respiratory physiologic features in car safety seats and car beds. This study focuses on this area for the first time. Despite the limited study size, significant physiologic changes were observed. Overall, it was surprising how much desaturation occurred in each group (Fig 2). The car seat group seemed to spend more time at lower saturation levels. We had expected that the car bed would perform better, because the airway did not seem to be as vulnerable in that device. This finding raises an important question, namely, why an infant should ex- perience desaturation in a car bed. Partial obstructive apnea was seen in both groups, but the amount was not excessive. Previously, Tomkin et al 11 corrected the upper
Our study results indicate that there are a number of barriers to accomplishing this goal. In our study, 35% of families had no car seat or brought car seats that were unsafe or did not fit despite the use of blanket rolls. Even with modern car seat designs, no new- born infant in our study could be positioned securely without additional padding at the sides, and even full-term infants occasionally required padding at the crotch strap to ensure a secure fit. For preterm infants, parents often are unprepared for the specific car safety seat issues with which they will have to contend, making it difficult to select an appropriate car seat before birth. Most nurseries do not have standard policies to evaluate car seats and to teach parents how to use blanket rolls to position newborn infants properly, but this should be part of the dis- charge process. Pre- and postnatal education of fam- ilies, as recommended in the current AAP guide- lines, 18 will help families to ensure the safety of their
Car safety seats and beds remain very important transport devices for new- born infants and older children. Their use is imperative for the safe trans- portation of infants. However, even in healthy term infants, apnea, hypopnea, and oxygen desaturations occur dur- ing placement in these devices. The use of these devices should, there- fore, be restricted to protection from injury and death in trafﬁc accidents, and they should never serve as a re- placement for a crib. In addition, fur- ther modiﬁcations of car safety de- vices are clearly needed to minimize the respiratory compromise that has been consistently documented in cur- rent models.
Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs) among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310). Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001) and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005) maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%); restraints not being important, 53 (26%), and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%). Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%), inadequate number of CCRs (22%), and the child being sick (18%). There is a need for a strategy change to enforce the use of CCRs in Nigeria. Keywords: car restraints, children, safety, Enugu
automatically by disconnecting the supply of car batteries that have been created by using a combination of the AT command and the addition of some electronic component. In addition, if the theft occurs through the car door or boot, the SMS sent via GSM to the car owner and car alarms will be activated. This system is very small and compact it can be installed on any car according to Visa M. Ibrahim, 2012. 2.1.2 Tracking and Locking Vehicle by GSM and GPS System
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OBJECTIVE: We compare the use of the American Academy of Pediat- rics (AAP) guidelines for the safe transportation of children with spe- cial health care needs (CSHCN) with reported and observed practices. METHODS: This observational study was based on a convenience sam- ple of vehicles exiting the garage of a tertiary children’s hospital. Cer- tiﬁed child passenger safety technicians with a health care back- ground and specialized training in the transportation of CSHCN gathered the driver’s demographic information and the child’s re- ported medical condition, weight, age, clinic visited, and relation to the driver. The safety technicians observed the car safety seat (CSS) type, vehicle seating position, and if the child required postural support. RESULTS: During the study, 275 drivers transporting 294 CSHCN were observed. Overall, most drivers complied with AAP recommendations by using a standard CSS seat (75.4%). Among the seats evaluated, 241 (82.0%) were the appropriate choice, but only 75 (26.8%) of 280 as- sessed had no misuses. Approximately 24% of the drivers modiﬁed the CSS, and 19.4% of the children would have beneﬁted from additional body-positioning support. Only 8% of medical equipment was properly secured.
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With the current fast development in information technology, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of cars. Market research results show that in 2010 the world’s car number hits 6.9 billion, the number of cars yet to appear in the next 8 years will be 1.16 times the current one because of driving is a compulsory activity for most people. Cars have become a major tool of transportation in the current society. So, the number of vehicle is increasing day by day. People use their car to move from one place to other place. Thus, car safety system becomes perfect as its number soars nowadays.
