Abstract: This paper describes briefly the programs of the following International Organizations : UNESCO, UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM, WORLD BANK, UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND, and UNICEF, concerning early childhood care and education, especially for children whose development is at risk due to poverty, poor health, disabilities or emergency situations. In 1990, the above multilateral Institutions organized the world Conference on “Education for All” and remain the key international stakeholders in this campaign, which involves child’s protection as a significant concern in early childhood and beyond. There is also a concise report in the INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) programs in children’s education from Early Childhood to primary school which is considered a big step for all children. These International Organizations were selected among the others, due to their unique mission to provide a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and coordinate domestic and international policies in this domain. This note is an effort to examine trends in equity access to good quality programs according to social needs of young children and their families, outlines goals, effectiveness, challenges and achievements of these policies and attempts to throw a glance to a review of early childhood across different countries, with a focus on children’s development. Moreover, the work includes a brief analysis on children’s education and care of marginalized groups in order to achieve equal opportunities in social inclusion and attempts to contribute to the reduction of the rates of children which stay out of school. The “child” is being socially developed through appropriate schematic perceptions and values linked to social environments. In this respect, this study affirms that expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education from international perspective, wider social problems could be deflected.
The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This paper focuses on achievements and challenges of Eritrean insurance industry after independence. The paper attempts to synthesise diverse viewpoints, protect confidentiality and offer insights into the ever-changing insurance environment in Eritrea.
The past two centuries have seen enormous achievements in control of infectious diseases, previously the leading cause of death, in large measure due to sanitation and food safety, vaccines, antibiotics and improved nutrition. This has led people to put their faith in the notion that medical science would succeed in overcoming the remaining obstacles. Vaccination has eradicated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliomyelitis and greatly reduced many other highly dangerous infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and measles. New diseases such as HIV and new forms of infl uenza have taken both professional and popular opinion by surprise and have renewed the challenges before the world public health community. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of common organisms due to overuse of antibiotics and lack of vaccines for many dangerous microorganisms poses problems to humanity. This stresses the need for new vaccines, effective antibiotics and strengthened environmental control measures. New knowledge of the microbiological origins of cancers such as that of the cervix, stomach and liver have strengthened primary prevention and brought hope that new cures will be found for other chronic diseases of infectious origin. Tragically long delays in adopting “new” and cost effective vaccines cause hundreds of thousands of preventable deaths each year in developing and mid-level developed countries. Gains are being made in control of many tropical diseases, but malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases remain enormous global problems. Research and acquisition of new knowledge, risk communication, application of currently available means and fair distribution will be great challenges to public health in the coming decades.
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protection issues have been adopted and frequently amended to meet the requirements of the country’s devel- opment, and its international integration in different as- pects. However, due to the pressures of industrialization and modernization, water resources have not been devel- oped in a sustainable and integrated manner; socio- economic development has not been aligned with the water sources capacity to meet the point of view of the “National strategy on water resources to 2020” approved by the Prime Minister’s Decision (No. 81/2006/QD-TTg). The escalating exploitation and use of water resources as well as the discharging of untreated wastewater into water sources have caused serious levels of water pollution, degradation and exhaustion; the use of water sources is no longer harmonized with the interests of local communi- ties. Although the legislation has greatly improved during the last decade, it has obviously not yet had the desired effect. The current legal system for the protection of water resources in Vietnam therefore seems to be insufficient. The main aim of the paper is thus to clarify and determine the need for a new comprehensive Law on Water Re- sources. In detail, this paper consists of the following chapters: The first chapter provides a brief overview on the position and role of the legislation on the water sector in Vietnam. Chapter two consists of a comprehensive overview of the key regulations for water resources man- agement in Vietnam, while the third chapter is dedicated to the state management system of Vietnam’s water sec- tor. Finally, the achievements and main challenges of the current legislation on water sector are identified in the final chapter.
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Youth contribute in nation building through community development and participation in democratic processes of the country. In the process they face various challenges like monopoly of elder leaders, lack of familial and community support, lack of employment etc. Youth club provides youths a trust, respect, and responsibility to work for the development and social justice. The study attempts to understand the participation, challenges and achievements of youth clubs in the process of community development. Objective of the study is to analyse the nature and process of youth clubs at village level. 100 youths from 10 youth clubs were participated in the study. The study has conducted in 10 villages of Udgir Tahsil in Latur district of Maharashtra. Mixed method approach was used for the study. Primarily Interview schedule and focus group discussion were used for data collection besides that researcher conducted few case studies demonstrating contribution and failure of the youth clubs.
