Child and Adolescent Anxiety

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Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

He has received free drug and matching placebo from Lilly, and free drug from Abbott for NIMH-funded clinical trials. He has received fees for consultation with defense counsel and submission of written reports in litigation involving GlaxoSmithKline. AMA receives royalties from Oxford University Press for the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, Child and Parent Versions (though not for CAMS) and for manuals not used in this study; and royalties from the Guildford Press. JCP has received grant support from the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation, the Eisner Foundation, grant and travel support from the Tourette Syndrome Association, royalties for treatment manuals on childhood obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders (from Oxford University Press) and from other books on child mental health (from Guilford Press and APA Books), and speaker honoraria from Janssen-Cilag. BB has received grant support from the Fine Foundation and has participated in forums sponsored by JAZZ Pharmaceuticals, Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, and Abcomm Inc. He has given paid talks on the topic of childhood bipolar disorder at a meeting sponsored by Solvay and receives royalties for a book on children with bipolar disorder from Random House, Inc. JTS is a full-time employee of the NIMH/NIH/DHHS. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIMH, the NIH, or the DHHS. GSG has received additional grant support from the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation. MAR has grant support from Neuropharm, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. She is a consultant to Wyeth and receives royalties from APPI for a book chapter on pediatric anxiety disorders. JTM is a paid consultant for Sanofi-Aventis and Wyeth, has received lecture fees from Shire and UCB, and has additional grant support from Aspect, Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Eli Lilly. BDW has grant support from Baystate Health, Somerset Pharmaceuticals, and GlaxoSmithKline. SI receives fees as a statistical consultant from Stanford University and Westinghouse Corporation. PCK receives royalties from the publication of the anxiety treatment materials (not from this study) and from books on child mental health from Workbook Publishing. JSM is a consultant or scientific advisor to Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Wyeth, Johnson and Johnson, and GlaxoSmithKine. He is a stockholder in MedAvante, the author of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) for which he receives royalties (though not for CAMS), has received study drug for TADS from Eli Lilly, receives research funding from NARSAD and from Pfizer, receives book royalties from Guilford Press and from Oxford University Press, and was a member of a DSMB overseeing research conducted by Astra- Zeneca or Johnson & Johnson.
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Investigating the Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Degree of Anxiety Separation among Children Aged 7-12

Investigating the Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Degree of Anxiety Separation among Children Aged 7-12

Anxiety disorders are one of the most common childhood mental health problems, with an estimated prevalence rate of five % to 19% (Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler & Angold, 2003). Not only do these anxiety disorders interfere with young people’s social and academic development (Pine, Helfinstein, Bar-Haim, Nelson & Fox, 2009), but they often follow a chronic life course and have been implicated in the later development of other mental health conditions such as depression (Cole, Peeke, Martin, Truglio & Seroczynski, 1998) and substance misuse (Last, Hansen & Franco, 1997). The pervasiveness of child and adolescent anxiety disorders and their association with adult psychopathology when left untreated highlights the need for effective, accessible treatments.
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Anxiety Disorders among Children/Adolescents in Tirana, Albania: Descriptive Data about Socio-Demographic Factors and Symptoms

Anxiety Disorders among Children/Adolescents in Tirana, Albania: Descriptive Data about Socio-Demographic Factors and Symptoms

SCAS is considered to be one of the most used and useful self-reporting instruments internationally. SCAS, differently from other scales, takes in consideration in a specific manner, the anxiety symptoms manifested in child/adolescent anxiety disorders, crucially different from adults. Furthermore this instrument was designed according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV (APA, 1994). So, the test allows evaluation through 6 subscales of symptoms of anxiety disorders that often affect children/ adolescents. SCAS scale has been used in many international studies for research or clinical intentions.
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Trends in childhood and adolescent internalizing symptoms: results from Swedish population based twin cohorts

Trends in childhood and adolescent internalizing symptoms: results from Swedish population based twin cohorts

