Nigerian education system has been variously criticized. In particular, various aspects of science education have been faulted for lack of relevance in solving the societal problems and their failure to adequately prepare the learner for life after school. This ugly situation is most pronounced at the senior secondary school level of education. This can be attributed to the failure of science education in senior secondary schools in Nigeria to create context relevant products and thoughts. Chemistry educators have not provided enough teaching and learning atmosphere required to make the learner self sufficient or be able to solve personal and societal problems in or out of school. The solutions to these gross dissatisfactory conditions lie on ensuring that chemistryeducation produces people who are creative. Attainment of this goal requires that chemistry should be taught with methods that enhance creativity. The learning environment and facilities should be enhanced to facilitate creative teaching and learning. There should be conscious efforts to overcome the barriers that hinder creativity in chemistry classrooms, and which consequently prevent chemistryeducation from responding positively to the needs of sustainable national development. This challenges the efforts of governments, other proprietors of schools, science teachers and the learners.
The science education, which has a distinct place in the educational system with its content, consists of three main disciplines named physics, chemistry and biology (Kaptan, 1996). Being one of this three main disciplines, science of chemistry contains lots of abstract concepts that causes frequent problems in conceptual instruction in the chemistry lessons. Many students have difficulties in embodying abstract concepts therefore they also have difficulties in chemistry lessons which contains so many abstract concepts (Nakhleh, 1992). For this reason it is recommended that students configure the concepts of chemistry lessons by their own. The places where students can learn and configure his or her own scientific knowledge are laboratories. Laboratory activities which are integral components of chemistry lessons enables students to build up their own experience with concrete materials (Ayas and others, 2005; Taúdelen, 2004). Beach and Stone (1988) express that the most efficient way of chemistryeducation is through laboratories and they say that “chemistryeducation without laboratory is like painting without colors and canvas or learning how to ride a bike by reading its operating manual” (Tezcan and Bilgin, 2004). “Laboratory method” is one of the learning methods and it is main function is to enable students to prove basic
While it proved difficult to find published scholarly work on the relevance of the graduate attributes to Australian tertiary chemistryeducation and its stakeholders, further investigation of the literature did reveal a conference paper titled (Ashman, Scrutton, Stringer, Mullinger, & Willison, 2008) which explored chemical engineering education in the context of the graduate attributes. The paper described chemical engineering students’, graduates’, and industry’s ratings of the level of competence at and importance of chemical engineering graduate attributes. In more detail, the study identified four relevant stakeholder groups: recent graduates (< 5 years) of the School of Chemical Engineering at the University of Adelaide, the line managers of recent graduates, Human Relations (HR) personnel at companies that employed recent graduates, and undergraduate students. These stakeholder groups were asked to rate the importance of 14 graduate attributes important to chemical engineering as part of a survey instrument. All stakeholder groups identified those attributes relating to communication and teamwork as being the most important of the 14 graduate attributes specified in that study. While managers and recent graduates agreed that graduates displayed a high level of competence in teamwork, they disagreed in their assessment of graduates’ competence in communication. Graduates rated themselves much higher than the managers did; and in fact, managers rated communication as being one of the most deficient attributes in the graduates’ skill-set. Interestingly, undergraduates self-identified
This study is located in Manitoba, Canada where the chemistry curriculum for Grade 11 and 12 chemistry curricula (Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth (MECY), 2006 and 2007 respectively) explicitly emphasize a ‘tetrahedral orientation’ as a pedagogical framework for the teaching of chemistry (Mahaffy, 2006). Mahaffy’s model is an extension of the chemistry ‘triplet’ often espoused in the chemistryeducation literature (Gilbert, 2005; Gilbert & Treagust, 2008; Taber, 2013). The Manitoba provincial curricula were developed in response to the curriculum development teams’ understanding of evidence-based appropriate pedagogy for both experiencing and fostering learning in science (Osborne & Wittrock, 1985) and, especially, chemistry through explicit reference to the multi-dimensional modes of representation – microscopic, macroscopic and symbolic (as examples, Gabel, 1993; Gilbert, 2005; Taber, 2013).The authors assert (Lewthwaite & Wiebe, 2012, 2014) that Mahaffy’s (2006) extension of the ‘triplet’ model to include the ‘human element’ is synonymous with a contextual approach to the teaching of science. He encourages chemistry educators to move beyond the triangular planar (which he asserts focuses chemistryeducation on conceptual understanding and content acquisition) to incorporate a further dimension of experience and communication, thus changing the model to a tetrahedron as illustrated in Figure 1 below. As Mahaffy (2006) states “…this rehybridization emphasizes [the] need to situate chemical concepts, symbolic representations, and chemical substances and processes in the authentic contexts of the human beings who create substances, the cultures that use them, and the students who try to