As for challenges, one might argue when it comes to print and online media, a wide variety of resources is available from a broad spectrum of Catholic life. But when it comes to television and radio, what is available seems in my view to be highly idiosyncratic and could easily give the impression of a monolithic Catholicism little reflective of the complexities of the church today. Then there’s what Gerardo Marti is calling the “Wi-Fi Church of the Future.” To which I think I already belong. For instance, I regularly download the services of two Benedictine monasteries, one in Italy and the other in France as well as those placed daily on the Vatican’s website. This is how I typically pray the Divine Office using either my IPod or I Pad. The question arises, however, as to whether I am praying “with” these communities, even though their prayer has been “over” for several hours or longer by the time I make use of their apps or websites. Think about it.
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It has been argued that pride’s motivational role is to promote continued effort toward future achievement and status striving (Williams & DeSteno, 2008, 2009). Yet, at the same time, recent work on moral licensing suggests that reflecting on one’s moral achievements may not always foster renewed effort toward one’s moral goals, as performing a moral deed can sometimes serve to justify (or “license”) inaction or even misconduct. In this chapter, we offer a model for discriminating when feelings of pride are likely to promote persistent effort, rather than licensing effects. We build on the work of Effron and Conway (2015), Fishbach and Woolley (2015), and Mullen and Monin (2016), who argue that consistency effects (i.e., when reflecting on one’s past accomplishments motivates similar goals and behaviors) are more likely when the agent has a stake in the activity, such that an important aspect of a person’s identity would be compromised by disengaging from the activity.
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Another challenges of Buhari within his one year in office is the arresting and prosecuting of looters of the Nigeria treasury. The challenges include protection of these categories of people by the law, the judiciary, human rights and other organizations which made Buhari lamented while on his speech for his one year in office describing the entire processes as tedious and time consuming. Indeed, the Government of Buhari who vowed on the inauguration day to recover all looted funds of Nigeria from past leaders and whosoever is connected to looting is being hampered and hitting a rock due to lack of fund. The Presidency lamented and said that lack of fund is stalling Nigeria‟s effort to trace and prosecute the former government officials who are responsible for the heist (Ibekwe, 2016). Also in a Letter to Simon Taylor, Director, Global Witness (United Kingdom based anti-corruption organization) dated February 15, 2016 signed by Bolaji Owasanoye, the Executive Secretary, Presidential Advisory Committee on Corruption soliciting for assistance in order to raise fund states that as a result of fall in the prices of crude oil and other facts like the economic downturn has rendered the government incapacitated to have funds that will be needed to pursue the funds looted.
Results: There were 1808 malaria cases recorded in Botswana during 26 months from October, 2012 to December, 2014. Males were more frequently infected (59 %) than females. Most cases (60 %) were reported from Okavango district which experienced an outbreak in 2013 and 2014. Among the factors creating challenges for malaria eradication, only 1148 cases (63.5 %) were captured by the required standardized notification forms. In total, 1080 notified cases were diagnosed by RDT. Of the positive malaria cases, only 227 (12.6 %) were monitored at the household level. One hundred (8.7 %) cases were associated with national or transnational movement of patients. Local movements of infected individuals within Botswana accounted for 31 cases while 69 (6.01 %) cases were imported from other countries. Screening individuals in and around index households identified 37 additional, asymptomatic infections. Oscillating, sporadic and new malaria hot-spots were detected in Botswana during the study period.
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Education International commissioned this study in order to have a better under- standing of the current and emerging ECE issues in Europe, models of good prac- tice, challenges and opportunities. The findings of this study reflect the diversity and complexity of early education across Europe. While there has been continuous increase in access and provision in many countries, more still remains to be done, both in terms of access and quality. The majority of the countries in Europe are likely to miss the Barcelona Targets on Child Care. These targets require European Union member states to provide childcare by 2010 to at least 90% of children between 3 years old and the mandatory school age and at least 33% of children under 3 years of age. Quality concerns still exist in many countries and this is sometimes linked to the uneven level of staff qualifications. This is also compounded by the existence of split systems between education and care in some countries. Private provision also remains pre-dominant in many countries, thereby making it difficult for some parents to meet the costs. The study, therefore, reinforces the need to ensure that ECE is publicly funded and an integral part of every country’s education system. There is also a clear need to provide pre- and in-service training to all ECE staff and to improve their working conditions.