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vehicle drivers in car-following and lane-change conflicts. TTC, PET and CPI for different vehicle pair types can be used to predict and evaluate the safety of different road geometry improvements and traffic control strategies for car-heavy vehicle mixed traffic flow. Furthermore, these surrogate safety measures can also be applied to prediction of severity of collision risk considering the difference in size and weight between the two vehicles. In practice, the surrogate safety measures can be applied to the development of the advanced driver assistance systems to reduce collision risk and improve driver safety. For instance, drivers are alarmed with a warning message whenever high collision risk is detected based on the vehicle movement data collected from vehicle sensors (e.g., speed, spacing). During lane-change conflicts, vehicle sensors in the side mirrors monitor the movement of vehicles in the target lane and drivers are advised to reduce speed if the risk of angle collision is high.
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Earlier, in February 2009, the IIHS (Insurance Institute of Highway Safety) announced a new rating system based around roof crush testing. The rating is must to ensure the safety of the passengers during rollover accident of car. Although their procedure is similar to that of FMVSS 216 (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), which is the American safety standards used for roof crushing test. The requirement of this test set up is to earn the highest rating of 4.0 times the vehicle's weight. The rating is 4, specified by both IIHS and FMVSS to increase the safety of the passengers. This paper overview the IIHS test procedure and present data from both the FMVSS 216 and IIHS test protocols. Readers of this paper will gain a much broader understanding of roof crush testing and the impact it will have on future vehicle designs.
The vehicle roof with new material is complaint with the relevant standards by comparison analysis with CAE which is beneficial for weight reduction and hence to improve vehicle efficiency and satisfy requirements of vehicle manufacturers.As the results indicate usage of DP 600 reduces the impact of rollover accidents on the passengers and also reduces the weight of the vehicle hence enhancing its efficiency and safety. Using DP600 material for all the load bearing components or parts of the vehicle can cause a drastic reduction of weight hence increasing its efficiency and also helps in reducing the amount of emission from the vehicle. The weight of the Car was reduced by 5.2kgs after changing the material to DP600 and also the strength was increased which enhanced the energy absorbing capacity to withstand Impact loads. Also, Providing Better integrity for the side windows, Increasing A and B pillar strength and Providing more energy-absorbing padding in the head-strike areas can further increase the safety. In order to understand the impact of change in thickness of the same material (DP600) we carried out another iteration and found that the results changed drastically for just 0.2mm change in thickness.
The primary objective of the trial was to prove the nonin- ferior efficacy of a monochemotherapy regimen of BevPem versus a combination-chemotherapy regimen of BevCPem in elderly patients as first-line treatment for advanced or recur- rent nonsquamous NSCLC. The primary end point was PFS. The secondary objectives of this trial were to evaluate the efficacy of Bev by overall survival (OS) and overall response rate and assess the safety of Bev in combination with Pem, as well as with carboplatin plus Pem. In particular, the inci- dence of serious adverse events (SAEs) related to Bev and the incidence of specific AEs, such as wound-healing com- plications, gastrointestinal perforations, arterial and venous thromboembolic events, hemoptysis, central nervous system bleeding, and other hemorrhages, were investigated. Tumor assessments were performed every second cycle (ie, before cycles 3 and 5 and after cycle 6). Measurements were done according to RECIST criteria, ie, longest diameter of target lesions, determined by the investigators. Safety was evalu- ated as the incidence of AEs graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) and changes in laboratory tests or vital signs.
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There are many fields of human activity where the human may when performing his or her tasks. The environment continuously changes under the influence of new technologies and varying economic, social, and demographic conditions. This also applies to transport, including motor transport. In the latter case, the driver and passengers not only must remain in a position that cannot be changed for a prolonged time but they are also exposed to noise and mechanical vibrations felt by them as most oppressive. Among the vibrations caused by technical means of transport, e occurring in motor transport impose the greatest hazard . Although the ride comfort improves, the amount of time spent by people, children inclusive, travelling by cars www.polloco.pl/pdf/biala_ Recently, particular attention has been increasingly often paid by researchers to the children that are transported in safety seats as such children should be treated with no less care than “normal” passengers would, especially in e travels. In this case, it is important that medical aspects should be taken into consideration Starr et al., 2001). The validation tests of child safety seats are chiefly focused on the
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Among patients with relapsed and refractory malignancies, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a novel immuno- therapy that has shown promise in both preclinical and early clinical studies. This therapy allows for CARs directed against tumour-associated antigens (eg, CD19, HER-2) to be introduced into a patient’s T-cells; this serves to reprogram these cells to target the patient’s tumour cells. A number of small clinical trials using anti-CD19 CAR-T cells in haematological malignancies have demonstrated sustained responses in patients with advanced disease. 1–5 CAR-T cell therapy
The study was carried out between May 2008 and May 2009 in two selected urban health centres, the Paediatric Complex and the Saint Joseph, Health Centre, in Bangui, the capital of the CAR, which draw children from all districts of the city. Bangui is located on the Oubangui River in the south of CAR, north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (geographical coordinates, 4.29 N, 18.35 E). The climate is tropical, and the rainy season lasts from April to November. The temperature varies from 19 to 32°C, with an average of 26°C. Malaria trans- mission occurs throughout the year, with peaks at the beginning and end of the rainy season. Malaria is hy- perendemic, and the predominant parasite species is P. falciparum.
