Not all information is valuable. Therefore, it is up to individual companies to decide what information qualifies as intellectual and knowledge-based assets. In general, however intellectual and knowledge based assets fall into one of two categories: explicit or tacit. Included among the former are assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, customer lists, marketing lists etc. Normally explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented, archived and codified, often with the help of IT. The concept of tacitknowledge or know-how in people’s mind is difficult to grasp. The challenge inherent with tacitknowledge is figuring out how to recognize, generate, share and manage this knowledge. While IT in the form of E-mail, groupware, instant messaging and related technologies can help facilitate the dissemination of tacitknowledge; identifying tacitknowledge in the first place is a major hurdle for most organizations.
Scharmer (2000 )argues that there are three types of knowledge, explicit, tacit and self- transcending knowledge. Gore and Gore (1999) divided knowledge into three types, truly tacitknowledge, technical tacitknowledge and cognitive tacitknowledge. For Spender (1994) knowledge can be classify into four types, individual tacitknowledge, individual explicit knowledge, explicit collective knowledge and collective tacitknowledge. Architectural and component knowledge are two types of knowledge, according to Henderson and Clark (1990). Stewart (1997) views knowledge to be cognitive knowledge, advance skills and self- motivated creativity. Nickols in Gourlay (2001 ) divided knowledge into implicit knowledge, declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Goal-setting/Idealistic knowledge, pragmatic knowledge, systematic knowledge and automatic knowledge are the categories of knowledge by Wiig (1993). Edvinsson and Malone(1997) have product knowledge, process knowledge and routine knowledge. Lundvall and Johnson(2002) have four categories of knowledge, know-what, know-how, know-why and know-who. Baumard (1999) have implicit and tacitknowledge.
Taylor-Powell and Renner (2003) indicated that “qualitative data for the most part consists of words and observations, and like all other data requires analysis and interpretation to bring order and understanding” (p. 1). “Qualitative analysis transforms data into findings which involves; reducing the volume of raw information, sifting significance from trivia, identifying significant patterns and constructing a framework for communicating the essence of what the data reveal” (Patton, 2002, p. 432). Best and Khan (2006) further detailed steps for qualitative data analysis. First, is organizing the data, and second is describing the various pertinent aspect of the study. Patton (2002) described the third step as “interpretation which involves an explanation of the findings which aims at answering why questions, attaching significance to particular results, and putting patterns into an analytic framework” (p. 434). Questions for collecting qualitative data were aligned to this study’s objectives as follows: what are the TK assets in universities in Kenya? and how is TK managed in universities in Kenya? The researcher applied a combination of data analysis techniques to accommodate all types of data collected during this study. Hoey and Kendrick (2017) defined “Conversation Analysis (CA) as an inductive, micro-analytic, and predominantly qualitative method for studying human social interactions” (p. 2). Its “purpose is to characterize and explain the ways in which those engaged in conversation maintain an interactional social order by examining the technology of conversation” (Sacks, 1992, p. 339). Emerging themes were coded, categorized (thematic, analytical and natural categories) and then presented and discussed case by case. Kripperndorff (2004) defined content analysis as “a systematic reading of a body of texts, images, and symbolic matter not necessarily from an author’s or user’s perspective” (p. 3). Using this technique, the researcher was able to analyse primary documents in relation to TKM and performance in universities in Kenya. The documents included policies (HR, ICT, Library, research, & innovation), newsletters, appraisal forms and brochures. These provided insights on how universities are taking care of TK in terms of motivation, rewards, appraisal, promotions, recognition, and general management.
