5 Betts, J.R. & Tang, Y.E. (2011). The effect of charter schools on student achievement: A meta-analysis of the
literature. Center on Reinventing Public Education. Retrieved April 24, 2012, from
6 Betts and Tang as well as others (see Di Carlo ) point out that charter schools in some locations seem more likely to produce positive results for students lotteried into those charters when compared with students who were lotteried out. Specifically, oversubscribed charter schools in New York and Boston appear to deliver achievement gains larger than charter schools in most other locations. But the lack of rigorous studies in many other parts of the nation limits the ability to extrapolate the New York and Boston findings to say, Texas or Ohio. There is also pretty broad agreement that specific charter operators, such as the KIPP Academies, seem more likely to yield positive effects (based on a handful of high-quality studies of KIPP middle schools). Another recent large scale evaluation study from Mathematica Policy Research (MPR), in collaboration with the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE), explored the relative effectiveness of schools operated by various chartermanagementorganizations, or CMOs. That study also found mixed effectiveness of the various CMOs. Fuller’s (2012) review of the CMO study summarized the study findings as follows:
The CMOs in the study shared three additional characteristics. First, each CMO has a common identifiable mission or instructional design across its schools. Second, every CMO has a home office or management team that provides significant ongoing administrative support to its schools. Finally, we included only CMOs that had at least three campuses in operation during the 2008–2009 school year with plans for further expansion to focus the study on the growth process. Our study excluded charterorganizations that run virtual or online charter schools and school districts in which all public schools are charter schools. While a charter school in an all-charter district might be part of a CMO, the district itself wasn’t considered a CMO. Additionally, agencies that serve a broader purpose but which also run one or more charter schools are not included, since their approach to growth likely differs from organizations that only oversee a network of charter schools. Using this definition, 40 CMOs were identified for inclusion into this study; the final study sample included 25 CMOs.
Key Components: Vision
All students will be able to attend a four-year college if they choose to do so, is at the heart of the chartermanagement organization. The Director of the leadership-training program and Tim both thought critically about how that looks: for the future, the year, and even day-to- day operations. Creating clear goals, expectations, and communication about what that looks like was also fostered through hands-on training that forced potential school leaders to collaborate. This dynamic also helped to build final products based on a shared vision. Tim took those lessons and applied them as a school leader, building long-term goals and a big picture for years to come for his school.
Simple performance appraisal involves a manager and an employee, whereas the PMS incorporates the total quality management context along with the organizational policies, procedures, and resources that support the activity being approved. The timing and frequency of evaluations, choice of who appraises whom, measurement procedures, methods of recording the evaluations, storage and distribution of information are all aspects of the PMS.
The following are the advantages of the management accounting methodology developed by us: objectivity; financial indicators are taken into account; agricultural indicators are taken into account; all indicators are calculated on the basis of reporting forms that are publicly available; main indicators of resource efficiency, such as labor, fixed assets, are taken into account. Consequently, the proposed activities will be understandable not only to internal users but also to external ones, which is important for attracting
AYC offers our charter guests a “Cruising Guarantee” which states “should you have a mechanical breakdown during your charter, we will complete repairs within 4 hours of notification…”. We will make every effort to resolve an issue as cost effectively as possible. In many cases an issue is easily resolved over the phone and may simply be a lack of understanding of the system in question. In other cases we need to enlist the assistance of a subcontractor in the field to respond to the problem. And on a rare occasion we need to send our chase boat out with one of our mechanics to resolve an issue; this is always a last resort. Although chase runs are expensive, the expense is typically less than a charter customer demanding a refund for vacation time lost due to a breakdown.
