CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

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October Textiles and textile articles Chemicals, chemical products and man-made fibres

October Textiles and textile articles Chemicals, chemical products and man-made fibres

Turkish company, located in Eskisehir, close to Istanbul and Ankara, founded in 01/2006, with 62 employees, leading manufacturer of disposable medical textile products (i.e. surgical gowns and drapes) is looking for partnership opportunities with the interested investors to enlarge the capacity. Major customers are all healthcare enterpreneurs, public and private university hospitals, exporting to whole Europe, Middle East and some other countries around the globe. Partnership could either be established by a distribution partner - manufacturer, who wants to broaden his/her range of products or retailer with very good contacts to the related and other textile sector - or by creating a production joint venture. We do welcome all the serious offers from all countries. Please visit our website and contact us anytime you wish.
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Chemical Composition of Everyday Products

Chemical Composition of Everyday Products

ix Welcome to the enormous world of chemical products for the average consumer! We all reside in an environment richly filled with numerous consumer choices, in which chemistry plays a pivotal role. Chemistry, often described as the systematic study of all substances, is an extremely important part of human society. The study of chemistry encompasses the composition and properties of all matter and any changes exhibited when there is a reaction with other types of substances. Matter, of course, is any substance that occupies space within the universe and has a property called mass. Any substance that can be characterized and quan- tified by weight has mass. A change that may result from the interaction of two or more substances is defined as a chemical reaction, and the sub- stances individually are termed chemicals. Thus, chemistry is part of the study of the functioning and properties of the physical world. In other words, chemistry is a specialization in the general field of science. Life is frequently described as a series of choices within the overall chemistry of the world. Therefore, a description of the chemistry of everyday prod- ucts is simply a guide to specific types of chemical items available in mod- ern societies that have come to symbolize convenience, prosperity, and an increase in the overall quality of our lives. The materials used by the chemical industry are chosen for many reasons, including cost, product performance, consumer use comfort, and so on. The goal of this book, although certainly not exhaustive, is to describe in general language the specific chemical composition of a range of consumer products while also highlighting such topics as the historical use of the product, physical functioning, and any associated environmental and/or human health- related issues.
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Chemical Products COMPLETE LINE

Chemical Products COMPLETE LINE

Environmental concerns are one of the leading issues facing the industry today. NTE Electronics, Inc. has set a goal to reduce and/or eliminate ozone depleters from their products while maintaining and improving performance. The inclusion of CFC/HCFC free chemicals is another step closer to that goal.

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Korean consumers’ awareness of the risks of chemicals in daily consumer products

Korean consumers’ awareness of the risks of chemicals in daily consumer products

The Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemi- cal Substances (K-REACH) is the Korean version of the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation. K-REACH originally aimed to manage the risks from chemical expo- sure by providing relevant information on intrinsic risks and guidance regarding safe use, such as by providing proper classification and labeling [7]. It was enforced first on January 1, 2015, and partly amended several times until Oct 16, 2018. Pursuant to the Act, any person who produces or imports over 1 t of an existing chemical sub- stance subject to registration, or 100 kg of a new chemi- cal substance, should register that chemical with the Minister of Environment. In accordance with Section 2, Article 35 of the Act, if a product contains ‘a substance subject to intensive control,’ when a consumer requests information, the person who transfers the product (e.g., manufacturer, importer, seller, or sub-user) must pro- vide information, such as the product name as well as the name and concentration of the ‘substance subject to intensive control’, its purpose, and its restricted con- centration [8]. The Act on Safety Control of Consumer Chemical Products and Biocides was enforced January 1, 2019 [9]. According to this Act, those who intend to manufacture or import products with safety notification criteria among the 35 consumer chemical products sub- ject to safety verification must verify whether a product conforms to safety standards. In the case of products without safety criteria, such as disinfectants for humidifi- ers, data must be submitted on the use of such chemicals and must be approved by the Minister of Environment. Pursuant to Sections 1 and 2, Article 29 of the Act [9], information on biocidal substances and biocidal prod- ucts approved by the Environment Minister must be dis- closed, and the person who purchases a biocide-treated product (a product that uses a biocidal product for sec- ondary purposes, such as removal of harmful organisms, in addition to its main purpose) may request that the manufacturer or importer of the product provide infor- mation about the biocidal agents used in that biocide- treated product (Section 1, Article 30) [9].
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The Chemicals in Products Project: Case Study of the Textiles Sector. prepared by United Nations Environment Program DTIE / Chemicals Branch