companies to have the correct strategy and method in knowing the current need of customers. Companies within this industry need to explore and find new knowledge that caters for the need of the customers. In most cases, explicit knowledge is readily available from the feedback of customers that can be attained from social networking sites and platforms. Tourists would be the best promoting tools as they would recommend the best experience when they go on holiday. As for tacitknowledge, organization would have to invest on what the tourists’ future needs are when they are on holiday. Hence, the knowledge based on the tourism industry requires tourists’ own creativity and innovation capability in providing the best services. One of the challenge of KM in the industry is corresponding not to the organization, but to the micro level of KM where the destinations are the main focus of any tourism aspects (Zehrer, 2011). As pointed out by Gretzel and Fesenmaier (2004), knowledge based information system at micro destination level integrates different levels of knowledge. They also pointed out the adopting of the technology usually takes place in three stages and is interrelated with experience that the organizations have in KM. There are basically three categories of tourist experiences: planning process, the actual trip and memories of the particular trip (Larsen, 2007). Tourism is one of the major industries that contributes to a country’s gross domestic products (GDP). Many companies and organization are involved in getting the chunk of the pie from the industry profitable opportunities. There are many opportunities that can be acquired by having the correct platform that an organization can benefit from. The result in KS in tourism enables operators to update and adapt the best practice to serve the tourists and having direct links to online resources to keep them in line with the current trends and development in the industry (Braun & Hollick, 2006). With the contest of securing customer for choosing a destination with an agency, knowledge on giving the best service possible is crucial in this industry. This is the role of social media in disseminating information to potential customers (Nezakati et al., 2015). Every player in tourism industry should adopt and adapt the best application in using social media that are famous and mostly used by users. Knowledge in acquiring the best practice would entitle business owners and entrepreneurs to be up to date in generating the current preference of the market.
triangulated methods were applied to interpret a set of meaningful experience, expressed as narrations and interactions. Our approach also stressed researcher’s employed the “human instruments” to secure both direct and indirect tacitknowledge of the phenomenon. This called for a secondary research into an existing body of literature, and a qualitative fieldwork based on interviews and observation techniques.Breakdown of the routine activities provides an occasion for the study the tacitknowledge as people articulate what has normally been taken for granted. This research applied the critical incident interviews to identify the critical phase–events and behaviours–that were described or observed to a significantly diverged outcome from the general aim of a particular activity. We then adopted the qualitative interview and observation techniques to collect the articulated account of the experience . The interview encouraged respondents to tell stories of their experience. The researcher learned about context by personal contact and discussion. Taking field notes from the observation allowed the researcher to identify recurring observed patterns. The narration were then broken down into statements, sequences and action units, to be classified into skill categories.
Table 5.28 indicates that 33.3% of the academics are confident that if their university provided the right technology to them, they would be willing to share their knowledge, skills and ideas with others. About 49% of the participants feel that with right technology they ‘may be’ in a position to share their knowledge, skills and ideas. Other participants are either not sure or probably do not believe in better knowledge sharing with enhanced technology. Universities are trying to implement different technologies to enhance tacitknowledge transfer(such as video conferencing, online meetings, online chat rooms, discussion forums, intranet, portals) although an overall response to the statement indicates a lack of confidence in technology for tacitknowledge transfer with a mean response of 1.99. Subramaniam and Venkatraman (2001) found that effective transferral and sharing of tacitknowledge involved face-to-face interaction, often complemented and enhanced with the use of information technology. The use of ICT to convert tacit to explicit will be a good way of moving forward in KM efforts. Ruggles (1998) has suggested the creation of intranets, knowledge repositories, decision support tools and groupware as key KM initiatives for organisations. Pauleen & Yoong (2001) have reported that trusting relationships can be developed amongst people through the use of different ICT.
A lack of proper information might contribute to some of these issues. Knowledge management is still a relatively new discipline, especially in small organizations and without empirical data supporting its benefit, organizations might be hesitant to direct resources towards its optimization and implementation. The designers interviewed indicated a lack of belief about the tangible benefits and viewed the passive transfer of information as opposed to the active transfer as “good enough.” Several indicated they believed that if information should be transferred it would, as job performance was motivation enough to seek out and distribute professional knowledge. To some extent, users supported this belief. However, information flow generally consisted of face-‐to-‐face meetings in offices or email exchanges—which employees indicated could be difficult because they required the presence and availability of other employees. For time-‐sensitive material, this potentially presented a hindrance for optimizing time management and sensitive material.
