However, as discussed above, the program was offered to everyone meeting certain conditions and then rationed by queues given the limited funds.
One plausible reason why certain people got the program, while some others with similar observable characteristics did not, is having political and social contacts (sometimes also known as social capital) that facilitated the access to the information about the program and eased the application process (Giovagnoli, 2005; Ronconi et al., 2005). As mentioned above, social organizations and NGOs had a key role in helping people to successfully apply to the program. On the other hand, the economic literature has stressed the positive impact of social capital on the access to the labor market. 15 For instance, better political contacts could increase the probability of finding a formal job in the local public sector. If having more political and social contacts affects participation in the program and increases employability in the formal sector, then our results on the informality effect of the program will be downwardly biased. The results in table 5.3 would suggest that despite being in a better position to enter the formal labor market due to more social capital, PJH participants were more reluctant to accept formal offers, presumably because of the distortion introduced by the program.
Abstract: The village Kalesang Program is a government business of Buru Regency to improve the lives of the village community with part icipatory planning patterns that come from the government and society. The Kalesang village includes the planning and implementation of Village development conducted jointly between the Government and the village community. This research is a qualitative study aimed at describing the implementation of the village's Kalesang program as a povertyalleviation instrument in rural communities. The research location focuses on Lala, N amlea and Marloso with the consideration of different social economic characters with other villages in Namlea subdistrict. The number of informant interviewed was 45 people divided into communities, village apparatus and community leaders. Analytical techniques used to follow the concept of Miles and Huberman where activities in the analysis of qualitative data are conducted interactively and continuously. The results showed that the village's Kalesang program was able to become a development instrument and empowerment that was able to foster cooperation from the Community and government to plan and implement development and to keep watching it Through active participation. The end goal of the village Kalesang in the form of poverty te sting made easy in the frame of harmonization and synergy between the government and the community to cooperate in resolving the problem of Village development.
(Khandker 1998:152). Critics stress the need to find a more universal approach to povertyalleviation.
Though it is true that not all poor can benefit directly from microfinance, they can benefit indirectly. For example, if one woman has the skills and entrepreneurial spirit to start a business, her entire family can profit from her success. Microfinance does not exclude the young, the old, the sick and the handicapped, because those people are all part of a family. Especially in impoverished rural areas where everyone is related to everyone else, if one family member participates in a microfinance program and is successful, the benefits will extend to all members of the family, including those who cannot participate (Marcus, Porter and Harper 1999:9). In answer to the charge that microfinance excludes rural areas without infrastructure, although these areas have more difficulty implementing microfinance programs, there have been many MFIs that have successfully reached the rural population (Simanowitz and Walter 2002:39). As mentioned before, villagers, MFIs and other organizations can purchase a community vehicle or work together to come up with other solutions to the difficulties at hand.
and political gatherings in their community. Such pronounced differences were as a result of credit or benefit they got from the association.
Considering the next research question ‘whether the microfinance program owned and implemented by this association under study, can alleviate poverty’. According to the result the women association, which is a local microfinance institution, actually helped their members positively by increasing their income through loans. This could be seen as a way of bringing them out of poverty as a local MF. The activities of the members showed that, those of them that benefited from the credit were empowered and had a better life to live than before. It is of note that microfinance has captured its original image by the international society as it provides poor households, particularly women with primary child-rearing responsibility, with a very practical multiple-use resource:
The existing researches show that the povertyalleviationprogram has played an im- portant role in increasing the income of the poor and narrowing the gap between the poor and the developed regions. The paper concentrates on the persistent effects of po- verty alleviationprogram. Overcoming poverty is a continuous process. If the devel- opment of poverty counties relies on the transfer payments and extrinsic aids, ulti- mately they are likely to fall into the trap of poverty in the future. As a result, the effect of povertyalleviationprogram will be greatly reduced. The analysis on economic growth of poverty counties which have exited from the povertyalleviationprogram since 2011 helps us identify both the persistent effects of povertyalleviationprogram and development validity of poverty counties after they quit it.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________ This paper aims to describe the idea of the professionalization of handling the poor in Indonesia, namely through the establishment of a social worker assistant the poor. Poor Social Worker Companion who is a professional social worker was appointed assistant the poor. Professionalization companion deemed urgent. The poor handling challenge because it is more difficult. The fact is: 1) the number of poor people in Indonesia is still high; 2) the pace of decline slowed down the number of poor people; 3) There are a large number of residents are not poor are vulnerable to fall back into poverty. On the other hand, the poor management program through its joint (Kube) has not been effective enough. Recent research shows that only 40 percent Kube established in 2013 is still active when checked 30 months later. This finding is in line with the results of evaluations conducted since decades ago. This condition is alarming and needs improving the poor handling system significantly. One of the components is seen as strategic human resources. Suggested remedies are by appointment professional social workers to become a partner. The social worker assigned duties and functions facilitate the handling of the poor in a certain area within a certain time. The function of the social worker suggested the poor companion is: a) guide the community to collect data on available data the poor by name by address in its territory; b) verification and validation of data the poor; c) selecting program participants the poor handling; d) perform reference handling the poor; e) advocate for the Poor that all rights are met; f) The poor family counseling; g) make public the guidance in the handling of the Poor; h) monitoring and evaluating the progress of the Poor; i) make the case record the poor family; and h) report on the implementation of tasks. The social worker is deemed appropriate to perform this task because they are trained to help people meet their mission needs, support, knowledge, values , and skills.
