Therefore, even with the application of recommended dose of chemical fertilizers, yield of most of the crops is either static or declining. Moreover, increase in the cost of chemical fertilizers, worldwide energy crisis, rapid exhaustion of non renewable energy sources and low purchasing power of farmers restrict the use of fertilizers alone as an input for increasing crop production. Further, a key factor in maintaining sustainable production in the tropical soils is protection and/or improvement in the soil organic matter content. Farmyard manure application to the crop is an age old practice. Well decomposed FYM in addition to supply of plant nutrients, binds soil particles and improves soil physicalproperties. Beneficial effects of earthworms and their cast were known as early as in Darwin’s era. But the potential of vermicompost to supply nutrients and to support beneficial microbes is being recognized recently. Vermicompost is rich in nitrogen fixers and other beneficial microbial population. Hence, these characters recognized the vermicompost as biofertilizer (Kale et al., 1988). The average nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium contents of poultry litter is reported to be approximately two, one and two per cent,
The paper deals with the physicalproperties and chemical composition of rice husk and dust, which are the waste of the Regulus raw rice growing in the Krasnodar Region of the Russian Federation. Rice dust is formed as a result of the discharge upon the receipt of raw rice from vehicles, removal of impurities, sorting by size, during separation of membranes, crushing, grinding, polishing, moving grain along the elevators and conveyors, i.e. during all technological operations production of rice groats. In order to remove dust, the group cyclone and the bag filter-cyclone are installed in the pneumatic conveying systems and suction plants of “Southern Rice Company”, LLC. The paper shows the chemical composition of samples of husk, dust retained by the group cyclone, and dust retained by the bag filter-cyclone. Rice husk contains a significant amount of silicon dioxide – 14.8%. The dust collected from the group cyclone contains ferrum (109 mg/kg), plumbum (1.1 ± 0.4 mg/kg), and copper (1.2 ± 0.4 mg/kg). The bag filter-cyclone retains finer dust particles. The dust collected in the cyclone is of yellowish-pink color, and the dust, collected from a bag filter-cyclone, is gray. Fine dust, which has passed through the filter, is drier than the dust, segregated in a cyclone, so it is more explosive and easily ignited. Dust can cause the explosion. The dust properties give an indication of the degree of its danger and the ability to form explosive concentrations in air.
PH and Electrical Conductivuty:- First of all we will take the sample of soil and dilute it to make a solution and we that solution in beaker. Then we will take electrode and dip it in the beaker and reading and PHmeter is noted. Generally PH of a soil is decreases due to acidic nature of the municipal solid waste. PH of soil has huge impact on soil properties because solubility of various nutrients increases with decrease in PH of soil. So due to high solubility, availability of nutrients increases to plant and plant growth increases with application of waste upto limited extent. Electrical conductivity of soil increases due to dumping of soil.
Hence Biological techniques are to be adopted for the control of soil erosion by wind and water and rehabilitation of sand dunes. The organic amendment not only supplements the chemical fertilizers but also reduces the environmental pollution. A substantial increase in production can be obtained by use of fertilizers. However, due to high cost of fertilizers, farmers can afford to apply chemical fertilizers as per recommended doses. Organic matter increases biological activity, Therefore to improve the overall biological, chemical and Physical conditions of the dry land soils, regular addition al would be beneficial (Barzegar et al., 2002). At present FYM which is an organic source helps in increasing the yield as well as increasing soil Physical, chemical and Chemicalproperties of Theri soil. It helps in maintaining environment health by reducing the level of pollution. FYM was used to replace 50% requirements of et al., 2008). Keeping in view of above points the detailed micro level study was conducted to assess the physical, physico-chemical characteristics and available nutrients status of theri soil
The Cp values of MEA, DEA, TEA, and MDEA are available in the literature [2-4]. Chiu et al.  recently measured the heat capacity of eight alkanolamines (MEA, DGA, DEA, DIPA, TEA, MDEA, AMP, 2- PE) at temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K with a differential scanning calorimeter. Shin et al.  experimentally reported the heat capacities of aqueous solutions containing DEA and MDEA over the temperature range (303.2 to 353.2) K with a differential scanning calorimeter. Chen et al reported the liquid heat capacity of some solvent systems containing PZ-MDEA- water , PZ-AMP-water  and SFL-AMP- water , all of which used the differential scanning calorimetry technique, over the temperature range (303.2 to 353.2) K. Maundha et al.  experimentally measured the heat capacity of some physical solvents of importance in natural gas sweetening: (1) sulfolane (SFL), (2) 4-formylmorpholine (NFM), (3) 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and (4) triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) with heat flow calorimeter at the temperature range of (303.15 to 353.15) K and for the entire range of mole fractions.