Understanding time trends in mental health symptoms is one important aspect in the prevention of youth men- tal illness [1]. During the past decades, there has been an increase in diagnoses and treatment of youth psychi- atric disorders [1]. Whether or not this corresponds to increasing levels of internalizing symptoms in commu- nity samples is not studied sufficiently so far. Studies in- vestigating temporal trends in psychiatric symptoms have generated conflicting findings [2, 10]. In a system- atic review mental health in youth across studies from various cultural contexts (e.g., countries from northern Europe, Australia and North America) was investigated. It encompassed a ten-year period or longer, and demon- strated that temporal fluctuations are dependent on multiple factors including developmental phase, sex and type of symptom [2]. The studies included in this review demonstrated overall increases in internalizing symp- toms during the past decade(s) among girls, with more mixed findings for boys [2]. A literature review on sur- veys conducted in Sweden indicated an increase in men- tal health problems (e.g., depressive symptoms and worry) among adolescents aged 11–15 between the mid- 1980’s and mid-2000’s, with increasing levels particularly among girls [11]. Another Swedish study that included a large sample of adolescents (N = 15,000; 15–16 years old) used repeated cross-sectional assessments of psycho- somatic health problems during 1988–2005. The results demonstrated successive increases in psychosomatic health problems specifically in girls across the study period [12]. In parallel, a steady increase in mental health care consumption for children aged 13–17 in Stockholm county (where approximately 20% of Swedish children and adolescents reside) has been firmly estab- lished since year 2002 [11]. It is unclear whether this re- flects an increase in some form of mental health problem or an increased inclination to seek mental health services. Overall, previous research indicates mixed findings on temporal trends in psychiatric symp- toms, with findings partly associated with differences in sex and developmental time period. Cross-cohort com- parisons can be used to better understand patterns be- yond diagnostic changes [1]. There is a lack of studies investigating symptoms of depression and anxiety in rep- resentative community pre-adolescent samples using re- peated cross-sectional assessments [2, 11].
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Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

The primary outcome is an assessment of severity of be- havioural problems using a modified version of the Pre- school Parental Account of Child Symptoms (Pre-PACS), a semi-structured investigator-led interview administered to a parent or caregiver. The modification of the Pre- PACS for this study was carried out in collaboration with one of its developers through piloting and discussion and all researchers conducting assessments received extensive training on administering the interview. The main revi- sions were made to facilitate its extension in measuring the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct symptoms in younger children aged between 12 and 30 months old. The interview has previously been val- idated for preschool-aged children.
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Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

The primary outcome is an assessment of severity of be- havioural problems using a modified version of the Pre- school Parental Account of Child Symptoms (Pre-PACS), a semi-structured investigator-led interview administered to a parent or caregiver. The modification of the Pre- PACS for this study was carried out in collaboration with one of its developers through piloting and discussion and all researchers conducting assessments received extensive training on administering the interview. The main revi- sions were made to facilitate its extension in measuring the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct symptoms in younger children aged between 12 and 30 months old. The interview has previously been val- idated for preschool-aged children.
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School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England

School-level variation in health outcomes in adolescence: analysis of three longitudinal studies in England

Understanding of school level variation in health outcomes is important as it informs the extent to which interventions on school level factors may influence health i.e. schools’ capacity to promote health amongst students. Further, such data are essential for planning interventions in schools; for example school level intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) are necessary to estimate power required for school- based cluster randomized trials. However, there has been little research into links between school level factors and young people’s health and no systematic study of school level variation in adolescent health outcomes in English schools. Three large, recent, longitudinal studies in England offer the opportunity to redress this gap by studying school-level variation across a range of health outcomes using consistent analytic methods that adjust for likely confounding factors.
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THE URINARY MANIFESTATIONS OF ANXIETY IN CHILD

THE URINARY MANIFESTATIONS OF ANXIETY IN CHILD

During the next six months the child’s urinary symptoms subsided but her mother came to appreciate the extent to which her anxiety about impending womanhood was in- fluencing her charact[r]

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Screening for Anxiety and Depression in an Adolescent Clinic

Screening for Anxiety and Depression in an Adolescent Clinic

To explore this “missed” psychiatric diagnosis group and to determine whether screening for ele- vated anxiety and depression scores had any clinical usefulness, we reviewed the medical [r]

