Currently, biodiesel is becoming popular as an environment friendly fuel. It has been used as an alternative for diesel fuel in the automotive industry, commonly known as No. 2 diesel. The advantage of this biofuel over the conventional diesel fuel includes high cetane numbers, low smoke and particulates, low carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions; it is biodegradable and non toxic 1 . Directly or blended edible or non-edible oil can be used in diesel engine but it can create problem in engine because of its high viscosity 2,3 . Incomplete combustion of edible and non-edible oil produce high smoke thereby causing ring sticking and inefficient oil air mixing effects injector system performance 4 . Biodiesel comprises of monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. It is produced using edible oil, non-edible oil and animal fats by acid or by base catalyzed transesterification with ethanol or methanol 5 . The significant efforts have been made for obtaining biodiesel by transesterification of oil obtained from Jatropha curcas 6 , soybean 7 , sunflower 8,9 , cotton seed 10 , rapeseed 11 , and palm 12 . The ASTM-445 specification for viscosity at 40 ◦ C of centistokes is generally met by biodiesel and biodiesel blends. The reported viscosity of soy methyl ester is ranging from 3.8 to 4.1 centistokes at 40°C. Glycerin contamination will increase biodiesel viscosity which leads many other problems. Estimates of the surface tension of biodiesel suggest that it may be two to three times as great as that for diesel. The major problem of using biodiesel in diesel engine is higher viscosity and cloud point. High viscosity of edible oil, non edible oil and animal fats tends to cause problem when directly used in diesel engines 13-16 . The fuel droplet size
Biodiesel is receiving considerable attention in the world as an alternative fuel to fossil based fuels. It also provides a low- cost fuel to energy-dependent countries and reduces the global warming problems associated with fossil fuels. Biodiesel is producedfrom natural and renewable form of energy re-sources like edible, non-edible vegetable oils or animal fats , . Biodiesel is defined as the mono alkyl esters of fatty acid chain of edible oils, non-edible oils, animal fats or waste oils. The transesterification process is the most suitable method to produce biodiesel. In the transesterification method, tri-glycerides are made to react with methanol, where a catalyst (acid or base) is used to get methyl esters as a product and glycerol as a by-product –. Mahua Biodiesel is also produced by the transesterification process from the Mahua seed oil, in which Mahua seed oil is reacted with methanol with a base catalyst at a specific temperature and time. To reduce the viscosity, heating, thermal cracking, pyrolysis, dilution and transesterification can be employed . Mahua trees can produce Mahua seeds to the tune of 60 million tons annually. Mahua seeds oil has a yield of approximately 35% to 40% . Mahua Oil has high acidic value so it needs a pretreatment process before its transesterification process. The yield of output depends upon the alcohol content, reaction temperature and time taken in reaction. The alcohol used in this process is methanol because it is more reactive than ethanol. The base catalyst used for biodiesel production is KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) since it is also more reactive than the NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide). Mahua Biodiesel has better emission characteristics than diesel according to other research finding but due to its high cloud and pour point temperatures, its cold flow characteristics are poor.
Several studies indicated the benefit of palm oil mill effluent as a nutrient source for plant. Application of effluent on oil palm plantation could increase fresh fruit bunch of oil palm by 35.3% and improve soil chemicalproperties of which soil pH, total N, available P, exchangeable cations were increased . In addition, application of effluent at a rate of 150000 L ha-1 + 150 kg ha-1 SP-36 at first planting could produce 2.15 t ha-1 dry weight of soybean seed and application of 75000 L ha-1 effluent at second planting produced 2.03 t ha-1 . The lower rate of effluent application at second planting indicated the residual effect of effluent application. The result of this study also showed that improvement in soil chemicalproperties such as increasing in soil pH, organic C, total P, available P and exchangeable K occurred with effluent application . The studies stated above used effluent that has undergone retention time of 60-75 days at liquid waste ponds so that BOD and TDS values have decreased to 4000 mg L-1 and 4120 mg L-1 respectively.
Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially or fully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a diesel fuel substitute derived from vegetable oil that has several environmental benefits and both of fuel burn to produce greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide. In this study waste cooking oil (WCO) as a raw material for biodiesel production is recognized to be an attractive and economic alternative to the use of vegetable oils. However, the presence of free fatty acids, impurities and high viscosity of WCO may require several pretretment before the transesterification but the problem with processing these waste oils is that they often highest amounts of free fatty acids that cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst. An acid catalyst required to neutralize the FFA before tranesterification process. The transesterification reaction is affected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. In this study, the physicalproperties of biodiesel produced will be test in term of water content, acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, bomb calorimeter and moisture while the chemical content will be test using gas chromatography. However further increase of alcohol content does not increase the yield of biodiesel but it also increase the cost of alcohol recovery. In this research will be compare B5 from WCO with B5 from petro station in Malaysia. Based on research found that that almost all of the properties in sample of biodiesel produced meet in standard American Society for testing material ASTM D6751(B100), ASTM D7461 (B6-B20) and ASTM 975 (diesel). Finally various properties of biodiesel such as FFA, acid value, density, flash point, kinematic viscosity and water content were measured and compare with standard of biodiesel and diesel. Overall, it can say that the waste cooking oil is very suitable to be used as a raw material in production of biodiesel.
