Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relation- ship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canineinfectiousrespiratorydisease (CIRD). Within the pet dog pop- ulation, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall esti- mated seroprevalence of 50% (n ⴝ 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n ⴝ 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n ⴝ 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P <0001). Dogs that were seronega- tive on entry but seroconverted while in the kennel were 4 times more likely to develop severe respiratorydisease than those that did not seroconvert (P < 0.001), and dogs with preexisting antibodies to CnPnV on the day of entry were significantly less likely to develop respiratorydisease than immunologically naive dogs (P < 0.001). CnPnV was detected in the tracheal tissues of 29/ 205 kenneled dogs. Detection was most frequent in dogs with mild to moderate respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratorydisease com- pared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that CnPnV is present in the United King- dom dog population; there is a strong association between exposure to CnPnV and CIRD in the kennel studied and a potential benefit in vaccinating against CnPnV as part of a wider disease prevention strategy.
Canineinfectiousrespiratorydisease (CIRD) is a disease complex that occurs in dogs usually housed in groups, for example, in rehoming centers, boarding kennels, or veterinary hospitals. The disease is characterized by a dry hacking cough, which in most cases is cleared within a short time; however, some dogs develop a severe bronchopneumonia that can be fatal. Although a fatal outcome is rare, CIRD poses a problem in kennels world-wide: it delays the rehoming of dogs and disrupts the training schedules of working dogs as well as leading to considerable treatment costs. Several studies of nat- ural outbreaks of the disease have shown that the etiology is complex, with a variety of viruses and bacteria involved (1). The virus that has been most frequently reported to be present is canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) (3, 18). Both canine ad- enovirus type 1 (CAV-1) and CAV-2 have been recovered from dogs suffering from CIRD, but CAV-2 has been more commonly associated with the disease (4, 19). Canine herpes- virus (CHV) has been isolated from dogs with CIRD, but its role remains uncertain (3, 14). Outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) are usually characterized by more-severe respira- tory symptoms and may be accompanied by gastrointestinal and central nervous system signs (1). Distemper can be con- trolled by vaccination, but it has been shown that a decrease in population immunity can lead to outbreaks (10). Serological
In spite of yearly vaccination, outbreaks of canineinfectiousrespiratorydisease are periodically seen amongst domestic dogs. These infections compromise host defense mechanisms, and, when combined with other stressful events, allow opportunistic pathogens like Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus to create serious disease. Early recognition and treatment are tremendously important for a successful outcome in these cases. A polyvalent vaccine was given to 22 racing dogs three days after a competition, followed by two days of rest, and then the dogs were returned to regular training. Coughing was noticed among the dogs four days after immunisation. Three days after this outbreak one of the dogs was unusually silent and was found dead the next morning. Simultaneously two other dogs developed haemorrhagic expectorate, depression and dyspnea and were brought in to the veterinary hospital. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all three cases. They were treated and rehabilitated successfully, and won a sledge race three months later. This paper discusses the necropsy results, treatment regime, rehabilitation and the chronology of vaccination, stressful events and disease.
Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectiousdisease of the caninerespiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheo- bronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs.