in the 1940’s and 1950’s. The twist added by conformational analysis was to explain chemical and physicalproperties by investigating the three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in a molecule that are accessible by rotation around single bonds but which are otherwise compatible with the composition, connectivity, and optical asymmetries of the compound (these are known as the conformations of the compound). While it had long been recognized that rotation about double bonds involved breaking a bond and so was not ‘free’, it had generally been assumed (up until the 1920’s at least) that there were no energetic barriers to rotation around single bonds. As a result, all conformations had been regarded as energetically indistinguishable variations of the same compound. Conformational analysis advanced organic chemistry by demonstrating that a lot of new and interesting chemistry could be explained by eliminating the assumption that rotation around single bonds was ‘free’ and thus by recognizing the possibility of important energetic differences between the conformations of a compound 8 . One consequence of this
In this work total 50 chemical compounds were screened as Drug Target Candidate for Dengue Virus. Chemical compounds analyzed and screened for drug target candidates but some compounds do not fulfill any of the characteristics of drug target candidates. Hence chemical compounds were screened for their similarity with Tri Ethylene Glycol, the drug candidate for the Target Protein. Chemical and physicalproperties were taken as per chemical database (shown in Table 1). These properties were analyzed as for each and every drug, chemicalproperties like pka value, Molecular weight, state, Polarizibility, Melting Point, and Boiling Point etc. play role in selecting drug candidate chemicals.
include as partition, slab, and wall panel . Recently, the technology of LFC is enhancing even more with the addition of waste material, either as cement or sand replacement or as filler in the foam concrete mixture. Studies was conducted on durability performance of LFC strengthened with coir fiber[4, 5] It was found in both studies that coconut fiber added as filler in FC resulted with enhanced compression and tensile strength. There has been no study of BSP incorporated in LFC, but there were studies conducted on BSP in fly ash concrete , and as admixture in conventional concrete mixture. Abstract: This paper presents the effects of agricultural wastes on the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete, LFC. The agricultural wastes utilized in this research are banana skin powder (BSP) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as cement and sand replacement, respectively. Physical and chemical tests were conducted to determine the chemical composition and particle size of both BSP and POFA. These chemical and physicalproperties of the raw materials are important in understanding the effects they have on the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete incorporating BSP and POFA, which is designated as LFC-BSP-POFA. Cube, cylindrical, and prism specimens of LFC-BSP-POFA with density of 1800kg/m³ were cast and tested to determine its compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Twelve (12) LFC-BSP- POFA mixtures were prepared with content of BSP as cement replacement of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight. For each mixture, the content of POFA as sand replacement are 0% and 15%. It was found that BSP and POFA each contain 55.98% and 51.83% silicon dioxide, and 2.71% and 2.32% aluminum oxide, respectively. The particle size for these two materials as obtained from PSA test showed that both materials are considered as fine particles, which is within 0.1µm to 250 µm. These chemical composition and particle size of BSP and POFA contribute to the pozzolanic reaction in LFC. This is proven by the results obtained from the mechanical properties tests which show that the incorporation of both BSP and POFA as cement and sand replacement have some significant effects on the mechanical properties of LFC. The increase percentage of BSP and POFA incorporated in LFC had shown slight increment in its mechanical properties.
The losses in apples occur at different rates, depending on technical and physiological characteristics of the product, the major part of these losses occur during sorting, packag- ing, shipping and transportation due to the delicate nature and high water content of apple fruits (Karacali, 1990; Kaynas, 1987). This reveals the need for conducting studies to develop relevant equipments and machineries taking in account physicalproperties of apple fruits to overcome these problems. There were several studies conducted on Starking Delicious, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith apple culti- vars in different parts of Turkey and other countries, related to chemical contents of the fruits (Kardeniz et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2001; Markowski et al., 2007; Ozyigit, 1991). How- ever, to our knowledge, no comparative study concerning the physical, mechanical and chemicalproperties of those cultivars has been performed.
