center-of-mass points

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Figure 2.1: Center of mass of four points.

Figure 2.1: Center of mass of four points.

The values of these masses as a function of t is shown in this graph: Now, for each value of t, the masses assume different weights and their center of mass changes continuously. In fact, as t varies between 0 and 1, a curve is swept out by the center of masses. This curve is a cubic B´ezier curve – cubic because the mass equations are cubic polynomials in t. Notice that, for any value of t, m 0 + m 1 + m 2 + m 3 ≡ 1, and so we can simply write the equation of this B´ezier curve as

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Enhanced Center of Mass Technique for Detection of Missing & Broken Pharmaceutical Drugs

Enhanced Center of Mass Technique for Detection of Missing & Broken Pharmaceutical Drugs

Ritesh Chavda et.al, proposed some ideas to analyze the damaged tablets after production. A morphological operation is use to detect the defects. Image segmentation is applied and the input image is filtered to eliminate the noises to make the input image that is fit for further processing. The image is deducted by inscribing rectangles with morphological operation. Then the image is take out from the original gray image that identifies the broken tablets. Pseudo colouring is applied and the broken tablet pixel is computed. The input image undergoes pre-processing. Objects are recover depend on the region based properties. Detected Corners are compared with the stored image. If the detected points in the stored image and the test image capsule match, then it is accepted otherwise rejected. [7]
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OUR RESTLESS TIDES A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE BASIC ASTRONOMICAL FACTORS WHICH PRODUCE TIDES AND TIDAL CURRENTS

OUR RESTLESS TIDES A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE BASIC ASTRONOMICAL FACTORS WHICH PRODUCE TIDES AND TIDAL CURRENTS

While space does not permit here, it may be graphically demonstrated that, for such a case of revolution without rotation as above enumerated, any point on the earth will describe a circle which will have the same radius as the radius of revolution of the center-of-mass of the earth around the barycenter. Thus, in Fig. 1, the magnitude of the centrifugal force produced by the revolution of the earth and moon around their common center of mass (G) is the same at point A or B or any other point on or beneath the earth's surface. Any of these values is also equal to the centrifugal force produced at the center-of-mass (C) by its revolution around the barycenter. This fact is indicated in Fig. 2 by the equal lengths of the thin arrows (representing the centrifugal force Fc) at points A, C, and B, respectively.
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Analysis and Design of Regular and Irregular Buildings

Analysis and Design of Regular and Irregular Buildings

The project deals with the comparative study of regular and irregular building of same area and same mass, the irregularity being caused by shifting of center of stiffness. The results derived in this project are location of center of mass and center of stiffness, torsion induced in the building, forces acting on column and changes observed in column design. Key Words: Regular building, Irregular Building, Stiffness, Torsion, Base Shear

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Effects of Torsion Lateral Stability of Building Structure

Effects of Torsion Lateral Stability of Building Structure

plan and elevation are desirable for much the same reasons. Symmetry is important in both directions of a plan. Lack of symmetry (in mass distribution and/or in stiffness, strength and ductility) leads to torsional effects which are difficult to assess properly and which can be very destructive. A plan layout with reentrant angles should be avoided (see Figure1.1 below).

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Towards autonomous motion of the PIRATE through closed pipe structures
The Sensing System

Towards autonomous motion of the PIRATE through closed pipe structures The Sensing System

are saved during each full scan of the pipe 2 . These points are collected, based on their radius, into an array of one of three categories: inliers, outliers or outline. The inliers are the points that have a radius smaller than that of the pipe. The outliers are the points with a radius larger than the pipe. And the outline holds the points around the outliers but on the pipe wall, as to portray the outline of a junction (see figure B.4 for an illustration). Note that due to the sensor accuracy some margin of error is included for this categorization. The properties of each array are then used, in step C.2, to determine the type of structure encountered by the PIRATE and to calculate the properties of these. For example, if there are no outline points, so the outline array is empty, the section is of type 1 and the inliers or outliers can be used to calculate the new pipe diameter in step C.3. In the case of type 2 or 3 and with assumption iv, each outline is used to estimate a circle or ellipse with the procedure described in section 2.2.3. The properties of the ellipse, i.e. the length and angle of the major and minor axis, are then used to determine the size and direction of the bend or junction. The y-coordinate of the center of the ellipse is considered to be the distance to the entrance of the upcoming structure. In the case of a junction (Type 3 or 4) there are usually multiple options the PIRATE can take, the properties of these are all calculated and output for the user to make a decision. When the algorithm runs successfully through these steps the possible options are displayed on screen and the result consists of a single value for the following properties:
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Title: CLUSTERING BIG DATA USING NORMALIZATION BASED k-MEANS ALGORITHM