The Knowledge-Creating Company from Nonakay Takeuchi and their following papers became a essential reference for practitioners and academics interested in understanding how knowledge is shaped and how can this knowledge be applied to the firm. Time has told us that the capability to create and apply new knowledge successfully constitutes the true source of competitive advantage of the firm. In our study about the knowledge creation process we must pursue three main issues-
This study examines the effect of knowledge conversion and knowledge application on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The four modes of knowledge conversion process comprising of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization are utilized in this study. knowledge application was measured using indicators comprising of problem solving, elaboration, efficient processes, IT support, and infusion In addition, performance was measured using non-financial indicators comprising new products, speed of response to market crises, product improvement, customer retention, and new processes. The study adopted explanatory and cross-sectional survey design. The target population of this study comprised of all the 43 Commercial Banks in Kenya. The unit of observation was the functional area in each bank. Five areas were identified in each bank comprising human resource, finance, marketing, information communication technology, and operations in each bank. This study used primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected using a semi- structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered using the drop-and-pick later method. Secondary data was collected using document review and was used to validate information collected from the questionnaire. The response rate in this study was approximately seventy three percent which was considered sufficient for making inferences and drawing conclusions. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics included percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations while inferential statistics involved regression analysis. Results from quantitative data analysis were presented using figures and tables. Qualitative data was analysed on the basis of common themes and presented in narrative form. The findings of the study established that knowledge conversion and knowledge application positively influence performance. Management of Commercial Banks should encourage interaction between employees and customers. Moreover, bank’s processes should be used to enhance understanding and translation of knowledge (explicit) into application (tacitknowledge). Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Conversion, Knowledge Application and Organizational Performance
In a review of design models, Love  and Finger and Dixon , among others, delineated two types of design model: descriptive and prescriptive. In a similar vein, others (e.g. [3, 9, 43]) talked about the function of design knowledge, which can also be characterised by descriptive and prescriptive design knowledge. The former describes what constitutes the design artefact and what typically occurs during a design process. For example, description of an artefact’s components can be regarded as artefact’s descriptive knowledge. However, the latter specifies how something should be or should be done . In the design world, prescriptive knowledge prescribes how the artefact should look, behave and/or how design should be undertaken. For example, a designer may prescribe the function that roadside furniture should be easily visible by people with visual impairments. Therefore, prescriptive knowledge could guide designers’ decision making to proceed with the design.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 256 some hints drawn from interviews may deserve future researchers’ attention to an imperative need to reform the traditionally inherited management theories and practices. One of the prevailing opinions from interviewees is that, the seniority-based compensation and promotion system is no longer a ‘fit’ with today’s knowledge-based competition. Instead, the combination of monetary-reward and promotion is becoming an incentive HRM practice to retain engineers and skilled workers, and to stimulate their desires of enhancing knowledge-and-skill based performances. Another prevailing opinion is that, knowledge-based competition requires PMs to possess as much versatility and decision-power as possible in order to coordinate cross- functional departments (internal) and cross-firms (external) collaborations and to shoulder excessive tasks beyond normal responsibility of department heads. For instance, PMs of Japanese and Korean firms are comparatively more knowledge-driven, more inventory control and order-fulfillment oriented, and therefore, more eager to pursue ‘make-to-order’ type of manufacturing and inventory systems, than those PMs of Chinese firms that still obsessed with the conventional concept of ‘make-to-stock’. The third prevailing opinion revealed from interviewees is that, cross-department or even cross-firms collaborations is increasingly becoming a standardized norm of HRM practices, and serving as an effective solution to overcome the defects resulting from the nepotism-oriented HRM practices, hindering the development of knowledge-based dynamic and competitive capabilities on both organizational and individual level.
