Century of the Child

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Child Nutrition in 21st Century

Child Nutrition in 21st Century

It is well accepted, that any effect on the health of mother is going to affect the health of the fetus. The first two years of life and nine months in utero, the so called “1000 days” to prevent child malnutrition are the critical window period. Appropriate nutritional practices play a pivotal role in determining health and development of children. The Kangaroo Mother Care method is a standardize protocol based care system for preterm or LBW infants and is based on skin to skin contact between baby and mother. Breastfeeding was consistently associated with higher performance in intelligence tests, with a pooled increase of intelligence quotient points. It is every child‟s basic human right to receive a healthy feeding and thereby undergo a normal growth. It is every adult‟s ethical, moral, and legal duty to ensure optimal feeding practices and a normal growth and development for their children. WHA resolutions, endorses the comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition and urges strengthening nutrition policies so that they comprehensively address the double burden of malnutrition. “Protest breastfeeding” seems to be a novel approach or way to promote the breastfeeding and to highlight the Mother and Child right issues in the 21st Century. WHO and UNICEF jointly declared “Where it is not possible for the biological mother to breastfeed, the first alternative, should be the use of human milk from other sources. There is proliferation of sophisticated marketing of unhealthy food to children to continue in the midst of a childhood obesity epidemic.
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The Implications of Girl-Child Education to Nation Building in the 21st Century in Nigeria

The Implications of Girl-Child Education to Nation Building in the 21st Century in Nigeria

Abstract : This paper examines the implications of Girl-child to nation building in the 21 st century in Nigeria. The paper began by pointing out the wrong notions that many Nigerians have particularly the rural dwellers about women being considered as properties for man and objects for their pleasure and how this notion restrains them from training their girl-children in schools. The paper further examined the concept of girl-child education to be all inclusive, some hindrances to effective girl-child education such as economic factors, sexual violence and abuse, political factors, the school environmental factors and socio-cultural and religious factors were highlighted. Included in the paper also was the implications that effective girl-child education would have on nation building such as poverty-reducing effects, improves health and nutrition, reduces inequality, reduces women’s fertility rates, lowers infant and mortality rates and increases women’s labour force participation rates and earnings. The paper finally recommended among others that government at all levels should give more attention to girl-child education, well to do individuals can contribute to girl-child education by giving them scholarship to study in higher institution, provision of school facilities and equipment that can ease their learning effectively as it contribute to nation building and the need to create more awareness for parents on sexual violence and abuse and this can be through radio and newspaper jingles and advertisement as well as periodical seminars and conferences.
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Ages and ages: the multiplication of children’s ‘ages’ in early twentieth-century child psychology

Ages and ages: the multiplication of children’s ‘ages’ in early twentieth-century child psychology

This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of ‘discovering’, labelling and calculating different ‘ages’ in children. Those new ‘ages’ – from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more – were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to, chronological age. The most famous, mental age, ‘invented’ by Alfred Binet in the first decade of the century, was instrumental in early intelligence testing. Anatomical age triggered great interest until the 1930s, with many psychologists suggesting that physical development provided a more reliable inkling of which grade children should be in than chronological age. Those ages were calculated with great precision, and educational recommendations began to be made on their basis. This article maps this psychological and educational trend, and suggests that it cultivated a vision of children as developmentally erratic, worthy of intense scientific attention, and enticingly puzzling for researchers.
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The Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Twentieth Century Solution to a Twentieth Century Problem

The Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Twentieth Century Solution to a Twentieth Century Problem

The Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony in Child Sexual The Use of Closed-Circuit Television Testimony in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Twentieth Century Solution to a Twentieth Abuse Cases: A Twentieth Century Solution to a Twentieth Century Problem

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Works of taste and fancy : the woman and the child reader in nineteenth century literature

Works of taste and fancy : the woman and the child reader in nineteenth century literature