Concepts can be examined in two groups as abstract and concrete ones. While concrete concepts are improved as a result of students’ experiences, it is considerably challenging for students to perceive abstract concepts. Since chemistry includes abstract concepts largely, it is considered to be hard to comprehend as a class by students. In fact, studies confirm this thought. On this particular issue, based on literature, it is clearly stated that students present themselves in learning environment, having some sort of thoughts and acknowledgments which are scientifically incorrect by a majority. The false information or acknowledgments are called misconception in the literature. Furthermore, it is also indicated that it is too hard to eliminate such misconceptions via the traditional teaching methods. Since each student constructs his/her own knowledge, understanding and concepts in accordance with his/her ability and experience, what matters here is, if prior knowledge of student involves any misconceptions, to identify and eliminate misconceptions. In this context, researches on identification and then elimination of misconceptions make a significant contribution to the chemistryeducation. In this paper, misconceptions determined and identified in literatures on subjects considered to be abstract, complex and hard to understand for students in the field of chemistryeducation are studied, namely solubility equilibrium, covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bond and molecule geometry, activity concept in elements, chemical equilibrium, dissolution, electrolyse and battery; methods to remove those misconceptions are discussed; and in this study, the method of literature review, one of the qualitative research patterns, is used. To conclude, multiple misconceptions in chemistryeducation, specially related to abstract subjects were determined, and it is confirmed based on the literature that the methods developed in the framework of constructivist learning theory are used to remove such misconceptions.
The phenomena of physical chemistry can be mentioned as an example of such area and/ or theme. The physical chemistry is a typical example of multidisciplinary branch which covers phenomena important in chemistry and biochemistry, physics, geology and biology. For example, various types of methods based on interaction of light and matter are widely used for analysis in science and industry (UV-VIS, Infra-Red, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy etc.) and in various commercial applications (optical devices). Plenty of analytical and commercial applications are based on phenomena of electrochemistry (pH measurements, ion selective electrodes, dry cells etc.). Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the mentioned physical chemistry phenomena and related experiments supported by appropriate devices and methods in high school chemistry curriculum. Unfortunately only a few chemistry phenomena are taught at high schools in the Czech Republic. The reason might be that teachers don’t have appropriate support or devices for demonstration of experiments typically performed in laboratory or as demonstrational in a class in front of students. Moreover, for majority of high schools in the Czech Republic, the price, space requirements and necessity of trained staff are limiting factors for employment of these devices and hence experiments in physical chemistryeducation. For example, in the case of spectroscopic measurements, a suitable device is usually expensive and it needs a well trained staff and care, it must be placed in laboratory at suitable position etc. Solution of the problem is searching for such devices which are relatively cheap, modular, multifunctional and user-friendly with cheap and easy servicing and creating the experiments and educational materials. At the Czech market, there are several suitable devices which fulfi ll the noticed requirements. Especially, the older systems as ISES or IP Coach (Bílek et al., 1997; Bílek et al. 2005) can be mentioned as well as newer SM System or Infraline Graphic (Skoršepa et al., 2006; Stratilová Urválková et al. 2007). These devices allow connecting a variety of sensors related to chemistry, physics and biology - pH sensor, conductivity sensor, colourmetric sensor, resistance sensor, and a lot of others (Pierron, 2004) – which can easily support, through appropriate experiment, teaching process.
on the other hand, in book 2 it was found that in most of the chapters biographies appear in the form of an epilogue. these biographies contribute a great deal of additional information about trajectories (places) and institutional links. nonetheless, in many of the cases these new nodes are not connected to any other elements leaving the information disconnected (figure 2). the way in which these biographies are presented, with short phrases and a great number of facts about places and dates, is a clear example of an aspect that has been greatly discussed and criticized in science education, as was mentioned in the introduction. this aspect refers to fact that biographies can limit themselves to only introducing large quantities of information regarding dates and places without contributing elements that reflect the social and historical contextualization of scientific activity.
