Frogs (Rana ridibunda) of either sex and of the same age (ranging from 12 to 15 months), weighing 40–60 g, were used. The frogs were euthanatized (decapitated and pithed), and the sciatic nerves were dissected from the spinal cord to the knee, immersed in standard physiological saline solution, and cleaned under a dissection microscope. All experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the protocols outlined by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, regarding the recommended standard practices for Biological Investigations. When required, the epineural sheath was removed. The composition of the saline was (in mmol/L): NaCl 135, KCl 4.7, CaCl 2 2.4, MgCl 2 1.1, NaHCO 3 1.0, HEPES 10, glucose 11 (pH 7.4). The nerve was mounted across a three-chambered record- ing bath, made of Plexiglas, a diagram of which is shown in Figure 1A. The recording bath has been used in a variety of ex vivo neurotoxicological studies and it is fully described elsewhere, 34–36 but a short description will be given below in
Psoriasis is a chronic in ﬂ ammatory skin disease clinically featured by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales. 1,2 Psoriasis would cause high morbidity duo pain, itching, functional and cosmetic impairments, and even high mortality due to depression and suicidal contemplations. The prevalence of psoriasis is currently estimated to be as high as 2 – 3% worldwide, becoming a serious global problem. 3–5 Moreover, it is also associated with many comorbidities such as psoriasis arthritis, 6 metabolic syndrome 7 and cardiovascular disease, 8 which brings huge health and economic burden to patients. Although various immune abnormalities have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 9 oxidative stress is also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanism. Increased production of ROS would induce a vast number of biological responses to the initiation of psoriasis pathogenesis. 10–12 ROS including super- oxide anion (O 2 • − ), • OH free radicals and nonradical mole-
murex L. was added to the aqueous solution of salt at room temperature having high antibacterial activity. 32 China rose petal was used as a robust bio template for the facile fabrication of novel ceria Nano sheet with a size of about 7 nm. 39 The deviation in size and morphology noticed among the reported studies might be due to the different influence of reaction temperature, pH, time, concentration of salt precursor or plants extracts, and part of the plant being used. 13,27,28,40 Moreover, plants based CeO2 NP’s
constant taken as 0.89, β is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and θ is the diffraction angle at the maximum intensities. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Adtosorb 1 MP, Quantachrome) surface areas of the materials were analyzed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. The morphologies, microstructures, and elemental composition of the as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, JEOL JSM-5910LV and JEM-6335F) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The morphologies and actual size of all samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL JEM-2010). Isoelectric points (IEP) of BiVO 4 and CeO2 nanoparticles were also
This study shows that CeO2 NPs exhibit mild to moderate antibacterial activity against both G + ve and G − ve strains, especially high susceptibility was shown by E. coli. CeO2 NPs exhibited promising inhibitory effect against Mucor species, ensuring their antifungal properties. It can be deduced from this study that CeO2 NPs synthesized through green chemistry have great potential for future antimicrobial therapies. The follow-up study will focus on differential cytotoxic behavior of photosynthesized CeO2 NPs to healthy and cancer cells; more specifically, the size-dependent anticancer and antimi- crobial properties will be examined.
Next, a study of drug loading and releasing profiles of CeONRs was conducted by using DOX as a model drug. First, the drug-loading capacity of CeONRs was investigated by mixing CeONRs with different concentrations of DOX. As illustrate in Figure S10, the amount of DOX loaded in CeONRs increased with the increasing of initial DOX con- centration, and the drug-loading capacity achieved a highest level of 11.4%, which confirmed that the CeONRs can be used as the platform for drug delivery. The porosity and sur- face area of CeONRs were tested by nitrogen physisorption based on the BET method, where the pore size distribution and the N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (Figure S11 and Table S2, and the average pore size and pore volume is 11.98 nm and 0.36 cm 3 /g, respectively) further confirmed the
The extant empirical evidence on compensation within organisations is broadly support- ive of tournament theory (Main et al. (1993); Eriksson (1999) and Bognanno (2001)) in that eﬀort is seen to increase with the value of the prize, particularly when the field of players is of a similar calibre. 1 However, a number of caveats apply to these findings: Firstly, as noted by Prendergast (1999), a prize-eﬀort correlation is evidence that incen- tives matter but not necessarily that the reward structures have been designed to elicit the responses predicted by tournament theory. For instance, Rosen (1981) advances a marginal productivity justification for the convexity of remuneration through job grades, on the reasonable assumption of imperfect substitutability of talent; Secondly, a number of problems exist in attempting a structural test of the theory. Theoreti- cal settings of tournament theory typically model a closed competition in which the players in the tournament are clearly defined. In reality, employees in corporations are free to move between companies and as such the prize of being CEO can be won by an individual who was not internal to the firm. 2 This should properly be considered when considering the reward for winning an executive tournament, yet neither Eriksson (1999) nor Main et al. (1993) consider the impact of external hires on the outcome of internal tournaments. Bognanno (2001) identifies the external hires in his dataset but only briefly considers how the presence of external hires might reduce the probability of winning for the tournament player.