Inspectors found that there was evidence of consultation with residents and their representatives during the assessment and care planning processes and in their involvement in social and recreational activities provided including meal provision and daily routines. However residents were not sufficiently included in the systems used in the centre to review and monitor the quality and safety of care and services. This had been recognized by the provider and PIC who had carried out a recent review of how residents were consulted with and as a result regular resident meetings and a
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period of this study, a decade during which there was implementation of a road safety strategy and a decrease in road mortality, there was a clear downward trend in the number of TSCIs arising from road collisions, although this has not been proven to be statistically significant. In Denmark, it was observed that a falling proportion of TSCIs due to road collisions coincided with the introduction of speed limits in 1973 and the compulsory use of seat belts in 1976. 16 In Australia, road deaths were
An autonomous vehicle is one in which a computer performs all the tasks that the human driver normally would. Ultimately, this would mean getting in a car, entering the destination into a computer, and enabling the system. From there, the car would take over and drive to the destination with no human input. The car would be able to sense its environment and make steering and speed changes as necessary. This scenario would require all of the automotive technologies: lane detection to aid in passing slower vehicles or exiting a highway; obstacle detection to locate other cars, pedestrians, animals, etc.; adaptive cruise control to maintain a safe speed; collision avoidance to avoid hitting obstacles in the roadway; and lateral control to maintain the car’s position on the roadway.
The practice has been shown to dramatically reduce risk of collision, and also the severity of an accident should an accident occur. It also helps to avoid tailgating and road rage for all drivers. The risk of tailgating is largely caused by the accident avoidance time being much less than the driver reaction time. The two-second rule isn't just for the car in-front however. If a car is driving too close behind us (tailgating), we will also need to take their thinking distance into account by leaving a sufficient and safe distance between our car and the car in-front. By following the 2 second rule, if the car in-front of us brakes sharply, we will be able to slow down in good time, but also allow plenty of time for the car behind to slow down .
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system.” Okay, so this very fast car that handles great and looks pristine is also going to take its proud owner to and from work or school year round, all while weighed down with a huge stereo system. Of course, the end result is going to be a very compromised car that can hope to do well in none of the categories to which it aspires, even with barrels upon barrels of cash thrown at it. The problem with Joe’s Prelude is that, while it could have done any one of these things very well, and could arguably have excelled in two or even three of the categories, trying to do it all ensures that it will fail in everything the owner set out to do with it. If the goal was to go fast, then a tremendous amount of money spent on engine mods would be the call of the day, and even the suspension would best be set up to provide consistent launches on this front-wheel drive platform. Certainly, extra body kit components, a fancy paint job, and heavy subwoofers would do this car no favors at the drag strip. On the other hand, if it was to be used at shows, that same body kit and paint job, not to mention the gleaming engine compartment, would soon become compromised as the car began to be used for driving all over town to and from work or school. In fact, even the act of building the motor for all-out straight-line speed down the quarter mile, if not done with careful attention to the car’s power curve, could very well ensure that its cornering abilities, even compared to a stock Prelude, suffered greatly. This is without factoring in the added weight of the stereo and body kit add-ons, or the level of paranoia with which the owner would have to drive to avoid chips on the paint job or cracks in the fiberglass aero components.
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Nowadays, people are not aware of the safety precaution while refueling at a petrol station. At every petrol station, there are always highlight about safety precaution while refueling the fuel petrol, such as stop the engine, do not use a cell phone and another electronic device, do not smoke, and do not touch your car to discharge electrostatic. Lately news common happen fire while refueling the fuel petrol to the vehicle it is because usually laziness of people to stop the engine and did not care the safety precaution . In this same experience and prefer to prevent from the accident happen and presence creates a system when open the fuel tank case engine will stop automatically.
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