In order to determine the optimum conditions for biosurfactant production, modified BH2 cul- ture medium with different carbon sources such as: decane, n-hexadecane, glucose, glycerol, paraf- fin and cooked oil, at concentration of 1% (w/v) and after selection the best carbon source, differ- ent C/N ratios such as: 10, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 were used. The culture media were incubated at 30 °C, pH 7 and on rotary shaker at 130 rpm for 10 d. The biosurfactant production and its activi- ty were investigated oil spreading test and E24, respectively at regular time intervals.
Polypropylene fibers have good technical properties, such as, low specific weight, good mechanical properties, and good processability. If stabilizer is added to the PP, light and weather stability can be improved. The dyeability of PP fibers, however, is weak. Therefore, for production of colored fibers, pigment must be used and mixed with the polymer prior to melt spinning; dyes can be used when PP is modified by grafting with polar polymers [1, 2].
Semiochemicals were already being studied in the 1880s. Although their chemistry was not yet understood at that time, people already knew about using female insects to lure males into traps. Semiochemical research in its present form has been conducted since the 1950s, when the first pheromones were isolated and identified. From the 1950s up until today, more than 3,000 semiochemicals connected to the chemical communication of insects have been identified. Current research on semiochemicals involves continued molecular mapping, synthesis and studies of biosynthesis. Another research area that has gained importance over the years has been an effort to understand the neurophysiological sensory functions of insects and how hormonal regulation in insects affects pheromone biosynthesis and release. The practical goal of semiochemical research is to develop means and methods of exterminating and controlling insect pests. Semiochemical research is placed in Pasteur's Quadrant of the Stokes model. It is based on pure research in chemistry, but the final goal is still to develop solutions for practical problems through applied research.
Abstract— This study aims to determine the effect of wood particle bayur comparison to the outer layer of coconut husk particle board smooth the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting particle board . The design used was completely randomized design ( CRD ) with 5 treatments with 3 replications for each treatment used is the use of wood particles bayur as the outer layer of particle board and refined coconut fiber as a core that is 80 % : 20 % , 70 % : 30 % , 60 % : 40 % , 50 % : 50 % , 40 % : 60 % observational data physical and mechanical properties were analyzed using analysis of variance if significantly different then performed with a further test of Duncan's New Multiple Range Test ( DMNRT ) at the 5% significance level . Observations made on the physicalproperties of particle board include : water content , water absorption and thickness expansion. The mechanical properties of particle board : strength broken , the pressure parallel and bonding strength. Based on the research that has been carried out showed that the utilization of wood waste bayur as the outer layer of particle board on a percentage varying significantly different effect on strength broken , water content , water absorption , expansion of thick , strength pressure bonding parallel to the internal surface . The results show the percentage of particle board with wood bayur with delicate coconut husk ( 40:60 ) is the best board with a water content of 6.11% , water absorption 20.56 % 10.93 % thicker expansion, density of 0.84 % , bonding strength of 56.90 kg / cm 2 pressure and parallel fiber determination 146.65 kg /cm 2.
16 | P a g e that, with a certain amount of processing slate aggregate can be used for a number of usages, including as a secondary aggregate. However, its economic viability, without a low-cost rail transport is questionable. The environmental damage from transporting the slate aggregate from the quarries in North Wales to marketplaces in urban areas are also triggering questions on the environmental sustainability, especially because the journey would lead through the Snowdonia National Park. Converting the secondary aggregate into a higher value material at the quarry and transporting the new product could create more favourable scenario for removing the slate wastefrom Blaenau Ffestiniog. Highly skilled and available labour is available in abundance in the area surrounding the quarry. This would also trigger new opportunities in an area in desperate need for employment. But without a coordinated joint effort from government and private sector, its hard to see how this could materialise.