This complicated relationship between reading and domesticity is further problematized for the 21st century critic as the language that surrounds the domestic scene is fraught with shortcomings and problems of expression. Karen Chase and Michael Levenson write that domesticity is no single entity, but that the Victorians “often talked as if it were, and contemporary historians are necessarily bound by a limited vocabulary that can imply a unitary referent: home, family, hearth. And yet […] the house was no consistent zone of privacy, but a miscellany” (66). This ‘miscellany’ creates a gulf between the nineteenth century literature of domesticity and the realities of its audience. The shifting language of domesticity, separate spheres, and definitions of the home make it difficult for us to establish a clear understanding of this space, or to distinguish between rhetoric and reality. I would argue that the figure of the reader helps us to better understand these distinctions, but I am equally aware that these complexities of language extend to include the reader,
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Child Health 2000: New Pediatrics in the Changing Environment of Children's Needs in the 21st Century

Child Health 2000: New Pediatrics in the Changing Environment of Children's Needs in the 21st Century

Although the current antagonism toward immi- grants may lead to a decrease in this particular source of diversity, changes in family structure-such as divorce, gay and lesbian couples as[r]

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The nervous and allergic child : food allergy and behavioural problems in mid-twentieth-century USA

The nervous and allergic child : food allergy and behavioural problems in mid-twentieth-century USA

Although fatal peanut allergy reactions were not completely unknown prior to the late 1980s, they were extremely rare, with one allergist noting in 1982 that he knew of not a single case on record (Fries). But during the late 1980s – and for reasons that remain a mystery – the rates of such fatal reactions began to increase rapidly (Evans et al, 1988). The emergence of peanut allergy not only meant that food allergy had to be treated more seriously by orthodox allergists, but it also put the relationship between the mind and allergy back into the spotlight. It did so in two ways. First, many patients with serious peanut allergies reported how even the mere odour of peanuts can elicit an anaphylactic reaction, a phenomenon that has long been recognised (Feinberg, 1953, 5). Others remarked how physical or emotional stress could make reactions worse. Such instances highlighted once again how the mind could play a role in either triggering or exacerbating allergic reactions. Second, researchers became interested in the mental health repercussions for both child patients and their parents of dealing with potentially fatal allergies over time (Lebovidge, et al, 2009; Roy and Roberts, 2011).
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The Dying Child in Seventeenth-Century England

The Dying Child in Seventeenth-Century England

bequeathed “ all his toyes ” to his little sisters Nancy and Betty. When he overheard Nancy asking, “Who shall have Caleb’s [pet] Bird when he is dead?” he told his father: “Father, I shall not think of dying yet, but if I do, I will give it to my Sister Betty, who hath none, for Nancy hath one already. ” 13 This example suggests that siblings as well as the dying child were encouraged to talk openly about death. Children’s greatest fear was separation from their parents. In the 1670s, 6-year-old Jason Whitrow took his mother “by the hand, and said, ‘Mother, I shall dye, oh that you might dye with me, that we might both go to the Lord together. ’” 14 Parents sought to allay these anxieties by reassuring dying children that life after death would not be devoid of parental love: Jesus would take on the role of both mother and father. In 1661, when Mary Warren, aged 10 years, clasped her arms around her mother’s neck, her mother said, “Thou embracest me, but I trust thou art going to the embracings of the Lord Jesus. ” 15 Parents also reminded their children that they would eventually enjoy a blissful reunion in heaven (Fig 1). Through these conversations, children often came to feel resigned to death, and sometimes even expressed joy. In 1652, eleven- year-old Martha Hat fi eld from
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The Expanding Role of the Pediatrician in Improving Child Health in the 21st Century

The Expanding Role of the Pediatrician in Improving Child Health in the 21st Century

Children deserve a chance for a healthy start in life; however, researchers across the country have described many examples of the negative effect that social and economic disparities and hardship exert on child health. Patients who are poor and medically underserved and minorities experience significantly worse health outcomes than those with higher socio- economic status, with health insurance, or who are white. In 2002, close to 900 000 children were deter- mined to be neglected or abused, resulting in nearly 4 deaths per day nationwide. 4 This is not surprising,

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The forgotten children

The forgotten children

controversy over whether children should be severely disciplined or not: some advice literature insisted on harsh whippings, other types that a child’s will was to be curbed not broken, and yet others urged English mothers to make a child feel that home is the happiest place in the world. Robertson believes that, at least for England, the last was only ideal and the first two were more likely to be observed in practice. Stone (1977) also found that at the end of the 18th century and during the 19th, due to the rise of the Evangelical movement, there was a renewed formality in parent - child relationships and again intense supervision of children with severe punishment. Stone finds that this time beatings were less common; food deprivation and locking in cupboards being the
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Family and familiarity : the domestic sphere in eighteenth century English visual culture