and Shen (2001) but adds an East Asian cultural perspective to the matter of CEO entrenchment. Huang’s research, set in Taiwan, explains how CEO exit-reluctance impeded heir-apparent accession even though some of the Asian CEOs involved in the study had succession planning in place. Huang found that these CEOs understood that effective succession planning was, in theory, about minimising disruptions and dislocations arising from high-level personnel change but nonetheless remain intransigent where their own succession was concerned. From a cultural perspective, discussion of succession in Asian leadership is often viewed as suggestions of the imminent demise of the incumbent and such talk is deemed to be deeply disrespectful to him or her. It is discomfiting for anyone to talk about his or her own demise or relegation from high office and typical in the Asian traditions, and especially so of the Chinese, the spirit of loyalty has a constraining effect on such talk. Furthermore, the pre-eminence of respect for authority means that there it is even distasteful to discuss the boss’s departure. Succession discussions would typically be responded to with silence or a remark if there was some effort being undertaken to ‘hasten that eventuality’.
Dyes contribute to a substantial proportion of the effluents of textile, paper, leather, cosmetics industries. When such effluents mix with water bodies during disposal, presence of dyes may lead to health hazards . Dyes can be potentially carcinogenic and toxic in nature and hence, much attention has been given by researches to develop photocatalytic materials that degrade these dye contents .
coatings, but the thickness dependent composite thin film coating exhibits low spectral reflectance compared with the surface of the uncoated substrate with stability and durability . Oliviera et al and Belleville et al reported the anti-reflective effect using a sol–gel derived coating with tunable refractive indices and improved mechanical performance and also in high damage applications where anti-reflective coatings are necessary to maximize light intensity [2-4]. In these types of AR coatings require thermal curing step or a chemical cure in the presence of NH 3 to carry out the necessary condensation reaction.
Results: The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible measurements. The X-ray diffrac- tion study confirmed the formation of cubic fluorite-structured CeO2 nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm. All synthesized nanoparticles were nontoxic towards RAW 264.7 cells at doses of 0–1,000 µM except for Au at 100 µM. For A549 cancer cells, Au/CeO2 had the highest inhibi- tory effect, followed by both Au and CeO2 which showed a similar effect at 500 and 1,000 µM. Initial binding of nanoparticles occurred through localized positively charged sites in A549 cells as shown by a shift in zeta potential from positive to negative after 24 hours of incubation. A dose-dependent elevation in reactive oxygen species indicated that the pro-oxidant activity of the nanoparticles was responsible for their cytotoxicity towards A549 cells. In addition, cellular uptake seen on transmission electron microscopic images indicated predominant localization of nanoparticles in the cytoplasmic matrix and mitochondrial damage due to oxidative stress. With regard to antibacterial activity, both types of nanoparticles had the strongest inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis in monoculture systems, followed by Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, while, in coculture tests with Lactobacillus plantarum, S. aureus was inhibited to a greater extent than the other bacteria.
There is a relationship between CEO and executive based on tenure, because CEO may affect the appointment of executives who subsequently take up since then (Morse et al. , 2011) . Coles et al. (2007) , based on tenure, point out the index of association between CEO and board members for the first time: board co-option—whether the board member is appointed after the appoint- ment of the CEO. This indicator can indeed be used as an alternative variable of correlation between CEO and board members, and affect the corporate perfor- mance significantly (Chidambaran, 2010) . Shane et al. (2016) apply this in- dicator to the correlation between CEO and CFO . At the same time, they point out this kind of association between the CEO and the CFO significantly affects the CEO’s salary. China is a country that pays more attention to inter- personal relationship. Thus, in China, more attention should be paid to the im- pact of the correlation between executives on corporate governance. Among the executives, CEO and CFO are two important positions, which we should explore whether the two are cooperating or supervising each other. For now, existing li- teratures little focus on the impact of the association between CEO and CFO on corporate earnings in China.
Though the literature seems to consistently argue that separate individuals for the post of CEO and chairman leads to better corporate governance systems, the real issue is whether this leads the board to be a better monitor, and thus, is capable of increasing the value of the firm. Proponents of CEO duality structure argue that combining these two roles provides a clear focus for objectives and operations (Stoeberl and Sherony, 1985). Separation of CEO and chairman posts has costs and benefits and it was shown that for larger firms, the costs are greater than the benefits (Brickley et al., 1997). Evidence from Abdullah (2002) in the Malaysian setting confirmed the costs and benefits contention. In their study, Berg and Smith (1978) found that there was no significant difference in various financial indicators between firms which experienced CEO duality and firms which did not. The substantial cost of separation could come from the incomplete transfer of company information and the confusion over who is in charge of running the company (Goodwin and Seow, 2000). It could be argued that when one person is in charge of both tasks, decisions are reached faster; also when the board chairman and the CEO are the same persons, he or she is well aware of the decisions needed to improve the performance of the firm (Abdullah, 2004). In another study, Chaganti, Mahajan, and Sharma, (1985) also documented evidence similar to that found by Berg and Smith (1978) involving firms that experienced bankruptcy and survival. Rechner and Dalton (1991) also showed that firms with CEO duality consistently outperformed firms with a CEO non-duality structure.