Capability and Capacity of External Resources. Generally speaking, the results of this study
support the initial TCM-ORM framework with respect to the seven phases in which DMOs assessed their external resources. Stephenson recognizes an organization’s endeavor to “understand the relationships and resources it might need outside of its own organization” as an indicator of OR (2010:245), but consigns this activity to the planning or pre-event stage of crisis. DMOs’ crisis experiences show this is simply not the case. Evaluation of external resources provided by other organizations, especially key stakeholders, was an integral part of a larger ongoing TCM strategy evaluation, modification and implementation process, hence its now inclusion in the strategic evaluation and strategic control phase of TCM implementation. The details of DMOs’ evaluative processes were not divulged, however, taking into consideration the often chaotic nature of crisis environments coupled with a smaller number of staff in several cases (e.g. MCT, SCT and GSOBT), ensuring the accuracy and reliability of assessments may prove challenging for DMOs. The prospect for a sloppy or haphazard evaluative approach suggests DMOs might consider using standardized tools—such as checklists or templates that enable employees to quickly build mind maps that track external resources. Perhaps transposing Brandenburger and Nalebuff’s (1996) ‘value nets’ model with its four generic interaction types among tourism competitors, complementors, suppliers and customers to a crisis context, would be an appropriate starting point that affords DMOs a fairly quick and reliable means of evaluating the presence and value of its external resources. DMOs’ engagement of key stakeholder groups during crises was in part a result of these assessments, however, DMOs’ adaptive capacity in this regard, rested on a more comprehensive approach to stakeholder involvement and engagement in TCM.
2. Current Information
This includes information from the immediate past year’s budgetary performance and the year-end statement of performance. Latest information on price trends, whether from the unit’s own records or from external sources (like vendors, suppliers, etc) is of great importance in the preparation of budget for the current year. Unless such information is taken into consideration in the preparation of the current year’s budget, price increases are likely to overthrow any knowledge management goals. This is especially true of materials supplied on quotations.
The organizations need to settle the employees emotional manifestations and to assure the compliance with the organizational purposes (especially with the activities which ask for verbal interactions and direct contact with the clients) is shaped in establishing some explicit emotional rules about presenting the desirable emotions, by which the communication optimization is looked for between employees and the clients who benefit from services and products. As Morris & Feldman (1997) underline, in modern society there is a rapid growth of the products and services for which the employees are asked to manifest positive emotions in relation with the clients, aiming at the potential impact of presented emotions has on the services quality and at the clients’ satisfaction. The employee is compelled to control the emotional manifestations and to show positive, pleasant, emotions. Inner willful emotional self-control added an external one, an imposed demand, expressly asked and formulated by the organizational policy, to present desirable emotions.
achieve lasting behavioral change, gain user adoption, and ultimately increase their chances of a successful deployment if you consider change management throughout the project – hence taking a “before, during and after” approach.
*The POI 2015 TPx and Retail Execution Survey went live on September 28, 2015 and while it has received a statistically significant number of responses (currently 65 at this writing), it is still open to additional respondents. Therefore, the information conveyed in the charts must be considered preliminary until the survey closes on November 27, 2015.
The role of negative attitudes (threats): We found that also employees‟ negative attitudes towards diversity functioned as an underlying factor in the same positive relationship between Discrimination & Fairness and employee satisfaction. Specifically, we found this to be the case for the negative perception that cultural diversity may form a threat for the own position in the organization. The pattern we found is that the more employees perceive their organization to have the D&F-perspective, the less people feel threatened in their own position. As a consequence, employees feel more satisfied. The reason for this may be that D&F communicates that „background does not matter‟ (Ely & Thomas, 2001). As a consequence, Dutch-cultural employees may not experience cultural diversity to be a threat to the own position. In contrast, in the Access & Legitimacy and Integration & Learning perspectives, cultural diversity is explicitly valued. This may lead to an experience of threat on the side of Dutch-cultural employees. In general, this finding shows that in organizations with an A&L or I&L perspective it is important to communicate that everyone is valued for what he or she brings in. Dutch employees should not get the feeling that they are less valued than their other-cultural counterparts.
The research on the essence of intangible resources management in or- ganizations has evolved with time. Initially, any notions referring to "soft" strengths of the organization or its non-measurable features were used inter- changeably. Intangible resources were even identified with intellectual capital of the organization in the first phase of academic discourse (this opinion was repre- sented, for instance, by the Konrad Group 23 ).
ensure users are in control of their life, maximize autonomy, skills, morale and self confidence, and assist users coming to terms with impairment. One of the most important researchers in social management, Donabenian stress that in addition to these items, service managers and policy makers frequently include additional aspects such as efficiency and equity as essential components of a high quality service.