Family and familiarity : the domestic sphere in eighteenth century English visual culture

Jordanova, 'Conceptualising Childhood in the Eighteenth Century: The Problem of Child Labour', British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 10 1987, pp.189-99.. Jordanova, 'The History[r]

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Of marriageable age : rethinking approaches to father daughter incest narratives in the long eighteenth century

Of marriageable age : rethinking approaches to father daughter incest narratives in the long eighteenth century

FRAMING INCEST AS THE MARRIAGE EXCHANGE GONE WRONG In the long eighteenth century, definitions of incest are about marriage rather than child sexual abuse.. 2 The definitions are drawn f[r]

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Women Novelists and their Novels in the First Half of Twentieth Century

Women Novelists and their Novels in the First Half of Twentieth Century

May Sinclair, a restless genius, did not settle to any one type or style. Her book ‘The Devine Fire’ (1904) is a long and detailed study of a poetic genius, in which character and discussion are of equal interest. The difficulty of creating a literary genius in a functional work is evident, and perhaps May Sinclair never succeeds in making Savage KeithRickman the Keats -like person he seems intended to be. Though he talks perfect Greek, he is tortured by an imperfect control of English; he has the soul of a young Sophocles battling with that of a junior journalist in the body of a dissipated young Cockney…the child of’ Ellas and of’Olywell Street. But even if the whole extensive plan is not realized with uniform success, ‘The Devine Fire’ is nevertheless a book of uncommon merit.
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Problematising parent–professional partnerships in education

Problematising parent–professional partnerships in education

has been done through enactment of new legislation such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; 2005, the Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000 and the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 and a set of programmes for change including Valuing People (DH, 2001), Together From the Start (DfES and DH, 2003), Every Child Matters (DfES, 2003) and the National Service Framework for Children (DfES & DH, 2004). Generally, the government’s programme of change is claimed to be a shift in policy from the individual model towards the social model of disability (Russell, 2003) with a focus on removing social barriers to inclusion. The three key initiatives; Valuing People: a new strategy for learning disability for the 21 st Century: Towards Person-Centred Approaches (DH, 2001); Every Child Matters (DfES, 2003) and The National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services (DfES & DH, 2004) are setting out for professionals new standards for identifying and meeting the needs of disabled people and their families. The emphasis within these is on listening to disabled children and parents, flexible delivery of services to meet individualised need, enabling equality of access to community facilities, including after school clubs, and providing parents with information and advice and early assessment to identify need. However, in spite of these positive developments there remains a:
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Exploiting the Future: The Evolution of Child Labour Laws in Ontario from the Pre-Industrial Period to the 1930s

Exploiting the Future: The Evolution of Child Labour Laws in Ontario from the Pre-Industrial Period to the 1930s

By the 20 th century, the values around childhood had changed significantly. Children were painted as weak and incapable of taking care of themselves, thus needing the support of adults. 48 This attitude is exemplified in the October 30 th , 1906 letter by M. Doersster of South Dakota to the Canadian Prime Minister's Office. She wrote to warn the government of the plans of a Westhouse mica mill due to open in Custer, South Dakota to solicit child labour from the Canadian prairie provinces. She vehemently affirmed that “Canada has a grander work for her children than to have them murdered in a Mica plant” and likens the Westhouse business to Satan's church attempting to enslave and slowly kill the offspring of the nation. 49
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The rescue, reform and restoration of childhood : a hundred years of child labour in Britain (1780 1880) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Palmersto

The rescue, reform and restoration of childhood : a hundred years of child labour in Britain (1780 1880) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Today's international debate about child labour, therefore, is in many ways a revival of the late nineteenth century anti-child labour movements when attitudes were fuelled in part by im[r]

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From Irish sheep boy to toddler Keesje. Dutch child language study and its international context

From Irish sheep boy to toddler Keesje. Dutch child language study and its international context

