of the year 2030. The situation is represented in Figure 4. Evidently, the situation gets better, since the gas quantity is stabilized. It should cause no surprise to observe the plain in the figure, because carbondioxide is a very stable gas that remains long time in the Earth’s atmosphere; as somebody said, the CO 2
The Rate-by-Area application of carbondioxide is used to suppress fires on flat surfaces or low- level hazards associated with horizontal surfaces. These include dip tanks, drain boards, fryers, and floor areas. The basis of this method lies in determining the square footage of the hazard area. Both the discharge rate and area coverage of the nozzles are based upon nozzle height above the hazard. Once the nozzle height, discharge rate, and nozzle area coverage has been established, the nozzle spacing, and consequently, the number of nozzles are determined. Where deep layer flammable liquid fires are to be protected, a minimum freeboard of 6 in. (152 mm) shall be provided.
and research on “vulnerabilities”—the nature of damage any given region of the earth might suffer from any of the impacts of climate change. It’s concluded that Africa is “the continent most vulnerable to the impacts of the projected changes”, and that Eu- rope and North America “might even benefit from a modest warming and rise in the level of carbondioxide concentration” . IPCC has therefore prescribed stringent protocols which humanity must observe in order to curb the impacts. It is rather re- markable that the developed world would work against a matter that is supposed to be beneficial to them! Strangely they even offer a carrot, e.g. carbon trade, as a reward for strict adherence to these protocols. It must, however, be noted that reducing or stop- ping the use of fossil fuels has implications on national development.
the balance between the carbondioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common – and generally underappreciated – component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercapnia has traditionally been avoided in order to keep parameters normal. More recently, advances in our understanding of the role of excessive tidal volume has prompted clinicians to use ventilation strategies that result in hypercapnia. Consequently, hypercapnia has become increasingly prevalent in the critically ill patient. Hypercapnia may play a benefi cial role in the pathogenesis of infl ammation and tissue injury, but may hinder the host response to sepsis and reduce repair. In contrast, hypocapnia may be a pathogenic entity in the setting of critical illness. The present paper reviews the current clinical status of low and high PaCO
Another indicator that holds promise for assessing the severity of COPD is carbondioxide retention. Carbondioxide retention indicates the exhaustion of lung re- serve, loss of ventilatory function, worsening of clinical symptoms, respiratory failure, and secondary damage. But actually we don’t know the complete long term con- sequences of hypercapnia . Tsuboi  reported that persistent carbondioxide retention in chronic ventila- tory deficient subjects may reflect an adaptive mechan- ism that allows for lower levels of alveolar ventilation so as not to overload the respiratory muscles. In summary, carbondioxide retention is involved in the respiratory center drive capacity, respiratory muscle strength, airway obstruction, pulmonary parenchymal damage, and many other complex processes. The gold standard for carbondioxide retention is arterial blood gas analysis, but arter- ial blood gas analysis only reflects the instantaneous par- tial pressure of carbondioxide in the blood. Therefore, checking blood gas at different times will produce differ- ent results, and the overall extent of COPD disease lead- ing to carbondioxide retention (or even respiratory failure) cannot be determined accurately. Accurate pre- diction of COPD carbondioxide retention from patho- logical changes level would be of great help in disease monitoring.
The provision and use of energy for services has a large impact on the environment in most populated parts of the world. This is a feature of rich industrialised countries and of poorer industrialising countries. The scope of the environmental impacts ranges greatly in space and time and effect; from the relatively localised and short-term impacts due to the emission of noise from cars, to the global and long-term impact of projected climate change induced by the anthropogenic introduction of trace gases into the atmosphere. The focus of this study is on the limitation of climate change by the control of carbondioxide emission from fossil fuel combustion. Carbondioxide emission from this source is thought likely to be responsible for about 50% of global warming: the other 50% arises from carbondioxide emissions due to deforestation, and from a mix of other trace gases (IPCC, 1990). Although the focus here is on carbondioxide abatement, most of the measures studied in this report also reduce other pollutants such as acid chemicals. There are many technical improvements and substitutions which can lessen the impacts of the multifarious uses of energy. Energy conservation through technical means must be a central policy measure: it can bring great cost savings, and reduces the 'upstream' environmental impacts of energy systems - carbon and acid emissions, radioactive waste, the ecological impact of hydroelectric schemes and so forth. There are however limits to the energy conservation.