Generally, physicalproperties of agricultural products are needed in design and adjustment of machines used during harvesting, separating, clearing, handling processing and storing of agricultural materials. The properties which are useful during design must be known and these properties must be determined with the appropriate cultivars. The grain storage structures are designed to have vertical walls for the primary storage volume and a conical bottom for effective material discharge. Different structural materials are used in constructing the silo walls. In some mechanized storage systems, the bottom is made flat while an unloading device is installed. In each case, most of the properties needed to predict the grain storage pressures are the physical and mechanical properties. The use of belt conveyors to convey granular agricultural solids along inclined paths in agro-industrial plant is fast gaining popularity. In such case, if the belt is inclined near the permissible angle of inclination, the materials may slip or fall back. The permissible angle at which there is no flow back of the materials is influenced by the coefficient of friction between the belt and the materials as well as the angles of repose and internal friction of the materials. In addition, the determination of the capacity of the belt conveyor requires that the bulk density of the grains be known.
Demolition waste materials, such as crushed concrete and bricks, have been utilised by the UK construction industry for applications such as the production of concrete, low level backfill and road sub-base. There has been increased research on the properties of the recycled aggregates in the past decade but it mainly concentrates on the strength of these types of materials through shear box and triaxial tests. Little research has been undertaken on the physicalproperties of recycled materials, such as particle shape, water absorption and freeze-thaw resistance. This paper addresses the investigation of the physicalproperties of demolition waste materials for the purpose of them being reused as engineering fill. It presents the physical characteristics of three types of commercially crushed concrete and brick materials, two of them being similarly based crushed concrete materials with different degrees of processing and one being crushed brick. Characteristics such as particle size distribution, particle shape, large scale compaction, resistance to freeze-thaw and aggregate impact and crushing values were established. The results show that there are similarities and differences between the two concrete based materials. The characteristics of the brick based materials are significantly different from the crushed concrete materials.
Biodiesel samples were stored in glass containers under room temperature condition, and ambient temperature condition for 10 weeks in total. These samples were monitored on a weekly basis through the test properties. The tested parameter is acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point. This process was be done at a certain temperature and mixing them to produce biodiesel in the presence of methanol and base catalyst. Physical characteristics have been considered including acid value, viscosity, density, water content, and flash point. In this study there are 4 samples are taken which is 5% blends of jatropha oil (JO 5), 10% blends of jatropha oil (JO 10), 15% blends of jatropha (JO 15). A block diagram of blending process and schematic diagram were shown in Figure 1. The purified jatropha oil methyl ester was blended with commercial diesel. The mixer was scale at 60°C and the mixture was stirred at 70°C for 1 hour. The blade speed was maintained at 270 rpm.
Abstract Yellow yam, unripe plantain and pumpkin seed flour blends were produced and their potentials for biscuits production were investigated. The blends of yellow yam, unripe plantain and pumpkin seed flour were formulated and compared with 100% wheat flour (control, sample A). The formulated flour blends were in the ratios (w/w) 100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:15:15, 60:20:20 and 50:25:25 coded as sample B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. The flours were evaluated for their functional properties while chemical compositions, physical and sensory properties of the biscuits produced were evaluated. The result showed that the bulk density of flour blends was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control. Sample B had the highest water absorption capacity and swelling index but the least wettability compared to sample C to F. Crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and energy values of flour blends biscuits were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values obtained from sample A and B. Ash contents of samples C and D were significantly close to the control while reduction in carbohydrate content was observed as the levels of substitution increased. Appreciable increase was noticed in selected mineral concentrations of flour blends biscuits. Oxalate and phytate values were significantly (p<0.05) higher while saponin, tannin and hydrogen cyanide values were lower than the control. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight and spread ratio of biscuits producedfrom flour blends were observed when compared with the control. However, sample D had the highest diameter while significant (p>0.05) difference was not observed in thickness of flour blends biscuits and the control. The sensory scores showed that sample D compared favourably with sample A as this would enhance the utilization of these underutilized crops.
Earthworms were collected from three different locations (Wadura, Shalimar and Gulmarg). Mature earthworms and their cocoons collected from various sites at each location were pooled together forming a composite sample. The earthworms from each location were identified on the basis of taxonomic characteristics and mass multiplied in appropriate media.On the basis of body shape, colour, body length and number of segments, Eisenia foetida, Apporectodea rosea Apporectodea caliginosa were identified from Wa Eisenia foetida and Apporectodea caliginosa
The initial nitrate concentrations in organic materials ranged from 5 mg kg -1 (Q facility) to 1366 (F facility), while the final nitrate concentration in the final products ranged from 4 mg kg -1 (Q facility) to 2999 (F facility). The final concentration of nitrate was the highest in chicken manure compost with mean of 659 mg kg -1 followed by the mixed organic material composts with mean of 291 mg kg -1 , followed by cow manure composts with mean of 162 mg kg -1 (Table 8). Final contents of nitrate increased compared to the initial content in about 44% of compost facilities indicating the presence of high amount of ammonium susceptible to nitrification and more time was needed to reach to the end of this process (Hue and Liu, 1995). ANOVA tests exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) between means of nitrate contents of all types of composts. Results showed that the concentrations of nitrate were higher than the upper limit set by the CCQC (150 mg kg 1 ) in 44 % of composts under present study. Our results were similar to those reported by Bernal et al. (2008) and Wang et al. (2004).