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Child and Adolescent Illness Falsification

Child and Adolescent Illness Falsification

It is recommended that pediatricians include ill- ness falsification by the child patient in the differen- tial diagnosis of a persistent and unexplained medi- cal condition, along with somatization, malingering, and Munchausen by proxy abuse. Signs suggestive of falsification include a child who appears blandly indifferent, unconcerned, or flat in affect in response to unpleasant procedures and hospitalizations, or who demonstrates an unusual level of sophistication or interest in the medical world. Conditions that always begin when the child is alone or unobserved (eg, hematemesis only seen after the child emerges alone from the bathroom, or bruises that always appear when the child is unobserved) should arouse suspicion, as should lesions and rashes that only occur on accessible parts of the body.
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Anxiety among Adolescent Students in Relation to their Intelligence and Family Climate

Anxiety among Adolescent Students in Relation to their Intelligence and Family Climate

Parents want their children to grow academically and vocationally, to attain acceptance in the society and finally reach at the highest level of achievement. Child achievement influences the reputation of the family, with academic failure bringing disgrace and shame to parents and ancestors (Ho, 1987; Hsu, 1985). This desire of a high level of achievement puts a lot of pressure on them and ultimately they are under stress and attain high level of anxiety which is paralyzing factor in the field of education.

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A critical analysis of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services policy in England, 2000‐2015

A critical analysis of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services policy in England, 2000‐2015

Microsoft Word Accepted CAMH policy paper CCPP A critical analysis of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services policy in England, 2000‐2015 Abstract Policy in Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CA[.]

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An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

The hypothesis that the effect of early child symptoms and temperamental risk would be amplified in ecological environments with higher maternal and family/community risks, (a moderation effect), was not supported. This is somewhat surprising given research documenting the potential moderating relationship between maternal personality and behavior and child temperament predicting later social wariness (Degnan et al. 2008). Most studies that have found evidence of moderation compare extreme (high-low) groups of temperamental risk (e.g., Degnan et al.); we chose to represent this construct in a continuous fashion, which may have obscured moderation effects, but better captured the range of risk present in the community. Also, our measure of temperament was a parent-reported measure, which may not be as powerful as an observational assessment of temperament. One unexpected finding was that sociodemographic risk and violence exposure, modeled as a latent factor, predicted lower second grade anxiety. Multi-group analyses uncovered that this effect was only true for girls, suggesting that parents in high-risk environments may underestimate or underreport their daughters’ anxiety symptoms. However, this finding must be interpreted with caution as both risk variables were positively correlated with anxiety,
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THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY ON SPEAKING IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT GROUPS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS

THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY ON SPEAKING IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT GROUPS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS

The researchers de Þ ned further categories of anxiety strictly related to the foreign language learning. Horowitz (1991) characterized principal causes of language anxiety as communication apprehension, test anxiety and the fear of negative evaluation. Communicative apprehension occurs when learners possess mature thoughts and ideas which they are not able to express as a result of their fear of getting into authentic communication. Communication anxiety can be distinct for some settings such as public speaking, and may be a component of general anxiety which arises in various contexts. McCroskey (1980, 1984 as cited in 1987) distinguished several causes resulting in students being quiet (these also can be applied to adult students). These are the fol- lowing reasons: low intellectual skills, lack of acceptable speaking skills, social alienation, communication anxiety, limited self-esteem and also a social and ethnic component.
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Sammy: Gender Identity Concerns in a Six-Year-Old Boy

Sammy: Gender Identity Concerns in a Six-Year-Old Boy

An approach to parental concerns about cross dressing, gender-related choices for friends, and be- haviors that exemplify different sexual roles in school age children is developed in the following commentaries. Dr. Kenneth J. Zucker is a child and adolescent psychologist at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto. As the director of the Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, he has con- ducted extensive clinical research in the area of gen- der identification among children and adolescents. He has contributed to our understanding of the clin- ical spectrum of gender identity issues by contribut- ing to the formulation of that section in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (DSM-PC). Dr. Suzanne D. Dixon is a developmental and behav- ioral pediatrician who is an active teacher, clinician, and researcher. Her interests range from the behav- ior of newborns exposed to drugs in utero to the implementation of breastfeeding programs in devel- oping countries. Dr. Dixon has been active in the development of educational models for clinicians and parents in child development and behavior.
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Adolescent Health Status Measurement: Development of the Child Health and Illness Profile