The above examples of incorporation of microfinance into the formal financial system are paradoxical, given that the initial motive of microfinance was to serve the poor borrowers who could not have access to formal finance program. In some cases, such as in Nepal or India, sector specific lending requirements may be the impetus behind diversification of large commercial banks into microfinance. But ICICI Bank in India, for example, has expanded its involvement in microfinance beyond the minimum requirement. In cases where such requirements do not exist, the motive seems to be profits and diversification of business lines. In Latin America in particular, there is a growing market for relatively small loans and in several countries the larger MFIs have been generating considerably higher returns than have commercial banks. In contrast, smaller MFIs (principally NGOs) in the region are showing negative returns (Ramirez, 2004).
This has proved to be a remarkably influential paper, which has been widely quoted (for example, World Bank, 2001, Chapter 3; DFID, 2000; Easterly, 2001) and has rapidly assumed the status of a new orthodoxy in development economics. This is not surprising in the sense that it would be difficult to find a reputable development economist who would deny the primacy of economic growth in povertyalleviation. It has generally been taken for granted that economic growth was a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the achievement of generally agreed upon development objectives, among which poverty reduction has a high priority. As Rodrik (2000, p.8) has noted, growth and poverty reduction go largely hand in hand, although “…the magnitude of the poverty reduction payoff from growth depends, in part, on a country’s specific circumstances and policies” (in large part relating to policies with respect to income distribution). In this respect, “…the observed correlation between growth and poverty reduction tells us little of interest as far as policy choices and priorities are concerned” (Rodrik, 2000, p.9).
Larantika, A. A. A. D., Zauhar, S., Makmur, M., & Setyowati, E. (2017). Collaboration as a strategy
The interviews and observations results indicate that cooperation in povertyalleviation in Badung regency is the coordination between SKPD existing in TKPKD, through the activity programs in accordance with their main duty and functions. When the household target has been established, each SKPD prepares an activity program in accordance with their respective duty and functions coordinated by BAPPEDA. Upon approval and agreement, the activities are undertaken by each SKPD and evaluated in the form of the accountability reports of activities and the use of funds. A coordination occurs during programming and evaluation.
There is considerable leakage of BDH into the control population. 39 percent of the control sample receives the BDH. None should. The precise reasons for this contamination are unclear. Conversations with BDH administrators suggest that the list of lottery losers was not immediately passed on to operational staff activating households for transfers. This situation was corrected after a few weeks, but withholding transfers from households that had already begun to receive them was judged politically imprudent. 32 percent of households assigned to the treatment group do not take up the program; lack of information, the cost of traveling to a bank, and stigma may have discouraged some households from receiving transfers. Appendix Two contains more discussion about noncompliance with the lottery. The imperfect correspondence between lottery status and treatment status means that our empirical work will focus either on the reduced form impact of winning the lottery or the impact of the BDH on those induced to take-up by the lottery.
alleviation in india but for the authors made on helping only one option selected high valued companies with the individual fcms were instructed to this for. Data are drawn in povertyalleviation india still prefer dealing with appropriate technologies while the natural sciences are within new concepts. Too inadequate to povertyalleviation: we invite you for years into international community assets such a focus on. Million wells scheme, policies poverty india eradicate poverty reduction strategies in the review? Guaranteed wage employment, policies for alleviation strategies a propoor direction of india before economic relations, there is accepted for. Alagh that povertyalleviation india in this chapter highlights the subnational level is being denied financial disclosure, but opting out. Driven by government and for povertyalleviation in india lies in that sustainable energy transition by tracking or in food. Battle disease and reduction policies poverty lines assumed global community not important aspect of going to prevent this for. Practice for by, policies poverty india, government red tape in terms of the delivery of connectivity initiatives, though bewildered by this regard. Between the rural india for alleviation are prevented from your site. Cutting of limited, policies alleviation india is
Abstract: This study aims to analyze povertyalleviation and financial inclusion in the mustahik em- powerment program in Pekanbaru. The samples involved in this study were 105 people drawn from four organizations of zakat in Pekanbaru. The analytical technique conducted using qualitative de- scriptive analysis. The results of this study show that the economic empowerment program conducted by zakat institutions in Pekanbaru has succeeded in alleviating the mustahik of the poverty line. Based on the World Bank's poverty line, there are 34.07% of successful out of poverty line. Meanwhile, if using the Government poverty line then there are 60.29% mustahik who managed to get out of the poverty line. However, this empowerment program has not been integrated with the sharia micro- finance institutions. Therefore, the empowerment program for mustahik should be integrated with Islamic microfinance to pursue successful financial inclusion for mustahik.