The Chemicals in Products Project: Case Study of the Textiles Sector. prepared by United Nations Environment Program DTIE / Chemicals Branch

buttons, zippers etc. Figure 5: Textile production chain illustrating typical business relationships 1 Looking globally at the textiles market, the supply chain stakeholders who do have in place a negative-content information exchange mechanism account for a minor portion of the global textiles industry. While one might view this situation as a glass which is more empty than full, it is important to bear in mind that the accomplishments in the manufacturing sector have been made in many instances in recent years. Numerous persons contacted for this case study noted a general and accelerating trend towards increased knowledge of textiles chemicals issues and related information exchange. The driving forces behind the trend appear to be to some degree stricter legislation, but in large part there is increasing consumer demand which appears rooted in an greater awareness by consumers of the chemicals-textiles (and general chemical-products) issues.
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Hazardous chemicals in construction products

Hazardous chemicals in construction products

Concentrations of hazardous substances in construction products All construction articles registered in the SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen databases need to have a contents declaration. This means that the contents (as a percentage by weight) must be specified for substances at CAS level. This is often expressed as a “less than” value, which results in the total contents sometimes exceeding 100%. A summary of the average chemical content in different construction article categories is presented in Table 2, based on the assumption that a value reported as being “less than” is the actual concentration. An average content does not mean that the substance occurs in all the articles within a particular category, but gives an overview of roughly the concentration at which the substances occur when they are used. However, there are uncertainties in the information which companies have input in assessment systems. For example, the table shows that styrene occurs in concentrations between 20 and 49% in the products in which it is used, while vinyl acetate occurs in concentrations up to 20%. As styrene is used as a starting material in the production of polystyrene, it is likely that a large proportion of these concentrations comes from raw materials used during production. This is evident in some cases in the database, but far from being the case all the time. In some cases, the occurrence of free monomers and
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CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

In this equation, sodium bicarbonate reacts with acetic acid to yield carbon dioxide, water, and sodium acetate. Although at this point you probably don’t recognize many of these formulas, you can see very clearly that the starting materials (on the left side of the arrow) are different than the products (on the right side of the arrow). This shows that chemistry has happened.

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Chemical Routes for the Transformation of Biomass into Chemicals

Chemical Routes for the Transformation of Biomass into Chemicals

Industrially, fatty alcohols are produced by hydrogenolysis in a catalytic multiphase reaction, in the presence of a solid hydrogenation catalyst such as copper chromite, which operates at pressures between 250 and 300 bar and temper- atures in the range 523-573 K. 924 A large excess of hydrogen is required because of its low solubility in the reaction mixture, which introduces mass transport resistance and limits the concentration of hydrogen at the surface of the catalyst. There are some patents which claim the use of different versions of copper chromite. 925-928 Palladium- rhenium and rhodium-tin systems have also been used as catalysts for hydrogenolysis. 929 In the hydrogenation of R,β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds, there is a challenge for the production of unsaturated fatty alcohols. Indeed, copper chromite catalysts are not selective for hydrogenation of the carboxyl group or the isolated double bonds. Meanwhile, unsaturated fatty alcohols such as oleyl alcohol are desired for surfactants applications, and therefore chemoselective catalysts able to reduce the carboxylic group and preserve the double bonds have been obtained. For example, in 1937, Sauer and Adkins performed the hydrogenolysis of butyl oleate over zinc chromite catalyst, achieving a yield of oleyl alcohol up to 65% at 300 ° C and 200 bar. The process, however, required a large amount of catalyst (40% with respect to the carbonyl compound). 930 To improve this, Aring et al. described a processes for the preparation of unsaturated alcohol from unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of an excess of a trialkylamine and using a Zn-Cr catalyst optionally activated with Ni and/or Cu at temperatures >573 K and hydrogen pressures >180 bar. The trialkylamine prevents the loss of catalytic activity when free fatty acids Scheme 26. Hydrogenolysis of Fatty Acid Derivatives and Main Products Derived from Oleic Alkyl Ester a
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Consuming Chemicals. Hazardous chemicals in house dust as an indicator of chemical exposure in the home