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support the notion that, in Plasmodium falciparum asexual forms, dsRNA could trigger downregulation of gene expres- sion (38, 40, 41). Although these initial findings raised high expectations, they could not be reproduced by several labora- tories. Furthermore, the idea of the existence of a functional RNAi pathway in malaria parasites was challenged by investi- gation of the genome sequence and subsequent rigorous tests of the response to dsRNA: no RNAi genes were identified, and no response to dsRNA could be documented (11). Similarly, reports appeared in the literature documenting the use of dsRNA for gene expression downregulation in T. gondii (2–4, 7, 29, 74), but, once again, these results proved difficult to reproduce in other laboratories. Quite intriguingly, the ge- nome sequence of T. gondii revealed the existence of Dicer, AGO, and RdRp homologues (14) that appeared to have plant/fungal (Dicer/RdRp) and metazoan (AGO) signatures. The apparent discrepancy between the presence of RNAi genes and the inability to exploit RNAi as part of an experimental system has also been reported at meetings on G. intestinalis, although a recent publication challenges this view (51). The available reports on RNAi as a tool in studies of T. gondii and G. intestinalis are at present confusing. Perhaps a careful re- evaluation of the approaches, as was previously performed in a Saccharomyces pombe study (59), may help to overcome this hurdle.
ABSTRACT Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.
An analysis of the symposium, based on the comments presented above, revealed the following points; the lec- tures presented the current achievements of JEMS, as well as the challenges that remain to be addressed; the important contribution made by JEMS towards the es- tablishment of regulatory science was well recognized; on the other hand, basic framework regarding the as- sessment of genotoxicity has remained unchanged over the past decades. Regarding the final point, the Ames test, which was developed approximately 40 years ago, remains to be the golden standard in genotoxicity test- ing, despite the development and proposal of various new testing strategies for regulatory applications. Upon obtaining a positive result in the Ames test, the tested chemical would be treated as a mutagen. Alleged geno- toxicity and/or carcinogenicity concerns have led to the setting of a high standard for regulatory decision mak- ing, regarding the safety of chemicals. Nevertheless, TTC, a novel concept explained by Dr. Honma, and the genotoxicity threshold model proposed by Dr. Fukushima et al., might provide the vital clue towards establishing novel frameworks for regulatory science.
Research, development, and production of vaccines are still highly dependent on the use of animal models in the various evaluation steps. Despite this fact, there are strong interests and ongoing efforts to reduce the use of animals in vaccine development. Tuberculosis vaccine development is one important example of the complexities involved in the use of animal models for the production of new vaccines. This review summarises some of the general aspects related with the use of animals in vaccine research and production, as well as achievements and challenges towards the rational use of animals, particularly in the case of tuberculosis vaccine development.
The current achievements in treating glioblastoma (GBM) patients are not sufficient because many challenges exist, such as tumor heterogeneity, the blood brain barrier, glioma stem cells, drug efflux pumps and DNA damage repair mechanisms. Drug combination therapies have shown increasing benefits against those challenges. With the help of nanocarriers, enhancement of the efficacy and safety could be gained using synergistic combinations of different therapeutic agents. In this review, we will discuss the major issues for GBM treatment, the rationales of drug combinations with or without nanocarriers and the principle of enhanced permeability and retention effect involved in nanomedicine-based tumor targeting and promising nanodiagnostics or -therapeutics. We will also summarize the recent progress and discuss the clinical perspectives of nanocarrier-based combination therapies. The goal of this article was to provide better understanding and key considerations to develop new nanomedicine combinations and nanotheranostics options to fight against GBM.
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On the basis of summarizing the achievements of modern agriculture devel- opment in Dazhou city, this paper analyzes the challenges faced by the con- struction of modern agricultural management system in Dazhou city: poor modern agricultural management environment; shortage of modern agricul- tural technology talents; hindered rural land transfer and modern agricultural management service guarantee policy needed to be improved. It puts forward the strategy of constructing modern agricultural management system in Dazhou city: creating a sound environment for modern agricultural man- agement; building modern think-tanks for agricultural management by the joint efforts of both bringing and developing, standardizing land transfer procedures and improving rural market transfer mechanisms together with improving the guarantee system for modern agricultural management.