Keywords: development, empowerment, poverty, social capital, and women.
Perempuan di daerah pedesaan dengan pendidikan dan pengalaman yang rendah dikhawatirkan menjadi masalah pada program pengentasan kemiskinan. Penelitian tentang posisi penting perempuan dalam program pengentasan kemiskinan berbasis PNPM- Mandiri Perdesaan (pemberdayaan pedesaan) menjadi strategis. Penelitian ini mengungkapkan, bagaimanakah peran perempuan dalam program pengembangan pengentasan kemiskinan?; dan seberapa pentingkah posisi perempuan dalam program pengentasan kemiskinan?. Penelitian kualitatif telah dilakukan dengan melakukan wawancara mendalam dan focus group discussion (FGD) dengan anggota perempuan kelompok, aktivis, aktor dan manajer kegiatan PNPM-Mandiri Perdesaan di Kabupaten Banyumas. Triangulasi dan analisis data interaktif telah dilakukan secara ketat dan hati-hati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modal sosial kelompok perempuan telah terbukti menjadi kekuatan utama yang mendukung keberhasilan program pengentasan kemiskinan. Hal ini membuat posisi perempuan sangat penting dalam program ini. Posisi penting ini ditandai dengan modal yang kuat sosial, kesatuan tujuan, solidaritas kelompok, adaptasi yang sangat baik untuk perubahan, serta internalisasi program sehingga tujuan dapat dicapai. Penelitian ini percaya bahwa melibatkan perempuan pedesaan dalam program pengentasan kemiskinan di akar rumput pedesaan adalah salah satu cara terbaik.
and other types of migration. 3 The result suggests that the program has a statistically significant and positive effect on non-labor-specific migration, but not on labor-specific migration. The reason behind the result can be attributed to lower costs and lower risk of domestic migration compared to international migration. Furthermore, individuals receiving the anti-povertyprogram may postpone the relatively risky decision of international migra- tion with the expectation of returns from the programs. The program also affects migration by increasing the opportunity cost to a program recipient. Second, I find a decrease in remittances among program recipients compared to non-recipients. The results show a decrease of Rs. 6,000, accounting for six percent of total household consumption, which is consistent with the hy- pothesis that public transfers crowd out private transfers and aligns with Jensen (2004) in a pension context. The results show the program is crowd- ing out remittances, which could relax financial constraints needed by house- holds for migration. We can infer that households receiving program benefits have fewer remittances, suggesting the possible substitution effect of remit- tances from the household budget set by income-generated from the program. Third, the evidence suggests that the program induced an increase in welfare measures such as per capita consumption, per capita food consumption and food-secure months per year. Assessing the program effect at various quan- tiles shows positive effects of the program at all the distribution levels.
percentage points. The program has had a beneficial impact on dietary diversity; both the number of different food items consumed and the nutritional quality of the diet improved, with households eating more meat, fats, and fruits (Maluccio and Flores 2004).
Preliminary evidence regarding the human capital impacts of PRAF suggests that these are smaller than for the other two programs (IFPRI 2003). For example, it appears to have had little impact on primary enrollment rates (which were already quite high), although there was an improvement in dropout rates. Visits by children to health clinics for growth monitoring and vaccinations increased in areas with the demand-side program, but the program does not appear to have improved health outcomes. Nor was there any effect on the nutritional status of children as measured by child growth indicators. These small effects are consistent with the evidence of operational difficulties in terms of implementing the supply side and monitoring conditionality. These results reinforce concerns that the low CTR of PRAF comes at the expense of the program’s overall effectiveness. Possibly more important, however, we must bear in mind that these relatively small effects reflect not only the operational difficulties encountered in PRAF, but also the lower transfer level per household compared to the other programs—in PRAF, the transfer was calculated as an amount to compensate for the opportunity cost of children attending school, and was therefore much smaller than the other programs.