Consuming Chemicals. Hazardous chemicals in house dust as an indicator of chemical exposure in the home

milk...legislative action takes too long before yielding results. European Commission (2001) The data presented in this report shows just how serious and widespread the problem of chemical contamination is. This contamination is not just of the environment “out there”. It affects our homes, our offices, our daily lives. Moreover the pollutants we have targetted for investigation are not coming from traffic fumes, industrial chimneys or pesticides. They are brought into our homes as unseen and unlabeled chemical additives in everyday consumer products. It may seem surprising that the sort of chemicals that we tested for are used in everyday consumer products at all. They are the same chemicals currently causing great concern among scientists, governments and environmental groups because we know they can interfere with reproductive and immune sytems, imitate hormones and cause cancer in a variety of living organisms. It is still more surprising that they are appearing in house dusts with such frequency because one of the arguments of manufacturers has been that most of these chemicals are bound into products and do not therefore represent an exposure threat.
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Market Developments of and Opportunities for biobased products and chemicals

Market Developments of and Opportunities for biobased products and chemicals

Figure 2 shows the most important pathways from biomass to building blocks to polymers. The thickness of the arrows is related to the current market relevance of the corresponding building blocks, while the yellow coloured areas illustrate the direct conversion of different polymers (namely natural rubber, starch-based polymers, lignin-based polymers and cellu- lose-based polymers) from biomass. Finally, green-coloured pathways correspond to the routes derived from glucose, whereas the purple and the orange ones coincide with the glycerol and fatty acid pathways respectively. Only existing routes currently engaged in industrial production have been taken into consideration. There are many more pathways under research or at pilot stage. However, one can clearly see that bio-based chemical pro- ducers currently have the potential to build extensive alternative supply chains for a variety of chemicals and polymers (e.g. PU, PA).
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INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS FROM VEGETABLE OILS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS FROM VEGETABLE OILS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION

Abstract: Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment- friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of vegetable oils using anhydrides of different chain lengths. Owing to the unfavorable impact on the environment of mineral oil-based lubricants, there has been a steady in-crease in the demand for biodegradable, environment-friendly lubricants. However, development of a biodegradable base fluid that could replace or partially substitute conventional mineral oil is a big challenge. The chemically modified base fluids exhibit superior oxidation stability in comparison with unmodified vegetable oils. These base fluids in combination with suitable additives exhibit equivalent oxidation stability compared with mineral oil-based formulations.Vegetable oils properties (high viscosity index, low friction coefficient, high flash point, low volatile, higher shear stability, etc.) makes oil more suitable for lubrication over mineral oils. At the same time, esters of vegetable oils are superior to crude vegetable oils as lubricants due to high viscosity index, low iodine value and higher temperature stability. Vegetable oils like Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice after chaff (rice husk). It is notable for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and its mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking oil. A component of rice bran oil is the antioxidant γ-oryzanol, at around 2% of crude oil content. Thought to be a single compound when initially isolated, it is now known to be a mixture of steryl and other triterpenyl esters of ferulic acids. Also significant is the relatively high fractions of tocopherols and tocotrienols, together as vitamin E. Rice bran oil is also rich in other phytosterols. The oil can be converted into value added products known as oleochemicals. Thus interesterification of such oils catalyzed by lipase to produce oleo chemicals is carried out in present work. Conventional chemical method of interesterification has got several disadvantages which can be overcome by proposed work using enzyme catalyst. Enzyme catalyzed process is eco-friendly and less expensive. Besides these, it has one more advantage of selective action of enzyme to produce desired product. Here, interesterification is carried out by using L-aspergine monohydrate lipase as a catalyst on Rice bran oil to produce oleo chemicals having entirely different properties.
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An informatics approach to prioritizing risk assessment for chemicals and chemical combinations based on near-field exposure from consumer products

An informatics approach to prioritizing risk assessment for chemicals and chemical combinations based on near-field exposure from consumer products

prioritization: the Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB; Knudsen et al., 2009; Martin et al., 2009a; Martin et al., 2009b), the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database (DSSTox; Richard and Williams, 2002; Richard et al., 2006), the Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCast; Dix et al., 2007; Richard et al., 2016), and the Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast; Cohen Hubal et al., 2010; Judson et al., 2012; Wambaugh et al., 2013). The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) aggregates these databases under one interface (Judson et al., 2012). ToxRefDB compiles the results from published animal pesticide assays. The TOX21 program is moving away from in vivo testing in favor of in vitro high-throughput toxicity screening (HTS), so the ToxRefDB is mostly a legacy project even though it continues to provide useful data to bench toxicologists. DSSTox is a database of chemical structures and associated toxicity annotations that aims to prioritize the screening of potentially harmful chemicals based on structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling. ToxCast prioritizes chemicals for risk assessment based on HTS, in which isolated cells and proteins are exposed to chemicals. DSSTox and ToxCast provide useful and objective information about potential toxicity but neither takes likely exposure or retention into account, nor do they consider combined exposure. ExpoCast is an exposure-based prioritization framework. Its current models are based on multiple empirical analyses of indoor and outdoor air, drinking water, soil, urine, dust, and indoor surface residues for selected chemicals, mainly pesticides and their metabolites. Consumer products are not considered, so ExpoCast is not directly useful for the present research, but the results of this research could supplement the ExpoCast exposure forecasting models.
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Interested consumers’ awareness of harmful chemicals in everyday products

