2004) reported that cane yield is reduced to the extent of 20-25% due to weed infestation. Weed control prior to crop canopy spread is crucial. Heavy weed infestation hinders sugarcane harvesting by adding unnecessary harvesting expenses. Even a single weed plant growing to maturity may produce seeds that create problems for many years to come (Srivastava et al., 2003). A good and uniform stand of sugarcane crop develops complete canopy that shades the spaces between the cane
Indian sugar industry, second largest agro-based processing industry afte the cotton textiles industry in country, has a lion's share in accelerating industrialization process and bringing socio-economic changes in under developed rural areas. Sugar industry covers around 7.5% of total rural population and provides employment to 5 lakh rural people. About 4.5 crore farmers are engaged in sugarcane cultivation in Inda. Sugar mills (cooperative, private, and public) have been instrumental in initiating a number of entrepreneurial activities in rural India. Present paper is an attempt as to review progress of sugar industry in India, understand it's problems and challenges in context of ongoing liberalization process. Indian sugar industry can be a global leader provided it comes out of the vicious cycle of shortage and surplus of sugarcane, lower sugarcane yield, lower sugar recovery, ever increasing production costs and mounting losses. It needs quality management at all levels of activity to enhance productivity and production. Attention is required on cost minimization and undertaking by product processing activities.
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Sugarcane production depends on several environmental factors that vary seasonally and annually and the complex interactions among them. The advantage of time series satellite observations is that it provides a more accurate indication of crop response over time, whether it be the result of environmental changes occurring from rainfall distribution, drought, nutrient deficiency and other related factors or different human management prac- tices such as fertilizer application, pests, weeds and diseases control etc.   . Moreover, time series observation can clearly define the time of year when the regional crop reaches its maximum growth vigour, and as such indicate when an image should capture for future single image based yield forecasting. Therefore, time series observation of satellite imagery has been suggested as a more appropriate method for achieving accurate yield forecasting in sugarcane industry     .
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the trunk was removed, and for the spur pruned vines, the shoot arising from basal bud of the second spur on the cor- don on the right hand side of the trunk was selected. Wood samples were frozen at -20 °C, freeze-dried and then stored at -20 °C for later extraction and analysis of carbohydrates. After drying, cane samples were cut into 1 cm seg- ments. Samples were ground to be able to pass through a 1 mm sieve using an IKA Cutting Mill (A11 basic Analytical mill) followed by a Retsch MM200 Ball Mill. Extraction and separation of carbohydrates from the freeze-dried cane tissue was based on the method described by J ones et al.
This increased crop intensity requires fertilizer application, especially of primary macronutrients along with micronutrients. Any nutrient meeting the essentiality criteria for crop plants is called as essential plant nutrient.  The primary aim of applying inorganic fertilizer is to increase both plant productivity gains and longer-term replenishment of nutrients back into the soil.  From the data above obtained we had strong positive correlation between Rice yielding and fertilizer consumption (Table 1, Graph 1). There is also significance between them which specifies that there is increase in rice yielding with fertilizer consumption (Table 3). The data of Sugar cane yielding compared to consumption of fertilizers indicate same as rice yielding (Table 2, Graph 2). The modern fertilizer industry is nearly little more than 150 years old and was first investigated by the German chemist J. von Liebig. He set down his principles of plant nutrition and production in "Chemistry in Its Application to Agriculture and Physiology", where he stressed the value of mineral elements derived from the soil in plant nutrition and the necessity of replacing those elements to maintain soil fertility. 
Cane is also found in abounded almost throughout in Assam Silchar. Various cottage and small scale industries in Silchar are dependent on the supply of kind of cane and reeds. It is observed that Galla cane is very much available in Silchar than any other species of cane. Another species is also available in Silchar is railu. The local name of cane is jail beth which is very famous in Silchar. Though Silchar is rich in cane raw material but not as much rich as the hills area like Halflong, Monipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh etc. The cane of the forest of Silchar is not so available to grow up a industry in full swing. So the cane industry of Silchar buys cane from Halflong, Monipur, mizoram and the other hills areas. But the craftsman who make cane product in their home, they only use local cane to make the cane craft and furniture. Generally three species of cane are exploited in commercial quantities. These are Raidung, Latthma, and galla.
Abstract. Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) is a new virus of sugarcane in Indonesia. The virus was first reported in 2005 and since then it has been widely distributed across Java Island. Since SCSMV is a new emerging virus the investigation on virus aetiology including transmission modes and virus host range is required. The results of transmission study revealed that SCSMV was transmitted through cane cuttings and caused latent infection. The virus was mechanically transmitted through cutting knife and unable to be transmitted by sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari. The transmissibility of SCSMV through cane cuttings and cutting tools play important role in virus distribution in the field because sugarcane is propagated vegetatively using cane cuttings and cutting tools is commonly used for seed cane preparation. The host range test showed that SCSMV infected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), Saccharum officinarum, Saccharum spontaneum, Saccharum robustum, Saccharum sinense, Saccharum barberi and Mischantus. Several weed grasses namely Brachiaria moniliformis, Panicum repens, Paspalum conjugatum, and Rottboelia exaltata were also infected by the virus. Those plants are alternative hosts of the virus and could be the favourable environment for virus survival particularly when the sugarcane plants have been harvested.