Chemical graph theory is the topological branch of mathematical chemistry which applies graph theory to mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena. Quantitative structure- activity relation- ship models (QSAR models) are regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and control system engineering. One of the first historical QSAR chemical applications was to predict boiling points. A topological indices of molecular chemical graphs is a numerical value associ- ated with chemical constitution for correlation of chemical structure with various Physicalproperties, chemical reactivity or biological activity. Topological indices are the useful tools provided by graph theory for theoretical study of chemical compounds and it plays an important role in studying certain
Abstract This paper studies how pozzolan proper- ties including particle size, specific surface, chemical and mineral composition, amorphousness and water demand, affect their reactivity as well as the strength of lime–pozzolan pastes. Reactivity was evaluated with chemical, mechanical and mineralogical meth- ods. A number of artificial pozzolans were investi- gated including Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS); Leca; Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA); Calcined Clay (Metastar); Microsilica (MS); Rice Husk Ash (RHA); Red Brick Dust (RBD); Tile and Yellow Brick Dust (YBD). The paper concludes that the pozzolan’s specific surface has a much greater influence on the water demand of the paste than its particle size or the lime:pozzolan ratio. It was evidenced that each pozzolan has a particular water demand for a given workability that increased with its specific surface; and that the replacement of lime by pozzolan lowers the water demand of the paste except for Metastar, on account of its greater fineness and specific surface. There is a good correlation between the chemical and physical activity indices and the rate of portlandite consumption. These evidenced that the most amor- phous pozzolans (Metastar, GGBS, RHA and MS) are the most active. Finally, it also appears from the results, that the amount of lime combined by reactive
Despite the physicalproperties of all infected tubers showing symptoms of rotting, the patho- genicity of bacterial isolates should also be determined by their ability to alter the chemical contents in tuber. The reducing sugar and ethanol assay of tuber was done after 14 days of incuba- tion. Based on the reducing sugar assay, there were two isolates showing the highest reducing sugar content out of all tubers tested (Figure 2). The reducing sugar content in tubers infected with isolate T4 and T9A were 14.38 and 15.32 mg/ml, respectively. These two isolates were not statisti- cally different, but the difference between them and the other isolates was significant (p < 0.05).
The HF method was also used to calculate the physicalproperties of the PAH compounds like electron density, HOMO, LUMO energy levels, bond order and free valance index. These properties were calculated to select active position (K & L region) and determination chemical potential, hardness and philicity for the molecules under vistigation.
Pure aluminium is a weak, very ductile material. Its physicalproperties are shiny, silvery white colored metal that is light in weight and strong. The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/mL, which means the metal will sink in water, but is still relatively light. The mechanical properties depend not only on the purity of the aluminium but also upon the amount of work to which it has been subject. A range of tempers is thus produced by different amounts of work hardening. It has an electrical conductivity about two-thirds that of copper but weight for weight is a better conductor. As for its chemicalproperties, the surface of aluminum metal is covered with a thin layer of oxide that helps protect the metal from attack by air. So, normally, aluminum metal does not react with air. If the oxide layer is damaged, the aluminum metal is exposed to attack. As it has a great affinity for oxygen and any fresh metal in air rapidly oxidizes to give a thin layer of the oxide on the metal surface. This layer is not penetrated by oxygen and so protects the metal from further attack [W.Bolton (2000)].
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chemical extraction method on the properties of doum palm fibres. The method of extraction which is carried out is a soda treatment. First, an investigation of the extraction processes was undertaken. Secondly, the physicalproperties (surface morphology, density, linear density and diameter), the mechanical properties (tenacity, strain) and chemicalproperties (FT-IR spectra) of doum palm fibres were inspected. Finally, a comparison between properties of doum palm fibres and other vegetal ones has been included. Results indicates an influence of soda treatment on properties of Doum palm fibers. In fact, there is an improvement on fibers diameter and linear density while increasing soda concentration, temperature and treatment duration. Moreover, the studied fibers have a low density which does not exceed 1. The fibers tenacity achieved the maximum value of 20.86 cN/Tex when precessing in the following combination (0.75 N, 100˚C and 180 mn). In the end, the FTIR spectra reveals a change in structure after this alkali treatment while increasing the cellulose amount exposed on the fiber surface and consequently the number of possible reaction sites (OH groups).
Despite the findings listed above, there are not enough data on the materials available in Thailand; specifically, the optimum percentage of fine aggregate replacement is unclear. The objective of this research is investigating the physicalproperties, chemicalproperties, and microstructure of concrete bricks for managing waste glass in Koh Sichang, Chonburi province, used as a partial fine aggregate replacement in concrete brick production, and assessing the primary economic feasibility for alternative waste glass management.
possesses. These properties and composition are of great importance to both foundry engineers and technologists. Therefore, adequate investigations on sand are necessary before embarking on mould production. Therefore a research of this nature is very important and timely and this work is aimed at determining the chemical composition and physicalproperties of River Niger (Itobe deposit) and Iyoloko clay as an additive for foundry application.
Starch citrate had application in directly compressible tablet as it has good flow properties and swellability. Swellability is linked with faster disintegration and dissolution rate. The direct compressed tablets of gliclazide and pioglitazone prepared with potato starch citrate indicates faster dissolution rate. Detailed description of preparation of starch citrate is given below: Citric acid (20g) was dissolved in 20 ml of water, the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3.5 with 10 M sodium hydroxide and finally the volume was made up to 50 ml by adding water. This solution was mixed with 50g of potato starch in a stainless steel tray and conditioned for 16 h at room temperature (28°C). The tray was then placed in hot air oven and dried at60°C for 6 h. The mixture obtained was ground and further dried in a hot air oven at 130°C for 2 h. The dry mixture was frequently washed with water to remove unreacted citric acid. The washed starch citrate was further dried at 50°C to eradicate the moisture totally. 18