Mangasakan (2007) performed a study on the status of high school chemistry teaching in Cotabato City, a former capital of Maguindanao Province. She found out that majority of the students had low achievement rating for the past years. There was a decrease in the academic performance of the city high school chemistry students. Besides, many chemistry teachers at the secondary level felt that students encountered difficulty in learning the basic chemistry concepts and principles. The students performed poorly in their periodical exams, lab works, and other classroom activities. Such finding is apart from some of the worse statistics indicating the poor performance of ARMM students in different assessments (NSO, 2008). And one of the barriers to quality education for Muslim learners is cultural insensitivity. Their needs are neglected and the contents of their books are not fit for them (SEAMEO, 2007).
Most of the objectives set out it the “Man and Nature” educational fi eld can be realized within the frame of the pupil’s own experimental work. However, many of our chemistry teachers face up several practical obstructions impeding the realization of the modern chemistryeducation described above. Most frequent obstructions are: lack of time for the regular experimental work, lack of funds for the chemicals and tools purchase, insuffi ciently equipped or even missing laboratories, and the safety regulations restricting the pupils work with the chemicals. Another problem stems from the insuffi cient preparation of new chemistry teachers, which is sometimes oriented too theoretically. Teachers rising from this type of education avoid chemistry experiments in their lessons.
In another study, Farrell et al. (1988) reported their experience from an enrichment program in the area of sciences that was aimed for the bright and talented high school students. The program focused on the laboratory components of organic chemistry and team project activities. The chemistry laboratory allowed the students to work with concepts (viz. ‘ferrocene’ chemistry) and sophisticated instruments (viz. flash column chromatography, infra-red, UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopy) that were significantly advanced than those normally found in a high school environment. It was found that 90% of the males and 79% of the females who participated in the program were mainly from the urban areas. And the program concept showed its effectiveness in promoting students’ interests from both rural and urban areas to pursue their careers in sciences. The outcome of the program showed that the selected students of that program expressed their enthusiasm for science in a number of ways. Students actively promoted the science/chemistryeducation in their home school districts. Beyond that initiatives these students further selected the schools that have strong technical programs for their advanced education, and effectively pursued their careers in the areas of sciences (Farrell, Pfeil, & Caretto, 1988).
The Chemistry instruction will serve as example of natural science instruction, as it corresponds to the team specialization. This subject provides wide space for application of information technologies supporting empirical (observation, measuring, experiment) and theoretical (modelling) cognitive met hods. The technology development is very fast but as for its influence on learning in various stages of pupil’s development in the field of knowledge processing, there are only few applicable principles, rules and natural relations. Children’s concepts and likely learning styles are of some importance role in this process.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) promotes excellence in chemistryeducation for undergraduate students through approval of baccalaureate chemistry programs. ACS has charged the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) with the development and administration of guidelines for this purpose. ACS, through CPT, approves chemistry programs meeting the ACS guidelines. Approved programs offer their students a broad-based and rigorous chemistryeducation that provides them with the intellectual, experimental, and communication skills necessary to become successful scientific professionals. Offering such a rigorous program requires an energetic and accomplished faculty, a modern and well-maintained infrastructure, and a coherent chemistry curriculum that develops content knowledge and broader skills through the utilization of effective pedagogical approaches. ACS recognizes that the diversity of institutions and students is a strength in higher education. Thus, these guidelines provide approved programs with opportunities to develop chemistry degree tracks that are appropriate to the educational missions of their institutions.