Climate change has become a popular topic simply because it leads the melting glaciers, rising sea levels and the extinction of endangered species. It is well-known that greenhouse gases (GHG) are the cause of the climate change which is mainly contributed by the carbondioxide (Houghton, 2004). According to IPCC report, the current CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere is increased by 100 ppm
Global warming is a primary problem faced by all nations in status quo. Despite the ongoing ridiculous debates on the existence of global warming, scientific research has continuously proven on the effects of global warming and how it will increase in the upcoming future, which is also reflected in Figure 1. Greenhouse gases is noticeably the primary cause for global warming. Of all the greenhouse gasses that are produced carbondioxide is the gas that has the most impact on the world we live in. The ability of CO 2 to remain longer than other greenhouse gases and the convenience of
Khan, F., et al., 2011. "Modelling reactive absorption of CO 2 in packed columns for post- combustion carbon capture applications." Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 89(9): 1600-1608. Kothandaraman, A., 2010. Carbondioxide capture by chemical absorption: a solvent comparison study, Citeseer.
There are several gas and heat exchange measurement techniques applied recently near the ecosystem active surface (Eulenstein et al., 2005a,b; Olejnik et al., 2001) but the spatial range of these observations is limited. The global estimation of the mass and energy exchange between terre- strial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be carried out only with application of large spatial scale methods eg remote sensing. The application of remote sensing techniques is particularly justified since wetlands are often located in remote places where direct measurements are limited or even impossible (Prigent et al., 2001). The satellite observa- tions allow to assess the physiological state of the vegeta- tion. This characteristic is one of the most important factors that controls carbondioxide exchange intensity between the terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Several spectral coefficients have been developed over last decades for the remote estimation of vegetation physiological condition (Liang, 2004). The normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the most commonly used spectral coef- ficients (Jarociñska and Zagajewski, 2008) and its value is calculated on the basis of spectral measurements conducted Int. Agrophys., 2013, 27, 1-5
Marine plants and animals play a role in the uptake and release of carbondioxide in the ocean. Plants, primarily phytoplankton but also macrophytes such as this seaweed, take up carbondioxide and release oxygen, which oxygen-dependent animals need to survive.
The Thetford Project (19681976) was a keystone project for the newly established Institute of Hydrology. Its primary objective was to elucidate the processes underlying evaporation of transpired water and intercepted rainfall from plantation forest, so as to explain hydrological observations that more water was apparently returned to the atmosphere from plantations than from grassland and heathland. The primary approach was to determine the fluxes of water vapour from a stand of Scots pine, situated within a larger area of plantations of Scots and Corsican pine, in Thetford Forest, East Anglia, UK, using the Bowen ratio approach. In 1976, advantage was taken of the methodology developed to add measurement of profiles of carbondioxide concentration so as to enable the fluxes of CO 2 also to be calculated. A team from
FRET-based carbondioxide sensors, this type of sensor requires only a luminescent dye which has an absorption spectrum that’s similar to that of one of the forms of the pH-sensitive, colourimetric dye. Usually, this absorption spectral overlap is between the pH-insensitive fluorophore and the anionic form of the pH colourimetric dye. As with the FRET-type sensors, the possible combinations of pH-insensitive fluorophore and pH-colourimetric dye are many. However, it is not clear what benefits this luminescence intensity-based sensor offers over its simpler, colourimetric counterpart, which has the same formulation, with the exception of the lumophore, other than it allows the measurement of P CO2 via luminescence intensity, rather than absorbance, measurements.
The closed system is appropriate for the direct use of as- captured flue gas without separation. The flue gas, containing 14% CO2, was collected from a cement kiln. To work with low concentration flue gas, a cyclic injection process was developed. The flue gas was injected into the chamber at a gauge pressure of 500 kPa (72 psi). The higher gas pressure is used to ensure that sufficient carbondioxide is available for reaction. The chamber’s inlet valve is then closed to permit the reaction to take place over a designated period of 30 to 40 minutes. Since the airtight system is closed after pressurization, both the CO2 concentration and the gas pressure in the chamber will drop as the concrete absorbs CO2. After the designated period of time, the residue gas is released to the atmosphere through a water tank and flue gas is again injected into the chamber for a second cycle. Typical pressure and temperature curves of cement paste compacts subjected to seven cycles of flue gas carbonation with a 30-40 minute time period per cycle over a total of five hours. The cement compacts with W/B of 0.15 were press formed at 8 MPa (1.2 ksi). Since the reaction between cement and flue gas CO2 is a carbon consumption process, it eventually reduces the gas pressure and CO2 concentration in the chamber.
ever, changes in end-tidal carbondioxide values failed to correlate with simultaneous changes in arterial carbondioxide tension measures (32). Palmon et al., compared two groups of patients as no-monitor and monitor-blind groups that were under controlled with a capnograph during transport (10). The results of their study do not support routine monitoring of end-tidal CO 2 during