Title: CLUSTERING BIG DATA USING NORMALIZATION BASED k-MEANS ALGORITHM

A new method is proposed by Madhu[8] for finding better initial centroid with reduced time complexity. If the data set contains negative value attributes then transform those data points in the data set to the positive space by subtracting the each data point with the minimum attribute. The distance is calculated from source to each data point in the data set. So, for different data points we will get the similar euclidean distance from the source. This may outcome incorrect selection of the initial centroids. To overcome this problem all the data points are changed to positive space. If data set contains all positive value attributes then the transformation is not necessary. In next stage data points are assigned to the clusters that have closest centroids. Next, mean of the data points is taken for each cluster. Then for every data point distance is calculated from the new centroid of its current nearest cluster. The reassigning process is repeated until the convergence criterion is met.
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Initial Value Filtering Optimizes  Fast Global K Means

Initial Value Filtering Optimizes Fast Global K Means

DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2019.710005 53 Journal of Computer and Communications K-means algorithm is simple and easy to understand, usually as the first choice for large sample cluster analysis algorithm [4]. However, in the traditional K-means algorithm, the number of clustering centers is observed from the data according to experience, and the initial location of clustering centers is random. This results in the weak stability of the algorithm, which is easily affected by noise and outliers. In recent years, many optimization algorithms have been developed by researchers [5]-[12]. For example, paper [5] used the method of residual analysis to automatically obtain the initial cluster center and number of class clusters from the decision graph, which solves the problem of manually specify- ing the number of class clusters. However, this method is complex to implement and has poor effect on the sparsely distributed data set. In paper [6], median was used as the clustering center object and K-means++ clustering method makes the clustering effect better than traditional clustering method, but the algorithm size is large and time complexity increases. Literature [7] takes the point with the largest number of nearest neighbor data points as the initial center point, which is effectively applied to the anomaly detection of Marine data, but the corres- ponding effect of massive high-dimensional data is weak.
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The length of the world’s glaciers – a new approach for the global calculation of center lines

The length of the world’s glaciers – a new approach for the global calculation of center lines

In the Alaska comparison, a good correlation is found where DEM quality is comparable to the East Greenland GIMP DEM, but strong deviations in measured glacier length occur in low-quality DEMs. A qualitative assessment with focus on the two DEMs most frequently used in the global calculation suggests that performance is high in the SRTM DEM but worse in the ASTER GDEM v2. In the latter, cen- ter lines are sometimes terminated midway, where DEM er- rors suggest that a glacier tongue flows uphill over a distance longer than the applied search radius. The approach by Kien- holz et al. (2014) mostly maintains the ability to continue center lines because the method does not suppress uphill flow for the major (lower) part of a glacier. Low-quality DEMs are also the main reason for different starting points cho- sen by the two approaches. Basically our high sampling den- sity would guarantee that, nearly everywhere, starting points are picked in close proximity to the points chosen by Kien- holz et al. (2014). However, DEM irregularities might block progress towards the glacier tongue and force center lines to end too early. Other lines starting lower down might become longer and be eventually chosen to represent total glacier length.
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Simulation and Testing of Thermal Performance Enhancement for Cascade Thermal Energy Storage System by Using Metal Foam

Simulation and Testing of Thermal Performance Enhancement for Cascade Thermal Energy Storage System by Using Metal Foam

the middle and end of the first box respectively) is very close to the inlet temperature, because these points are close to the inlet so at this velocity the air temperature dose not rise much, while rising in the next points, as shown in Fig. 10. The influence of HTF velocity variation on outlet air temperature for CTES system is illustrated in Fig. 11 for one hour. The minimal used HTF velocity (v=1m/s) give the maximum outlet temperature and maximum difference between inlet and outlet temperatures, that is because with lower velocity, the flowing air has more time to flow over the PCM and that made it able to have more heat exchange. While the maximum used HTF velocity (v=10m/s) give the minimal outlet temperature and minimal difference between inlet and outlet temperatures, that
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Dialectics Of Spirituality And Popular Culture

