) of ambient air change continuously (Kulkarni et al., 2011), thereby influencing the performance and range of detection limits (classifiable region) for the APM. Therefore, in this study, air, oxygen, and carbon diox- ide were selected as carriergases to experimentally evaluate the effect of gas viscosity and the mean free path on the per- formance of the APM, including the classifiable region and detection limits. On the other hand, argon would be required as the carrier gas if the APM were used as an aerosol parti- cle classifier coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; in a similar manner to the DMA–
with a small amount of an inhibiting agent. 10) Small additions of certain gases to dry air reduce the oxidation rate to an acceptable level. A number of ﬂ uorine-containing com- pounds for this application were suggested and patented by Reimers in 1934. 11) The most additive commonly used in the
Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of the as-prepared powders obtained with diﬀerent carriergases at 700 C. In the pure Ar, the single-phase powders were obtained as shown in Fig. 1(a). According to the analysis of XRD patterns, the nanopowders produced in this condition are the Fe–Co alloy phase. But as the content of the oxygen in the argon increased, the peaks corresponding to the oxides of the iron and cobalt were much more abundantly observed. In the Ar þ 1%O 2 gas, the as-prepared powders had Fe–Co and its
of Hg-oxidation slightly decreased when moisture content increased from 7% to 20% for all carriergases. This indicated that OH radicals that dissociated from H2O were abundant and that increasing moisture content did not significantly affect the pool of radicals, specifically Cl, and subsequently Hg-oxidation. In oxy-coal combustion, moisture content would be higher than that in conventional coal combustion, while concentration of NO would be lower than that in conventional coal combustion. Our experimental results suggested that Hg-oxidation in oxy-coal combustion would be higher than that found in conventional coal combustion systems.
Not only the analysis of the hydrogen itself, but also the strong matrix effect of hydrogen must be corrected in the GD-OES quantification algorithms. Therefore, due to the complexity of the effect, fundamental investigations on elementary processes of excitation and ionisation in GD plasma are necessary. The well-known and simple emission spectra of copper will be taken into account and extensively investigated together with that of the carrier gas (Sec 5.1.1 and 5.1.2). Because the hydrogen effect is individual for each emission line, various analytes in common bulk materials are investigated (Sec. 5.1.4). As a key point in the understanding and explanation of the processes involved when hydrogen is present in a GD is proved to be the hydrogen emission continuum (Sec. 5.1.3). Comparisons of various sources of hydrogen relative to the hydrogen continuum should also be performed, inaccuracy in the measurements of the analytes being able to occur for analyte lines from a sputtered material containing hydrogen. Supplementary experiments related to the hydrogen effect in a GD are also carried out by means of GD-MS (Sec. 5.1.4) in order to confirm/complete the hypothesis found by GD-OES. Also the use of different carriergases (Ar and Ne) can help to a better understanding of the effect. As a prerequisite for the correction of the hydrogen effect in the quantification algorithms, the dependence of the effect on the GD parameters must be taken into account (Sec. 5.1.9).
The gases and mixtures described in this catalog are shipped in cylin- ders that meet or exceed U.S. Department of Transportation guidelines. All cylinders are identified by gas name (by stencil or label) and tagged for ready identification and basic hazardous warning information. All gases are supplied with valves having Compressed Gas Association (CGA) approved outlet connections.
expansion rate. In this case, the effect of the branes on the background geometry can be analyzed in the brane gas ap- proximation, where one averages the matter distribution over a Hubble volume to obtain an average energy density and pressure which determine the evolution of the background cosmology. Note that in this context the branes are out of thermal equilibrium. This is how topological defects emerge in cosmology. Since the nature of nonperturbative string theory is not known, it is not clear that brane gas cosmology admits a phase transition of the above nature as the tempera- ture increases. Another possibility 共 explored in detail in the context of string gases on a fixed background geometry 关 39– 41 兴兲 is that as the brane gas density increases, the branes reach a Hagedorn-like 关 42 兴 phase, in which the energy den- sity of matter is dominated by infinite branes. Such infinite branes, in the context of spatial manifolds which are toroidal, are branes with nonvanishing winding number 共 see also 关 43 兴 for work on string thermodynamics in the presence of branes 兲 .
functions. For this reason the magnetic drift velocity and magnetic deflection coefficient have been measured at 293°K in the two gases over a wide range of values of E/N and this comparison made. It was found that the values of the magnetic deflection coefficient were in close agreement over most of the energy range used except for values within the range 0.03 < D/ jj < 0.09 volt where there was a maximum difference of almost 2$».
Air pollution affects human incessantly everywhere. It can be smoke from factory stacks, gases from car exhausts, for instance. But there are also gases that can be dangerous if they are released to the atmosphere – for example combat gases, chlorine, ammonia. Some of them are presented in every town – chlorine is used in swimming pools, ammonia in cooling chambers or winter stadiums. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The most danger of gas leakage of hazardous gases is during their transport. Truck can crash and there may be formed a leak in cistern. Gas leakage duration is rather short.
Secondly, the “Civil Procedure Law” shall specify the doctrine of forum non conveniens. The doctrine of fo- rum non conveniens is a doctrine whereby courts have the discretionary power to refuse to take jurisdiction over civil and commercial cases where the court is considered as an inappropriate forum regardless of its inherent ju- risdiction over the case and there is more appropriate forum available to the parties. In judicial practice, the ap- plication of this doctrine has been constantly proved to be reasonable, and in the legislative process, this doctrine has been absorbed continuously. In 2005, the Supreme People’s Court issued the “Second National Foreign-re- lated Commercial and Maritime Trial Work Meeting Minutes”, specifying the applicable conditions of the doc- trine of forum non conveniens in our country. The promulgation of the “Minutes” is a milestone for clearly de- termining China’s jurisdiction over the foreign civil and commercial cases at the acceptance stage. The doctrine is expected to make progress and develop constantly. When it comes to the case of Baotou air crash, the carrier is China Eastern Airlines, the accident occurred in China and the material evidence and witnesses are mostly in China, so it is more appropriate for Chinese court to exercise the jurisdiction, which would provide convenience for Chinese passenger victims and safeguard the interests of Chinese tourists to its largest extent and US court ultimately made a decision to suspend the trial by invoking this doctrine  .
F-gases are powerful GHGs with GWP between 140 and 23 900. F-gases, therefore, receive a great deal of attention in connection with GHG emission inventories. For many F-gas applications, the gases can be controlled and/or replaced, which has been, and continues to be, the case in Denmark. Data for the projections mentioned here take this into consideration, but the projec- tions do not take the potential influence of new EU legislation in this field in- to consideration. The EU legislation will, however, only have a lowering ef- fect on emissions from mobile air conditioning equipment. As for the re- maining application areas the legislation are already covered by different ex- isting Danish legislation. Exemptions from the Danish bans on e.g. refrigera- tion equipment have been taken into account in the projections. In the 2010 emission inventories the total contribution from F-gases, converted into CO 2
At the heart of the gas chromatograph lies a capillary tube, what is called the column. This capillary tube, which is lined with a specifi c silicone material, serves to separate the individual components of a gas mixture. The column is continuously swept with helium, which is used as the carrier gas for the transport through the column. For analytical purposes, a precisely metered quantity of natural gas is injected into the helium fl ow at the inlet of the column. On their way through the column, the molecules of the natural gas components hit the column lining and are retained there for a short time (adsorption). Since the molecules of the various gas components are retained on the wall for diﬀ erent periods of time, the individual components leave the column at diﬀ erent times. Therefore, the gas components can be identifi ed by these times.