In the international field of child language study two influential publi- cations dating from the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century require mention. First of all, Die Seele des Kindes (1881), pub- lished by the physician Wilhelm Preyer (1841-1897), who observed his own son closely at least three times a day during the first 1000 days of his life. Relying on these observations, he described successively the child’s development of sense-organs and sensations, that of volition, and that of reason and language. Preyer’s book, which saw many re- prints and was translated into a number of languages, is a fine example of early child language research which was a part of overall medical- biological research into the development of the child. The second influ- ential publication to be mentioned is the detailed monograph Die Kinder- sprache, written by the psychologists Clara (1878-1945) and William (1871-1938) Stern, who in this book wholly focussed on language acqui- sition. Their book comprises three parts: it offers the ‘Sprachgeschichte’ of their daughter Hilde and their son Günther from their first till their fifth (Günther) or sixth (Hilde) years (first part), followed by the psy- chology of child language (second part) and the linguistics of child lan- guage (third part). 16 This ‘wonderful book’ (mooie boek) was praised by
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The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

We can observe the in ß uence of D. Hymes’s theory of communicative competence and M. Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. Evidence of this is the knowledge and skills children are intended to learn. Children acquire language in the context, expressing a variety of communicative functions of language. Phrases, short sen- tences are acquired as pragmatic units to name something, describe it (representa- tive function): goods bought at shop; toys in the room; live body and object prop- erties. Children learn to compose simple descriptive riddles; to greet others, say farewell, introduce oneself, ask and answer; express gratitude and request, give commands and instructions (regulating function); learn to say their name and ask other people’s names; ask others questions: Cik maksœ?, Kur brauksi? [How much is it? Where are you going?], and answer them. Children respond to questions about a picture; use politeness phrases in communication: Lƈdzu!, Paldies! [Please! Thank you!]; Lƈdzu, vienu biŶeti! – Paldies! [A ticket, please! - Thank you!]. Playing games and movement games children learn to give commands: Klausies!, Atver!, Parœdi! [Listen! Open! Show!], as well as they learn to show their attitude, express emo- tions: satisfaction / dissatisfaction, pleasure / displeasure (personal function): for example, express liking or disliking of some food, make a choice (want / don’t want) regarding toys; engage in imaginary situation (imaginative function): for example, listen to a short fairy tale about seasons and make short sentences about it, go into characters, express appropriate emotions (Eglūte, 2012a). Also six dif- ferent places in which the child acts, represented in didactic handouts „Kabata” (Pocket) - kindergarten, street, room, shop, Þ eld, wood – give opportunities to communicate in various communicative situations. It is important that the child has a possibility to imagine himself/herself in de Þ nite surroundings and improve speaking skills, being a participant of the situation.
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Children in Hospitals Before There Were Children’s Hospitals

Children in Hospitals Before There Were Children’s Hospitals

In this 18th-century data set, 67 cases of pediatric neurodisability made up 4.5% of the total number of admissions. Of these, 25 had a diagnosis consistent with epi- lepsy, and the other 42 had a diagnosis consistent with a neuromuscular dis- ability. There is a wide range of de- scriptive terms in the data set. Epilepsy is described under the terms Spasmus clonica, Fits/Fitts, Epilepsy/Epileptic, and Convulsions (Most extraordinary). Neu- romuscular disability is described under the terms Palsy, Sciatica, Lameness, Weakness, Distorted spine, Chorea, and Hemiplaegia (Table 1).

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Strategy for Construction of the Deaf Child in Development of Social Interaction

Strategy for Construction of the Deaf Child in Development of Social Interaction

Deaf child is a child who experienced the lack or loss of hearing ability is caused not functioning of some or all of the sense of hearing. Children who experience auditory abnormalities will bear the consequences of that are extremely complex, particularly with regard to the issue of his soul. On sufferers are often plagued by their taste of the riot as a result of not being able to control his environment. The condition is increasingly unfavorable for sufferers of the deaf who have struggled in its development mainly on aspects of the language, intelligence, and social adjustment. Therefore, to develop the potential of deaf children optimally requires service or assistance in particular. The role of language, speech and auditory senses in the context of the communication are inter-related. Disruption of the sense of hearing is very influential towards the acceptance of language in the form of sound. Then in the process of acceptance of deaf children language more emphasis on visual sensory functions.
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