Dialectics Of Spirituality And Popular Culture

Once popular culture aims to spread and popularize one belief or a practice, then itcomes up with a relevant idea in accordance with its purpose, usually masking its efforts in various ways. Therefore, the practices of mass culture are rapidly spread and accepted. There is worryingly increasing number of things that attract people's attention and are shallow in content, mostly based on evanescent emotions. It is common for some people to deviate from the normal codes of conduct and ignore traditional moral norms. Wearing ripped jeans was considered a shame, but today it has become a tradition and is even understood as a sign of modernity. While these trends may not be legally restrictive, it does not mean that they should be ignored. Because spirituality strives to create a normal environment that is ethical for everyone.
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On-Orbit Center Of Mass Relocation System For A 3U Cubesat

On-Orbit Center Of Mass Relocation System For A 3U Cubesat

A series of simulations were conducted to observe the dynamic behavior of the satellite with its CoM located at distinct positions, and its relationship with the power consumption of the attitude actuators. As have been mentioned above, the interaction of the satellite with the space environment produces forces that are applied in a point called the center of pressure. In the case of the aerodynamic and solar disturbances the location of this point is considered at the geometric center of the surface of the spacecraft exposed to the atmospheric flux, and solar radiation, respectively. The distance between the center of pressure and the center of mass of the spacecraft is a lever arm that is involved in the generation of the disturbance torques that affects the attitude, producing a deviation of the desired pointing, then requiring applying the control torques by the actuators. With numerical simulations of the satellite’s dynamics, a graphic representation of its attitude behavior with respect to external torques and the position of the center of mass were obtained. In the graphs of figure 6, the changes in satellite’s attitude from an initial value, are introduced. With initial angular velocity equal to zero, in a period of one orbit, approximately 5500 seconds, and with a [ ] centimeters, actuators are activated once the attitude angles reach the threshold of ±0.9°, and deactivated when attitude angles are below 0.01°. In figure 7 disturbance torques are showed for this case, and, figure 8 shows the duty cycles of the actuators if these had to actuate the entire orbit period.
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Research on Rapid Registration of Mass Point Clouds via Feature Points

Research on Rapid Registration of Mass Point Clouds via Feature Points

In the automatic registration of point clouds, ICP (Iterative Closest Point) is a widely used method, the basic idea is to focus on each point of the target in the reference point to find a nearest point, the establishment of the mapping relations, coordinate transformation and the optimal calculation by least square method, through iteration until meet the accuracy, and the coordinate transformation is the final synthesis time transform [7-9]. According to this idea, the steps of ICP based the feature points in practical application are as follows:

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The Next Mobile Revolution: Near Field Communication (NFC)

The Next Mobile Revolution: Near Field Communication (NFC)

Abstract : In this paper, we explore new ways in which Near Field Communication (NFC) can be used on smart phones. Imagine a world where a tap of your mobile phone provides secure, keyless, and card-less access to your home, car, hotel room, workplace even mass transit automatically paying and checking you in as necessary. Or maybe you wave your mobile device at a product or an advertisement to access more information, read reviews, and compare prices with other suppliers in your local area. Even walk through a museum or gallery and launch companion audio and video presentations to enhance your experience with a swipe of your phone, connecting the virtual world to your physical world. This Paper presents the promises and the pitfalls of NFC technology that will change the coming world.
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The pathological features of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in idiopathic dacryoadenitis

The pathological features of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in idiopathic dacryoadenitis

Background: Lymphoid neogenesis has been reported in various diseases but not in idiopathic dacryoadenitis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pathological features of lymphoid neogenesis in idiopathic dacryoadenitis. Methods: 20 cases of idiopathic dacryoadenitis were collected retrospectively. Lymphoid neogenesis was graded by lymphocytic aggregates and germinal center-like structure formation. T and B cell compartmentalization, follicular dendritic cells and the expression of CXCL13 and CCL21 were analyzed.