It is generally agreed that successful firms need to utilize all of their assets properly in order to gain a competitive advantage. However, little attention has been paid in business to proper utilization of tacitknowledge, a subset of intangible assets, because no specialized attempt has been made to quantify it. Once a value has been assigned to an asset, it is more easily utilized in the proper way. This paper analyzes the use of tacitknowledge in pharmaceutical industry, presents a graphical model of tacitknowledge, and finally presents and uses a simplified mathematical model that could be useful in quantifying tacitknowledge. The mathematical model was applied in the empirical study of multi- billion dollar acquisition of Genentech by Hoffman La-Roche AG. The model gives a good estimation of the value of the tacitknowledge contained in the firm, which is an important contribution to the field of finance. The quantification of tacitknowledge could be extremely beneficial for managers of pharmaceutical firms who have extremely high levels of tacitknowledge in the form of knowledge workers. By quantifying tacitknowledge, managers can get a better understanding of the real value of their firm or of the value of a firm that may be a target for acquisition.
Knowledge can exist and be expressed in many forms, for example: facts, attitudes, opinions, issues, values, theories, reasons, processes, policies, priorities, rules, cases, approaches, models, tools. Methodologies, relationships, risks and probabilities. Ideally people need, not only relevant knowledge but also practical help in applying it and using it to achieve their objectives. Many more companies would benefit from a knowledge management framework that can handle knowledge in a variety of formats and enable people quickly to capture, access, present, understand and exploit pertinent know- how. Early approaches to knowledge management tended to view knowledge as a stock with the emphasis being placed upon knowledge capture and storage. What may be of greater importance in dynamic, fluid and uncertain contexts is the flow of information that allows knowledge to be kept up to date, and new knowledge that is relevant to emerging trends. Knowledge Management is the process of gathering a firm‟s collective expertise wherever it resides – in databases, on paper, or in people‟s heads – and distributing it to where it can help produce the biggest payoff  As it dawns on many organizations which may be corporations or service providers – that Knowledge is the only competitive asset they have,
Essentially, knowledge resides within individuals and, more specifically, in the employees who create, store, access, recognize, and apply knowledge in carrying out their tasks . When knowledge sharing is limited, the chances are that there are knowledge gaps which would give rise to low production, limited innovation  and constrained work outcomes . According to a report, fortune 500 are losing around 31.5 billion US dollars per year due to employees failing to share knowledge . Considering knowledge intensive companies such as the software houses/I.T companies, sharing expert knowledge is a key process and necessary for effective software teams . It is worth noting that both turnover rates and brain drain are quite common in the software industry due to the nature of the job as well as the work being mostly project based. This means that a substantial number of employees are hired for specific projects only. At the end of the project, redundant staff is laid off causing brain drain. For the remaining employees it causes stress, thus forcing remaining employees to look for better opportunities causing an efflux on involuntary and voluntary turnover. This means, companies lose experienced and qualified employee and their tacitknowledge. A remedy to this problem could be the establishment of knowledge management systems, whereby the expert knowledge of the professionals can be captured/shared for the benefit of the organization . Many studies have highlighted the importance of knowledge sharing and through sharing of knowledge organizations have become more efficient, innovate quickly, bring higher quality products/services in the market hence become more competitive , , , , .
A qualitative methodology based on the analysis of multiple case studies was used for this research. Eight cases of family business succession were investigated, with data collected from public sources and interviews with founders, successors (family members and non-family members) and key observers. A total of forty interviews were conducted, with interviews focused on the history of the firm and others on the generational transfer of knowledge of the firm. A literature review provided a research foundation and a theoretical context that informed the case selection and interview protocol.