ABSTRACT: Cinnamomum riparium Gamble belongs to the family Lauraceae is a red listed species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It is a tree growing in evergreen forests and traditionally used for treating conditions like wound healing, fever, intestinal worms, headache, inflammations, menstrual problems etc. According to tribal’s, this activity is mainly due to the volatile oil present in it. But as per published reports much works have not been carried out so far using its volatile oil. Hence it was thought worth to do the research work on this plant. Berries were collected from Paniyeli poru, near Periyar river, Ernakulam District, latitude 10.1720° N and longitude76.5959° E Kerala, India. Berry essential oil was separated by steam distillation technique by using a Clevenger trap apparatus. Separated berry essential oil was used for evaluating the physical and chemicalproperties including therapeutic activity (antioxidant activity) using DPPH scavenging assays. The berry oil exhibited 76.45% of antioxidant activity. The oil was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The main constituents present in the berry oil were γ–elemene, 1,3-benzodioxol, eugenol and caryophyllene. As it is a red listed plant it become very important to preserve the plant for further studies and for the future generations to make use of its valuable medicinal properties for the humanity. The present study gave a high degree of evidence and encouragements to demonstrate the plant’s promising health benefits .
Merati and Okamura studied the physicalproperties of recycled cotton yarns. They stated that the fiber length was a key factor on the strength of the yarn. As the fiber length increases, the strength of yarn also increases . In another study, virgin polyester fibers and recycled cotton fibers were blended at a ratio of 60/40, and the results showed that the strength of open end yarns were depended on the opening roller speed in carded rotor yarn production system . Additionally, Halimi et al. implied that certain process parameters of open end rotor spinning including rotor type, opening roller speed, rotor speed and twist factor were the important factors for spinning of virgin cotton and cotton waste blends. They emphasized that addition of cotton waste at levels up to 25% in the draw frame did not affect the quality of rotor yarn . El-Nouby compared the hairiness of open end rotor yarns produced by blending different ratios of cotton waste (flats, combing nail, spinning, and sliver wastes and long period stored cotton) and recycled waste (fabric waste). According to the results of the study, increases in the applied mechanical processes and the ratio of the recycled waste in yarns led to higher hairiness values for all yarns . Furthermore, Heifetz’s patent described a method for producing high quality yarns including at least 10% recycled fibers wherein the yarn count range was Ne 8-18 .
potential exhibit strongly dependent on pH. The McNiff et al.  investigated emulsion use of 10 % soybeanoil. Lee et al.  used soybeanoil as a biodegradable extracting agent for the removal of sorbet phenanthrene (PHE) in sandy soil. In their study, several methods of forming emulsions using soybeanoil and their extraction properties has been investigated. Nikovska  prepared oil-in-water emulsions (o/w) with olive oil stabilized by soy protein isolate (SI) and whey protein isolate (WPI). It has been established, that the emulsions at lower oil concentration were less stable. The turbidity of emulsions was investigated by Ly et al.  and Mikkonen et al. . They found that, the oil droplets of the emulsion moved upwards due to gravity which led to the formation of a relatively clear serum layer at the bottom of the cuvette. The turbidity of the emulsion in the bottom part of the cuvette indicates the stability of emulsion. Roesch  and Gancz  have investigated emulsions prepared with soybean protein and whey protein – as a stabilizer of systems. The objective of this work is to investigate emulsion stability with different soybeanoil amounts and at two additions of protein: soybean protein isolate and casein.
Biodiesel fuel typically has higher cloud point, means that the crystals begin to form at higher temperature compared to standard diesel fuel (figure 3(a)). This feature has implication for biodiesel in cold weather performance. It was found that palm has the highest cloud point while waste cooking oil has the lowest cloud point. Corn oil and soybean has minus degree Celsius in temperature. It can be concluded that palm oil is not suitable to use in cold weather country, while corn oil, soybeanoil and waste cooking oil can be used as commercial fuel in cold weather country. Figure 3 (b) show that the palm oil has the highest pour point which is 10 o C followed by chicken fat oil 7 o C. Both of these pour points are significantly higher than that of diesel fuel and may cause problems during cold weather. While for corn oil, soybeanoil, sunflower oil and waste cooking oil have minus degree Celsius in temperature. Thus, corn oil, soybeanoil, sunflower oil and waste cooking oil can be applied during cold weather due to their ability to gel at lowers temperature. Figure 3(c) shows the result of flash point for each feedstock in this experiment. Corn oil has the highest flash point compare to other biodiesel oil. While palm oil has the lowest flash point, it is easier to burn and needed more safety in handling compared to corn oil.