Adolescent Health Status Measurement: Development of the Child Health and Illness Profile

Adolescent Health Status Measurement: Development of the Child Health and Illness. Services[r]

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Overcoming Diminished Motivation

Overcoming Diminished Motivation

Fluoxetine exposure affects aggression in rodents throughout various developmental stages. Adolescent fluoxetine treatment increases aggression and the number of serotonergic afferent projections responsible for aggressive behavior in Syrian hamsters (Ricci et al., 2012). Adult male rats show increased foot-shock induced aggression when exposed prenatally to fluoxetine and in comparison to other drugs (Singh et al., 1998). Prenatal exposure to fluoxetine increases adulthood aggression, improves spatial memory, and reduces anxiety-like behavior in male mice (Svirsky et al. 2016 & Kiryanova et al., 2014). To the effects of fluoxetine on
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Training of adult psychiatrists and child and adolescent psychiatrists in europe : a systematic review of training characteristics and transition from child/adolescent to adult mental health services

Training of adult psychiatrists and child and adolescent psychiatrists in europe : a systematic review of training characteristics and transition from child/adolescent to adult mental health services

psychopathology and onset of disorders, trainees undergo- ing GAP training in this model may end up with a lack of knowledge and understanding of developmental psy- chopathology. The generalist type of training (model 1) and the common core program with further mandatory specialization (model 3) appear to better guarantee a more balanced experience in both specialities during the whole postgraduate training. These two models may also guaran- tee a better cooperation between child and adult psy- chiatrists when young service users face transition. The generalist training should, nevertheless, be long enough to allow a real core training in which CAP occupies a sig- nificant part of the curriculum. In its publications, the MILESTONE group have started examining the influence of the different training models on the transition outcome of young people in the MILESTONE study, combining European mapping data of child and adolescent mental health services with data on training models [74].
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Providing manualized individual trauma-focused CBT to unaccompanied refugee minors with uncertain residence status: a pilot study

Providing manualized individual trauma-focused CBT to unaccompanied refugee minors with uncertain residence status: a pilot study

could not guarantee full blinding of raters. However, we tried to use different raters for each assessment (T1, T2, T3, T4) whenever possible to prevent them from draw- ing conclusions about the participant’s treatment status within the study. Originally, we were going to include the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) [34] and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emo- tional Disorders (SCARED) [35]. However, we dropped these measures due to insufficient validity and reliabil- ity, participants reporting difficulties in understanding the items and inappropriate questions (e.g. separation anxiety regarding parents for separated youths). Fur- thermore, participants gave the feedback that the assess- ment sessions lasted too long and this was confirmed by raters. Suicidality was assessed after every assessment by a licensed psychotherapist (JU). During treatment, the respective therapist was responsible for screening for sui- cidality in his/her patient after every session.
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The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

National Dietary Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend that children enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods [35]. The ACARFS was designed to capture eating habits and food behaviours recommended within these guidelines. Therefore, like the adult Recommended Food Score [33,34] it only considers intake of foods that align with dietary guidelines. Although the median score was not high at 25, the ACARFS correlated with nutrient intakes in the direction expected and applying Kappa sta- tistics to quartiles of score, generally agreed with estimated nutrient intakes assessed from the ACAES FFQ. Import- antly, children with higher ACARFS scores were more likely to meet the NRVs. The ACARFS therefore implies one or both of the following; firstly that a child who scores well on the ACARFS consumes a wide variety of healthy foods and has an adequate nutrient intake, or secondly that a child who scores well on the ACARFS consumes a wide variety of healthy and unhealthy foods, but still has an adequate nutrient intake. It is important to note that the dietary guidelines are not disease specific. Therefore adher- ence to the guidelines may have a varied effect on chronic disease risk and no assumptions can be made about higher ACARFS scores and decreased risk of chronic diseases without research to specifically evaluate this.
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