Interested consumers’ awareness of harmful chemicals in everyday products

Risk communication provisions, such as hazard picto- grams on the product containers, are established to aid consumers and workers to be aware of hazards and to implement a suitable risk management behavior so as to minimize exposure and hence risk. The understanding of the risk communication message by the recipients is one of the basic pillars of chemical legislation [2]. Risk com- munication is an important first step, but there are vari- ous indications that risk communication measures are not always as effective as intended, because they are not always understood in the way expected by the decision makers and are thus not sufficiently protective under the consumer and the environmental perspectives. Previous studies that evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of risk communication yielded remarkable results: A large number of users in European and non-European coun- tries struggled to understand ingredient lists and labels [3, 4]. Other studies analyzed the understanding of haz- ard pictograms and showed that end-users did not under- stand the signs correctly [5, 6]. Even correctly understood risk information did not necessarily lead to the intended risk reduction behaviors [5]. It was also described that illiterate persons had great difficulty to understand picto- rial label information and safety instructions [6]. A Euro- pean survey [7] where citizens should indicate whether they thought that certain products contained ‘chemical substances’ in general showed that it is also worthwhile to ask very simple and basic questions which do not require any previous knowledge. Participants of this survey were not asked about harmful substances but only about chemical ingredients. For a chemist the results of this survey were shocking because large numbers of partici- pants in some EU member countries assumed that prod- ucts like cleaning products (up to 9% of the participants in one EU member country), paint (up to 10%), electronic appliances (up to 37%), or furniture (up to 38%) would not contain chemical substances at all. Such results sug- gest that these citizens might have problems understand- ing risk communication tools. However, it is not certain that experts judge risks correctly [8, 9].
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The. Chaos. Analysis of Potential Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemicals in Dispersant Products

The. Chaos. Analysis of Potential Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemicals in Dispersant Products

The failure to disclose dispersant formulations, which include the percentage composition of individual ingredients in a product, further limits understanding of a specific dispersant’s impacts. Several chemical components are suspected toxins to a variety of organs and body functions. The term “suspected” suggests that there is evidence that the chemical may have an impact but that more study is necessary to determine the exposure and dose that causes harm. Similarly, for chemicals that cause varying degrees of eye or skin irritation, knowing the types and levels of exposure that will cause negative effects is essential to protect- ing those who are exposed to the dispersant containing that chemical. Not knowing a dispersant’s formulation means that the percentage or ratio of chemicals in that dispersant are a mystery. Therefore, even if more research were done to identify the precise types and levels of exposure to specific chemicals that cause negative effects, it would be impossible to determine the levels of exposure to a dispersant that would cause potentially hazardous impacts in the absence of that dispersant’s formula.
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THE CHEMICALS AND CLEANING/FINISHING PRODUCTS SEGMENT HOUSEHOLD, COMMERCIAL, AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL

THE CHEMICALS AND CLEANING/FINISHING PRODUCTS SEGMENT HOUSEHOLD, COMMERCIAL, AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL

Reasons for Higher Spending in 2006 Of the 34 percent of chemical segment respondents planning to increase spending for packaging machinery in 2006, the vast majority (91%) indicated that at least in part, they are doing so to improve packaging line efficiency and/or productivity (Figure C-7). Fifty-three percent said they need to increase the capacity of their existing packaging operation, and 34 percent are aiming to reduce labor and/or maintenance costs.