This paper has been able to bring to fore the factors that affect effective implementation of senior secondary education curriculum. The factors identified include: inadequate funding, poor motivation of teachers, lack of adequate time to cover chemistry curriculum, inadequate chemistry teachers, lack of equipped chemistry laboratory; voluminous nature of chemistry curriculum content, large class size, overwhelming number of activities demanded by the curriculum, inadequate professional development, poor management of laboratory, lack of effective supervision/monitoring, poor utilization of available science teaching materials, poor preparation of chemistry teachers, inadequate infrastructures, the pressure of external certificate examination and poor use of innovative teaching method. Pertinent recommendations are made below and the researcher calls on all the stakeholders in chemistryeducation to ensure strict implementation of the recommendations and other suggested solutions in order to meet the objectives of Senior Secondary educationChemistry Curriculum and improve on the academic performance of the chemistry students.
In 2007 the cooperation between the Department of Teaching and Didactics of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague and the German members of the project CITIES (Chemistry and Industry for Teachers in European Schools) was established. This paper presents information on the results of the coopera- tion and on a practical laboratory course developed for the further education of European chemistry teachers. According to the aims of the CITIES project, the new experiments presented in the course focuse on the con- nections between chemical industry and the school chemistryeducation and on the contributions of chemistry to the whole society. The course was realized for two groups of Czech secondary school chemistry teachers and the evaluation data were obtained from the questionnaire prepared by the German colleagues.
A wide range of national and international databases have been scanned during the literature searching process; however it has been detected that there is insufficient number of research in the related literature regarding the studies of problem-based learning for mixtures topics in secondary education. This case is considered to be quite remarkable. In fact, discussing the mixtures topic through problem-based learning method may affect the achievement level in class positively. From this point of view, and in consideration of the above-mentioned literature, the purpose of this study is searching whether there is differentiation between the academic success of students who receive education through problem-based learning method and teacher-based traditional method for the solutions of real-life problems in the topic of mixtures. Besides, it is expected that data revealed at the end of this research will contribute to the chemistryeducation program and to the content of the course books in secondary education.
According to the directives of the authorities, the teaching of chemistry in the 5th grade follows logic by objectives in the Malagasy educational system. Con- sisting of lectures, application exercises and evaluations similar to these exer- cises, the use of this approach in two classrooms at the Lycée Toamasina II highlighted that the level of proficiency of the pupils decreases as the tax- onomic level of the objectives increases. On the one hand, goal-oriented pe- dagogy aims at the assimilation of notions by the conditioning of students, requiring considerable academic time and not allowing accompaniment and remediation. On the other hand, it does not take into account the learning process of students, limited to a binary evaluation of the attainment of objec- tives. Moreover, the use of acquired knowledge is limited to specific school contexts, making it difficult to reinvest them.
Since pharmacists use chemical compounds to treat biological conditions, the biology/chemistry degree is a natural choice for preparation for pharmacy school. You will have a strong foundation on how the two sciences are interconnected. With an aging population, pharmacists will continue to play a very important role in healthcare and remain in high demand.
School and Senior High School are those who could not pass or had weak grades in science. It also observed that it is one of the subjects students tend to dislike most. The students in the colleges are often seen to be referred and re-sit their science courses every year. Few students choose science course their major area of studies. Almost every year Chief Examiner’s Reports of science course indicate that pre-service teachers’, usually called teacher- trainees, output in semester examinations is poor especially their inabilities to interpret. Several researches indicated that abstract teaching of scientific concepts among others contributes to lack of interest and poor performance of students in science (TIMSS, 2004; Anamuah-Mensah, Mereku, & Ampiah, 2009). This is a worrying situation since the future of many young scientists rest in pre-service teachers’ hands (Anderson & Miller, 1994), since they lay the foundation of learners’ attitudes and interest in studying science subject such as Chemistry in future. According to Anamuah-Mensah, Mereku, and Ampiah (2009), teachers’ difficulties in reading, comprehending, interpreting and writing some science concepts, and effective pedagogy of teaching students with diverse style and abilities among others are the problems of learning science.