Noble metals supported on oxides are used in many applications in the paintings, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, electronics, photocatalysts, and sensors. Flame spray synthesis is investigated as a method for one-step synthesis and deposition of porous catalysts onto surfaces and into microreactors . FSP is described in more detail by Mäedler et al. (2002) . FSP was successfully used for the preparation of pure TiO 2 , Zn/TiO 2 , Fe/TiO 2 , Au/TiO 2 [5–6], Nb and Cu/TiO 2 , Pt/TiO 2 , WO 3 /TiO 2 .
is interesting to compare this result with the single missing dimer in Si(001), which has an identical structure, apart from the Ge in the top layer. There, the bonds across the trench have a length of 2.56 ˚ A [29,30]; the similarity suggests that the limiting factor on the relaxation in both cases is the Si-Si distance. The Ge dimers neighbouring the trench show an inward relaxation of 0.65 ˚ A from their positions in the perfect monolayer. The up and down Si–Ge bond lengths neighbouring the trench are 2.58 and 2.45 ˚ A, so that there is a significant lengthening compared with the perfect Ge monolayer. As expected, for smaller values of n, the relaxation around the trench is less pronounced. For example, in the n = 4 case, the Si–Si separation across the trench is 2.63 ˚ A, and the inward relaxation of the Ge dimers neighbouring the trench is 0.48 ˚ A. The suppression of relaxation for small spacings is clearly responsible for the strong n-dependence of E f (n), corresponding to the effective repulsion
In total, Matten (2016) used 4 levels of analysis: (1) content-related, (2) relation- related, (3) process-related and (4) form-related. The content-related level emphasized asking questions, reinforcing desired behaviour and reacting in a shallow way. The relation-related level includes behaviour that strengthens the relationship between personal counselor and participant. The process-related level focuses for example on behaviour that keeps the participant on track with the whole process, such as sending reminders. The behaviour of the form-related level consists of the number of words per mail. Matten (2016) aimed to find out about the effects of the therapist behaviours on the intervention’s effectiveness. The results indicated that they did not seem to have had any effect on well-being, but did have one on the participant’s satisfaction with the email support of the counselor. As Matten (2016) concentrated in her study on the therapist behaviours’ effects on well-being and the participant’s satisfaction using a small sample only, there is still room left for (1) the analysis of a bigger sample indicating a greater representativeness and (2) further analyses of other constructs measured within the intervention, such as self-compassion.
There were 3 control experiments – HODark, HOUVC, and TiHOUVC in Fig. 7. As the time increased, the value of Ct/Co decreased monotonically. Using Eq. (1) to derive photodegradation, it was plotted in Fig. 8. They showed that the photodegradation became 15.63%, 25.0% and 26.5%, respectively. Comparison between HODark and HOUVC , the UVC irradiation increased about 10% photodegradation described by Eq. (7). The photolysis in Eq. (7), it gave more OH free radicals than HODark system did. But TiHOUVC and HOUVC had the slightly different of % photodegradation due to the same amount of OH formed, even the TiO 2 photocatalyst existed. Prior to the previous reports, the
Unmodified si-2 and corresponding 2 0 -modified si-2OMe and si-2 F were used to examine the ability of ribose chemical modifications to improve the serum stability of siRNAs. Various siRNAs were dissolved in RNase-free water containing 10% FBS, 100% mouse serum (Invitro- gen, Camarillo, CA, USA), or 100% human serum (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) at a final concentration of 10 μM and incubated at 37°C. Aliquots of 5 μl were with- drawn at different time points (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h) and immediately frozen in 15 μl TBE-loading buffer [TBE (0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.4, 2 mM EDTA, 0.09 M boric acid), 7 M urea, 0.01% xylene cyanol, 0.1% brom- phenol blue]. RNAs were separated using 15% polyacrylamide-TBE under non-denaturing conditions and visualized by staining with GelRed TM Nucleic Acid Gel Stain (Biotium, Hayward, CA, USA). Gels were imaged using a 300 nm transilluminator and photo- graphed with an ethidium bromide filter and Polaroid 667 black-and-white print film (Alpha Innotech, Santa Clara, CA, USA).
vibrations at 2453.3 and 2939.3cm −1 indicates that the surfactant is not present in the as-synthesized sample. The bands at 3382.9 and 1647.1 cm −1 can be attributed to the O–H vibration in absorbed water on the sample surface. In addition to the bands in the 850-1600 and 2800-3000 cm −1 , the band due to the stretching frequency of Ce-O can be seen below 700 cm −1 . The FT-IR peaks at about 1515, 1265, 1130, 1064, 952 and 862 cm −1 are similar to those of commercial CeO2 powders and CeO2 nanoparticles. The band at 862 cm
and response/recovery time of sensing films can considerably be affected by the particle morphology, size and distribution as well as operating temperature. The main advantage of FSP includes ability to produce well-controlled nanosized particles with high crystallinity structure suitable for gas sensing. However, the differences between our result and those of other flame-spray-made SnO 2 films suggest that the method for