3. Connotation of Precision PovertyAlleviation
General Secretary Xi Jinping’s idea of Precision povertyalleviation is the inhe- ritance and innovation of Marxist povertyalleviation theory. Since the founding of new China, China has attached great importance to poverty reduction. The development history of China’s socialist construction is, in essence, the history of eliminating poverty, improving people’s livelihood and achieving common prosperity. From 1949 to 1978 on poverty reduction the exploration of the road, or in the mid-1980s began to implement the seven-year priority poverty allevia- tion program (1994-2000), and “China’s rural povertyalleviation and develop- ment program (2001-2010)” and “China’s rural povertyalleviation and devel- opment program (2011-2020)”, the implementation plan of mass poverty, po- verty alleviation and development has been accompanied by China’s socialist construction and reform and opening up. By 2014, we had lifted more than 600 million people out of poverty, becoming the first country in the world to achieve the UN millennium development goals and halve the number of people living in poverty. However, by the end of 2014, there were still over 70 million people living in poverty. At present, China’s povertyalleviation and development has shifted from solving the problem of food and clothing as the main task to conso- lidating the fruits of food and clothing, speeding up povertyalleviation and be- coming rich, improving the ecological environment, enhancing the ability of development, narrowing the development gap, and entering a new stage of well-off life in an all-round way. At present, we are still faced with the arduous task of povertyalleviation and development.
Poverty, especially in developing countries, has remained one of the world’s most intractable problems. While this remains a daunting challenge, it is not an excuse for inaction or unwillingness to explore new approaches. Donation-based aid programs can make an important impact on alleviating poverty, but they are inherently not economically sustainable. Once the resources are used in serving one community, region, or country, there is no capital remaining to transfer the program to another location. Market-based approaches offer an attractive alternative, as they can be economically sustainable. While a number of interesting approaches have been developed over the years, they too have limitations in their effectiveness and their scalability to new locations. This suggests an opportunity to identify new povertyalleviation approaches based on market mechanisms; the BoP perspective is one such approach.
Whilst the above mode of analysis provides explanation for rise in poverty during 1990’s, there is also a need to disentangle the effect of structural adjustment from the inher ent limitation of the overall dispensation of the country. A case in point is that of failure of investment to rise, the basic factor which explains low growth. Of course this can be attributed to the inconsistency of the policies along with law and order situation but these can not be regarded as the off-shoot of the structural adjustment program. Similarly, massive reduction in public sector expenditure is more a failure of the state to generate resources because of the particular compositional specifics of the society than an effect of the transition of the economy under the structural adjustment. Obviously, there is a need to mount more investigative pursuits with a view to understand the given constellation of the power brokers in the country and their impact on the poor, through the choices they make. Few if any research endeavour has been made to understand the power play and assess the sustainability of the interventions through critical scrutiny of their financing mechanism both in case of the Macro or household level. Most of the poverty estimates at the level of household exclusively focus on consumption expenditure with little investigation of the financing mechanism. This glossing over of survival strategy of the poor leads to equate those who have been out of poverty clutches at a point of time because of distress sale of their assets or through reckless borrowing resulting into high level of indebtedness, with those who have regular and permanent sources of income. This argument is equally valid for country level study too, because in general the sustainability of pro poor interventions has not been reckoned by researchers. An intriguing fact of the history is that Pakistan was successful in reducing the poverty level during the periods when the country received massive funds from abroad(1980s and 2000-2006)It is also not coincidence that during these periods the country was under the non democratic dispensation. In other words whatever the povertyalleviation occurred was not indigenous and hardly enmeshed with the dynamics of growth.
The implementation of this compo- nent is based on the promotion of multi-actor platforms for dialogue to encourage the sharing of best practices in ecosystem mana- gement in a bid to reduce rural poverty. These mechanisms are all the more important in that povertyalleviation policies and program- mes do not sufficiently take into consideration the role of natural resources and ecosystem servi- ces in improving the livelihoods of populations. The expected outputs from the implementation of this component are policy- makers are convinced about the value of ecosystem services in the process of fighting against poverty and ecosystem functions and services mainstreamed into national sustainable development strategies.
It is on record that about half of the world's population (about three billion people) lives on income of less than two dollars a day (Goel and Rishi,2012) while 70 percent of the extremely poor live in rural areas (IFAD, 2011, Mustapha et al,2014). This is also aggravated by the fact that one child out of five living in these poor communities does not live to see his or her fifth birthday! Hence, in September 2000, the United Nations declared Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in order to ensure global development. The major policy thrust of this program is to make life more meaningful to the poor and downtrodden. By implication, reduction of poverty and hunger is adjudged to be the basic root of all other problem issues focused on MDGs (Kalirajan and Singh, 2009).