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SAP and the Chemical Industry. SAP Industry Business Unit Chemicals March 2009

SAP and the Chemical Industry. SAP Industry Business Unit Chemicals March 2009

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. SAP, R/3, xApps, xApp, SAP NetWeaver ® , Duet ™ , SAP Business ByDesign, ByDesign, PartnerEdge and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other product and service names mentioned and associated logos displayed are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specifications may vary.
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On Toxicant-Induced Succession in Periphyton Communities: Effects of Single Chemicals and Chemical Mixtures

On Toxicant-Induced Succession in Periphyton Communities: Effects of Single Chemicals and Chemical Mixtures

cyanobacterial component of the biofilm were assessed by species counts using microscopy and/or chemotaxonomic analysis of pigment profiles. The resulting toxicant-induced changes were then used to assess similarity or dissimilarity between the chemicals in their ecological mode of action, and the precision with which CA and IA could predict effects from reference mixtures of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals. On a biochemical level similarly acting photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides acted similarly also in the periphyton communities, and CA provided an accurate prediction for their joint toxicity. CA was equally powerful for a mixture of non-congeneric PSII inhibitors assumed beforehand to have a less similar ecological mode of action. IA was slightly better than CA for predicting the joint effect from a mixture of dissimilarly acting pharmaceuticals and personal-care products. At a mixture concentration that caused a 50% reduction in biomass, IA deviated from the observed effect only by a factor of 1.1. However, lower concentrations of this mixture caused a stimulation of biomass, a phenomenon which is outside the scope of both CA and IA. The mixture studies further strengthens the evidence that joint toxicity needs to be considered in risk assessments even if the chemicals do not cause a discernible effect on their own. Furthermore, the findings show that both CA and IA are suitable to predict risks from co-occurring pollutants on community structure. The human pharmaceutical clotrimazole is regarded as a priority pollutant to the marine environment and its ecotoxicity was specifically evaluated. Clotrimazole is a fungicide that inhibits sterol synthesis at 14 α -demethylase (14DM). Periphyton communities exposed to 50 pmol/L clotrimazole had a reduced 14DM
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Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

Our UV transmission data (Figure 4, and 5, Table 3) demonstrated that UV wavelengths could completely penetrate to the inner surface of various PC-replacement bottles where chain scission or other chemical reactions could occur in the presence of oxygen, thereby potentially producing chemicals with EA that could leach into solu- tions contained within the product. Product manufacturers could attempt to minimize such UV penetration to the inner wall of their products. For example, our data (Figure 4B) suggest that the potential UV degradation at the inner surface of some green bottles would be lower compared to the colorless and blue Tritan™ bottles. How- ever, green colorants would not guarantee that a green product would not leach chemicals with EA. As one ex- ample, a UV-stressed green acrylic wine goblet (Figure 1G) leached chemicals with EA, as did other green bottles made of various resins (data not shown). Hence, rather than trying to prevent release by using certain green color- ants, we believe that the best solution to potential leaching of UV-produced chemicals having EA would be to use PC-replacement resins and additives that remain EA-free upon exposure to UV radiation.
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Chemical Use Categories  # of chemicals

Chemical Use Categories # of chemicals

using a larger p-value threshold shows that the association between hypertension and chlordane’s gene list is statistically significant (p<0.05). While the extent of this study examined the cumulative biological effects, preliminary ToxPi analysis examining the effects of chemicals on intended target families within each biological processes was performed and was found to be unstable due to the low number of slices. Further in-depth analysis of these chemicals and their intended target families should be conducted to establish adverse outcome pathways (AOP) for health diseases using an in silico approach. Overall, this study revealed a unique approach to: identify and visualize bioassay response trends within and between chemicals, categorize chemicals based on chemical use which showed the majority of pesticides found on Superfund sites being the most toxic and bioactive across each biological process, index a diverse selection of chemicals based on their propensity to disrupt biological processes which was shown to be statistically significant when compared to the SPL rankings, and found several statistically significant gene-disease associations related to the top 10 ranking chemicals which opens the possibilities to explore various disease pathways. With data based mainly on high-throughput screening, we may not be able to replicate the actual responses in a human system.
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Chemical Security: Toxic Chemicals of Security. Concern

Chemical Security: Toxic Chemicals of Security. Concern

This Consultation RIS assumes that the level of benefits generated by an option is directly proportionate to adoption levels. That is, greater adoption of the proposed security measures will generate greater aggregate benefits. We acknowledge, however, that the benefits of these options are uncertain – in other words, at this stage it is not possible to indicate the size of the benefits either quantitatively or qualitatively from reduced harmful incidents associated with criminal use of toxic chemicals. As a result, it is possible that the costs could outweigh the benefits in the case of both options, in which case the status quo would be preferred. However, based on available evidence to date, the status quo is not favoured. The risk assessments undertaken by AGD identified a range of vulnerabilities in how security risks associated with the toxic chemicals are currently being managed across the supply chain. The status quo would leave these risks unaddressed.
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