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Image Vectorization using Line Extraction and Filtering

Image Vectorization using Line Extraction and Filtering

extracted by the PF module. (d) Second road segment extracted by the EKF module. (e) Road branches extracted by the PF module. (f) Third road segment extracted by the EKF module. (g) Final result of the road extraction algorithm. (h) Road reference points extracted manually of the main road tracing algorithm. This means that, before processing a satellite image, we can ask the operator to identify some instances of road centers and their directions. Then, a training algorithm can use the road profiles, obtained from the provided seed points, as examples used to find an appropriate value for the edge threshold. The other two parameters, namely, TBr and TMrg, and their relevance to the outcome of the algorithm are discussed.
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Blue light versus green light fundus autofluorescence in normal subjects and in patients with retinochoroidopathy secondary to retinal and uveitic diseases

Blue light versus green light fundus autofluorescence in normal subjects and in patients with retinochoroidopathy secondary to retinal and uveitic diseases

The optic disc AF intensity was used as a standard to indicate the absence of fluorescence, in both BAF and GAF. Multiple corresponding points (3–5) were selected in the optic disc area of both BAF and GAF images and their intensities were averaged. In addition, the optic nerve head served as an index of background noise. Three points of interest were identified in both BAF and GAF images of normal and RC subjects. These points included the foveal center, one point in an area of hypoautofluorescence, and one in an area of hyperauto- fluorescence. The software ruler and retinal landmarks were used to guarantee the measurement of the same points in both BAF and GAF images.
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MR Imaging Findings of Paravertebral Gossypiboma

MR Imaging Findings of Paravertebral Gossypiboma

RESULTS: All patients were symptomatic; the most frequent symptom was nonspecific back or neck pain. None of the patients presented with signs of infection or required surgery urgently. In 3 of the 7 patients, gossypiboma was included in the preoperative differential imaging diagnosis. In all patients, the gossypiboma was located in the vicinity of the initial site of surgery. Typically, gossypibomas were visible in T2-weighted images as a mass with a hyperintense center and hypointense rim and exhibited strong peripheral enhancement in contrast-enhanced images. Retained surgical gauze was removed surgically from 4 patients; in the remaining patients, the surgical specimens contained suture threads.
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COM-COG

COM-COG

Remember, the lateral center of pressure is the one point where the aerodynamics forces act. In the illustrations, all the wind can then be treated as a single force acting through the center of pressure. This force acting at a distance away (d) from the CG creates a moment that either stabilizes or destabilizes the rocket. It is best to build a rocket with its fins as far as possible to the rear. The farther behind the center of gravity the center of pressure is placed, the stronger and more precise will be the restoring forces on the model and it will fly straighter with less wobbling and side-to-side motion, which robs the rocket of energy. Fins usually should not be placed forward of the center of gravity on a model because this will add to instability. If fins are added forward of the center of gravity, be certain the center of pressure remains behind the center of gravity. Students can also test the stability of a rocket with precision experimentally through the use of the swing test or the use of a wind tunnel.(Directions for building a wind tunnel may be found in Estes The Classic Collection, Technical Report TR-5, “Building a Wind Tunnel”). The simplest, least expensive method is the swing test.
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Whole body mechanics and gaits in the gray short tailed opossum
Monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a
semi erect mammal

Whole body mechanics and gaits in the gray short tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a semi erect mammal

patterns) have been largely explored independently (see Reilly and Biknevicius, 2003). Consequently, gaits used during mechanical energy studies are often vaguely described, and kinematic studies rarely obtain data appropriate for assessing locomotor mechanics. The relationships between gaits and mechanical energy patterns have not been examined in any quantitative way and therefore, we know little about how neuromuscular movements of axial and appendicular systems control movements of the center of mass. Neuromuscular control of the limbs produces the gait patterns that carry the center of mass. Thus, to understand locomotion we have to know more than what the center of mass is doing. Details of locomotor mechanics and gaits are particularly lacking in non- cursorial mammals. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify both the kinematic gaits and mechanical energy patterns employed by a generalized, semi-erect mammal as a means to address three general questions. First, do small, semi-erect mammals employ the energy-saving pendular and spring mechanics used by erect mammals? Second, do opossums exhibit the walk/run gait transitions proposed as the primitive condition for tetrapods by Hildebrand? Third, how well do mechanical locomotor patterns correlate with kinematic gaits? Specifically, we want to test the hypothesis (Reilly and Biknevicius, 2003) that gaits (walks, runs) correlate with mechanical patterns (pendular and spring mechanics, respectively).
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