Abstract: Numerous infectious agents are responsible for causing primary or secondary respi- ratory disease in dogs. These agents can cause upper or lower respiratory infections commonly observed in veterinary practices. Clinical signs might vary from mild dyspnea, sneezing, and coughing to severe pneumonia with systemic manifestations. Depending on the etiologic agent, the gross and microscopic changes observed during these infections can be rather unspecific or have highly characteristic patterns. While histopathology and cytology are not always required for diagnosis of respiratory infections, they are often useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis and identifying specific etiologic agents. Research regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and clinical manifestations related to these infectious pathogens provides valuable information that has improved treatments and management of the diseases they cause. This review discusses the epidemiology, general clinical characteristics, and pathologic lesions for some of the important viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic etiologies of caninerespiratorydisease. Keywords: bacterial, fungal, parasitic, pneumonia, rhinitis, tracheobronchitis, viral
The Working Group discussed whether antimicrobial treatment should be delayed while waiting until the results of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are available. However, as not all clients can aﬀord the diagnostic procedures and pneumonia can be a life- threatening disease, the consensus opinion was to pro- vide empirical antimicrobial treatment while waiting for test results with potential for de-escalation of treatment based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. While hos- pitalized, parenteral antimicrobial treatment is generally recommended by the Working Group for the treatment of animals with pneumonia, regardless of the severity of disease. Once the animal is discharged, treatment can be continued by means of the oral route. It is the opin- ion of the Working Group that doxycycline is a reason- able empiric choice for dogs or cats with mild pneumonia that is suspected to be from infection with B. bronchiseptica or Mycoplasma spp. (eg, the animal is from a shelter or boarding environment) and no other systemic signs of disease like fever, dehydration, lethargy, or respiratory distress are present. This is based on the known susceptibility of these organisms to doxycycline (see Section on CanineInfectious Respira- tory Disease Complex) and published case reports of successful treatment with doxycycline (Table 2). 74,75,78 Fifteen reviewers (88%) agreed and 2 (12%) disagreed with this Working Group recommendation. One reviewer stated that they doubted that pneumonia would be present without fever and if pneumonia exists, it should be treated with bactericidal drugs. The other dissenting reviewer commented on the lack of break- point data for doxycycline and the bacteria from dogs and cats as well as the concern that doxycycline might not penetrate into the extracellular ﬂuids of the lungs.
The Spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays important roles in viral pathogenesis and potentially in the development of an effective vaccine against this virulent infectiousdisease. In this study, the codon-optimized S gene of SARS-CoV was synthesized to construct DNA vaccine plasmids expressing either the full-length or segments of the S protein. High titer S-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses were elicited in rabbits immunized with DNA against various segments of the S protein. Two neutralizing domains were identified on the S protein, one at the N terminus (Ser12- Thr535) and the other near the C terminus (Arg797-Ile1192).
In clinical practice, doctors have reported that patients put them under pressure in order for them to prescribe antibiotics. This persistence on the part of patients often puts physicians under duress to overprescribe antimicrobials which were hitherto unnecessary. Some physicians comply so as not to lose confidence in the eyes of their patients. Mangione-Smith et al.  in a survey of prescription patterns reported that 30 to 50% of paediatricians would administer antimicrobials if they perceived that the patients wanted them despite such being against their clinical judgement. Similarly Colgan and Powers discovered 33% of patients who had a viral upper respiratory tract infection were prescribed antibacterial agents based on patient’s expectations despite evidence to the contrary .
(10 animals) and commercial piggeries (Bates et al 2001). For backyard piggeries, movements onto the piggery resulting in a direct contact event were estimated to occur 0.060 times per day and movements off the piggery that resulted in direct contact with another piggery were estimated to occur 0.056 times per day. For commercial piggeries (up to 2,000 pigs), direct contacts onto the piggery were estimated to occur 0.040 times per day and movements off the piggery were estimated at 0.159 times per day. These estimates are consistent with values reported in the current study for New Zealand commercial and para-commercial piggeries but are consistently higher than what was found for New Zealand non-commercial piggeries (Table 14, Page 148). Unique to the study were estimates of the frequency of contacts between different farm-types among the commercial, para-commercial, and non-commercial industry sectors. A limited number of studies have been published describing contact rates between piggeries in various countries. A Swedish study highlighted the need to utilise well-thought out farm-type definitions and found, similar to the current study, that only a few key farm- types are responsible for most of the inter-farm contacts that are likely to contribute to a multi-farm disease outbreak (Lindstrom et al 2010). In a study similar to the current one, the frequency of contacts between different type of piggeries in Belgium were described but with the benefit of access to a national database of animal movements information in addition to information gleaned from a postal survey (Ribbens et al 2008). In contrast to the New Zealand situation, Ribbens reported the most frequent movement of pigs was related to breeding farms moving pigs to feeding sites. This difference can be attributed to the substantially different underlying structure of the New Zealand pig industry which is predominantly comprised of single-site, farrow-to- finish piggeries. Control of endemic Salmonellae infection in French piggeries has been studied through analysis of farm-type and contact networks (Lurette et al 2011). The authors again emphasised the importance of farm-type in disease control planning but interestingly found movement restrictions between farms needed to be supplemented by within-herd control measures to substantially impact the prevalence of an endemic pathogen such as Salmonella spp.