One of the main measures of the knowledge management process is knowledge sharing that has the crucial impact on promoting innovation ability and as a result success and the competitiveness of knowledge-based organizations. Effectively sharing knowledge, especially tacitknowledge requires employees to have desire and special empowerments. Thus, the present study examines this issue that how and to what extend the dimensions of psychological empowerment can facilitate tacitknowledge sharing in organization. Research method is descriptive and correlational. The population includes 1958 managers and experts of a Bank in Tehran where 332 subjects were selected using random sampling. Results suggest that all aspects of psychological empowerment have positive and significant impact on tacitknowledge sharing in organization.
Researchers like Varela et al., (1991), von Krogh & Roos (1995) and Venzin et al., (1998) have based their work on cognitive science, which has been the most influential (Koskinen, 2001) for scientists studying organisational knowledge. Accordingly, three different epistemologies are suggested i.e. Cognitivist epistemology (represented by Simon, 1982), Connectionistic epistemology (represented by Zander and Kogut, 1995) and Autopoietic epistemology (introduced by Maturana and Varela, 1980), to explain some core questions such as; what is knowledge, how does it generate, and what are the conditions for knowledge to generate? Cognitivist epistemology considers organisations as open systems which develop knowledge by formulating increasingly accurate representation of their predefined world. Data accumulation and dissemination are the major knowledge development activities, the more data that can be gathered, the closer the representation is to reality. Hence, as Koskinen (2001) asserts, this approach equates knowledge with information and data. In connectionistic epistemology, however, the rules on how to process information are not universal, but vary depending on the relationship. Organisations are seen as self-organised networks composed of relationships and driven by communication. Similar to the cognitivist, information processing is the basic activity of the system, yet relationships and communication are the most important facets of cognition. Autopoietic epistemology provides a fundamentally different understanding of the input into a system. Input is regarded as data only. Autopoietic systems are thus both closed and open. Open to data, but closed to information and knowledge, both of which have to be interpreted inside the system. These systems are self-referring and the world is thus not seen as fixed and objective; the world is constructed within the system and it is therefore not possible to ‘represent’ reality (Sveiby, 2001). Vicari and Troilo (1999) describe this epistemology by the following example;
As discussed throughout the literature, team trust is considered a major factor in knowledge sharing (Wang, Ashleigh & Meyers, 2006). As a result, the creation of a trusting environment is important. Employee loyalty is built through the formation of trust which increases the willingness to share tacitknowledge. In order to comprehend the nature of trust in the workplace, the personal perspective of the employee must be valued. The degree to which an employee identifies with their particular organization is referred to as organizational commitment. This bond is understood through interactions between coworkers in the workplace (Lin, 2007). Teamwork and achievement of organizational goals hold special meaning for employees who are committed to their role and organization. When receiving recognition, employees are proud of their accomplishments and strive to reach performance goals set by management. Feeling valued by one’s company is vital to the improvement of job performance. When the employee is loyal to their organization, they go to the lengths of introducing the organization to others with pride. Job pride and brand loyalty eventually incite a sense of self- awareness and increases confidence (Hosein & Seyed, 2017). When an employee feels valued, heard, and supported, they flourish in a workplace environment. By assessing the role self-image and mental health play in work ethic, the dynamic of trust along with the influence of management and organizational culture is better understood. Together, these factors impact willingness to share mental knowledge and in turn, improve job performance.
a. Generation - Che Rusuli  reported, HLI have excelled at creating scholarly information and intelligence from the data, yet they have tended not to create knowledge from intelligence, in addition HLI have done little to use organizational information to create knowledge which can be used to improve the functionality of HLI process which is not only making knowledge as the collection in the house but the information itself must be able to produce the right amount of information at the right time. He added, the process of dynamic knowledge creation occurs during socialization when internal (tacit) knowledge is made external (explicit). b. Acquisition - Che Rusuli  documented, HLI have a restricted limited funding, technology, staff and space towards presenting the corporate acquisition in order to provide continuous education and staff training to all staff members even though it is acknowledged the HLI is the starting point of knowledge acquisition . While Abdullah  defined knowledge codification or coordination as the steps required to place in the organizational knowledge into a form that makes it accessible to others who may need it.