The aspect of cost economies relates to labor costs. In relation to unpaid volunteers or community workers, labor cost levels in NPOs can be quite high for those parts of the workforce that are fully compensated. The use of volunteers can lead to cost advantages, which in turn is an argument in favor of employing relatively large numbers of volunteers (in terms of their proportion to total workforce, cf. Gaskin, 1996; von Eckardstein/ Mayerhofer/Raberger, 2001). As the proportion of volunteers increases, paid employees often tend to worry about their job security. In order to avoid competition among different groups of employees, management might adopt dysfunctional personnel strategies for volunteers. Another cost factor can be derived from personnel structure: Training volunteers and community wor- kers means relatively high worktime-specific costs of qualification because of the generally short payback periods for these education investments. This makes education investments for full-time employees more economical.
Thompson et al. (2009) point to sound governance as an important factor contributing to the success of an FO. Democratic control of the organization by members on the basis of one member one vote, along with clear and consistent rules to establish norms of behaviour by officials and members (with systems for monitoring and applying sanctions and reducing the transaction costs of negotiating, monitoring and enforcing agreements between the organization and its members) are necessary for the successful governance of an FO. Equally important is a governance system that creates a strong sense of ownership and trust of the leadership by giving members the ability to participate meaningfully in decision-making. If members do not have a good understanding of the FO and its business, however, it is difficult for them to participate in decision-making or to know whether the FO is really serving their interests or not. General meetings can be a bureaucratic process where members simply endorse the proposals put forward by the leadership. Many FOs reflect the existing power and gender relations within the community (Khan, 2007), and thus it can be difficult for individual members (especially women) to challenge these power relations, particularly when elections are not conducted by secret ballot. Sound governance and management within FOs therefore also depend on individual members having the capacity, confidence and freedom to participate in meaningful decision-making (Penrose- Buckley, 2007). This can be achieved by creating an enabling culture that encourages previously marginal groups and individuals to influence FO leadership and ensure their needs are adequately served. According to Vorley and Proctor (2008), a primary success factor in FOs centres around management models that balance member inclusion and group competitiveness. These models usually involve differentiation of membership to cope with the range of landholdings, wealth, education, etc., for instance, grouping smaller-scale farmers around a larger farmer or differentiating between year-round core suppliers and seasonal “top-up” suppliers. Any member differentiation, however, can be a challenge to a group ethos of cooperation and equality.
Portfolio theory is rooted in finance where portfolios of stock are defined to reduce risks. In 1990, Markowitz, Miller and Sharpe received the Nobel prize for their work in this area. Many propagate the use of portfolio theory to reduce risks associated to IT investments. For instance, Maizlitz propagates portfolio management to assess IT (Maizlitz, 2005). Portfolio management should particularly be considered if the strategic contributions of IT remain uncertain, transparency of investment funds remain insufficiently transparent, when there seem to be too many projects, in case incomplete criteria for the assessment of IT projects are applied, or if there is inadequate IT control (Maizlitz, 2005). Maizlitz research indicates that most organizations could benefit from portfolio management (Maizlitz, 2005).
By 2002, a significant number of paid professionals had left FvO, not willing to continue working under these circumstances. The parents started taking their business elsewhere, leaving the associations on the brink of a membership crisis. Two new plans were drafted containing opposite solutions. One plan pushed for integration once more, while the other emphasized the autonomy of the five parent associations. The three actor groups involved became entangled in a vicious circle as the whole FvO organization became subject to collusion of the influence and the control ends of the primary and secondary dilemma, respectively. A conflict occurred about how influence and control had to be organized, with membership and representation being left out of the equation. System degeneration took place with the resulting vicious circle stifling this PIO and threatening its viability. The volunteer association officials saw the FvO as a means to foster the values of their communities. For the lobbying professionals of the FvO, the organization was an employer where they exercised their professional abilities for the particular cause of mentally handicapped people. For the parents, the FvO was a provider of information and services that did not perform. An attempt to appoint a new FvO general manager faltered in 2002 because of indecisiveness among association officials. Since then, two interim managers have come and gone, and recently a new general manager has been appointed. As things stand now, in 2004, the five member organizations emphasize their autonomy; minimizing any form of cooperation at FvO level, but also loosing ground with the people in the field at regional levels, while the FvO itself is on the brink of a financial collapse.