bacteria in the airways. Staphylococcal pneumonia following influenza infection was responsible for a large proportion of the deaths in the 1919 pandemic; chickenpox predisposes to severe group A streptococcal pneumonia and infection at other sites; and, more recently, the role of viruses in altering the behaviour of biofilms during exacerbations has been the subject of research. Even the severity of a simple “ cold ” appears to be driven in large part by the load of potential pathogenic bacteria in the nose and nasopharynx rather than the simple presence of a respiratory virus , which, as noted earlier may be totally asymptomatic for most viruses. Studies using the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in South Africa found reductions in admissions with apparent “ viral-induced lower respiratory tract infection ” , further indicating the influence of bacteria on the impact of viruses . A study by N GUYEN et al.  in a
There was limited funding for pneumococcal and pneumonia research. While infections such as meningi- tis may be in decline in some countries due to successful introduction of new vaccines, 22 there are still many areas globally with weak health systems where pneumococcal incidence is high. There is also evidence of respiratory infection transmission at mass gatherings, such as the Hajj. 23 In addition to providing meningococcal and in ﬂ uenza vaccination for travellers, there should be investment in operational research to explore health system responsiveness to emerging threats and ef ﬁ cient ways to provide preventive medicines, as well as measur- ing the effectiveness of preventive therapies. There was very little funding for translational research relating to pneumonia, a clear gap in the UK portfolio. Other vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertus- sis, which are causes of high disease burden globally, also received very limited research funding despite there clearly being the need for translational and operational research. 16
It is worth considering the substantial difficulties that face those who wish to undertake clinical research on emerging and epidemic infections. First, many emerging pathogens might be considered rare. The European def- inition of a ‘rare disease’ is a disease that affects fewer than 1 in 2000 people, whereas the US definition is a disease that affects fewer than 200,000 citizens . The diseases currently under the ‘rare diseases’ umbrella are largely severe non-communicable diseases with a genetic component, such as cystic fibrosis, or rare cancers. Although direct comparison of infectious epidemic diseases and rare non-infectious diseases is somewhat artificial, it can nevertheless be illustrative. SARS resulted in a total of 8096 cases ; 850 cases of avian influenza A/H5N1 have been reported since 2003 ; 684 cases of avian influenza A/H7N9 have been reported since March 2013; and 1733 MERS-CoV cases have been reported since September 2012 . For comparison there are an estimated 14,000 people living with
Chart review identified 845 patients with a presenting diagnosis of sepsis over the specified time period. Of these patients, 792 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were 129 inpatient deaths in the study population. Demographics of the cohort by BMI category are sum- marized in Table 1. Six percent of study participants were morbidly obese, 24% were obese and 31% were overweight, comparable to recent national statistics . Septic patients who were underweight or morbidly obese were significantly more likely to be female. As expected, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus increased significantly with increasing BMI. There were also statistically signifi- cant differences in race across BMI categories. Length of stay (average 6.5 days) and disease severity, measured by modified APACHE II score, were not significantly associ- ated with alterations in BMI.
The first observation that a germ-free fluid extracted from diseased plants could be used to transmit the same disease to healthy leaves was made in 1 892 by the Russian botanist D. Iwanowski, working with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The Latin word "virus" (poison) was first used by Martinus Beijerink in 1 898 to describe the filtered disease plant fluid. Loeffler and Frosch ( 1 898) experimented with material from animals infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), and confirmed that an infectious agent that could pass through filters, which prevent the passage of bacteria, was capable of transmitting the disease in cattle. Many more viruses were characterised by the end of the nineteenth century using both b iophysical and biochemical methods. Direct visualisation of viruses, however was not possible until the development of the electron microscope between 1 932 and 1 936. The rapid development of high resolution electron microscopy plus the introduction of various specimen preparation techniques, especially negative staining (Brenner and Home, 1 9 59), revolutionised the study of virus structure. As the technology continued to improve, more information about the detailed architecture of virus particles was revealed. Eventually improvements in electron microscopy, together with the availability of X-ray diffraction techniques, resulted in the determination of virus structures at medium to high resolution, so that the individual proteins making up the capsid could be observed in molecular detail.