All social systems and agencies which affect children should be based on the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This is particularly true for schools which, despite disparities in access across much of the world, serve a large percentage of children of primary school age. Such rights-based — or child-friendly — schools not only help children realize their right to a basic education of good quality. They are also needed to do many other things — help children learn what they need to learn to face the challenges of the new century; enhance their health and well-being; guarantee them safe and protective spaces for learning, free from violence and abuse; raise teacher morale and motivation; and mobilize community support for education.
Abstract: The child-friendly urban space does not mean to build a child-dominated block or city, but means to enhance the child-friendly degree of the original block or city through planning, management and other measures. In the case, based on the original city, "child-friendly" blocks shall be established to provide children with a safe social environment, an improved road system for walking and cycling and an attractive environment that can trigger games. In the last century, the concern for the environment of the block and children's rights and needs prompted many countries to conduct a series of block environmental improvement practices. For example, the concepts of Woonerf and Kindlint in Netherlands were both established to ensure that the child can freely, safely and independently get around. They all try to make the needs of children as measurement to achieve the purpose that residential blocks can satisfy the interests of all people and friendly to all users. Based on the concept of "child-friendly city", after the analysis on related cases about the transformation of child-friendly blocks in Amsterdam, Delft and other cities, the paper makes a summary of concepts and implementation methods about planning and design of safe blocks and Kindlint. With a comparison of inadequate related planning in Chinese urban residential areas, it expects to provide useful experience for improving child friendliness of Chinese residential areas and cities.
adolescent girls where they can feel physically and emotionally safe, forget their daily burdens and focus on themselves, while accessing life-saving services. A Pocket-Guide on safety and resilience for girls has been elaborated with the assistance of adolescent girls. The whole approach supported by UNICEF and civil society partners was to put girls’ concerns, needs and, above all, voices at the centre of the whole intervention, and on the design of the Pocket-Guide in line with the principle of child participation. An estimated 184 girls have been engaged in the programme, including almost 80% of the total girls accommo- dated in the refugees and migrant reception and asylum facilities in Serbia. Child-friendly elements: The contents of the Pocket-Guide were decided based on the topics and activities that girls themselves selected and suggested during the different activities organised by partners. An important child-friendly element was the engagement of girls from different environments to make sure that the Pocket-Guide would be applied in different contexts (where refugee and Roma girls live and socialise) but also to streamline the idea that girls’ rights need to be equally respected and promoted in different settings and contexts regardless of their legal status. Focus groups discussion was held with the girls themselves to understand their preferences and to ensure relevance of the Pocket-Guide. Pictures were selected with them and there was a lot of work on the choice of words and on the design to make sure this was child-friendly and represented their “world”. The use of technical jargon was avoided on purpose, accompanying the text with affirmative and positive pictures in order to reflect girls’ enthusiasm and energy. Lessons learned: It was initially complex to challenge two beliefs: 1) Activities for children need to be inclusive and aggregate boys and girls together. This practice showed the importance of disaggregating activities for girls when it comes to adolescence and to discussing sensitive topics. 2) A girls-only pro- gramme encompasses cultural differences since girls’ needs in emergencies are similar in Serbia, Bulgaria or in vulnerable areas of the Roma communities; hence the importance to develop minimum standards on safety and resilience for girls that could hold true in different contexts.
The aim of this study was to determine whether children with autism conform less than typically-developing children. To ascertain this, we used an implementation of the classic Asch study (Asch, 1956) that used child-friendly stimuli and avoided the use of a group of confederates. Instead, the researcher indicated what "most people" thought the correct answer was (sometimes misleadingly). Using this protocol, the hypothesised difference between the two groups was observed. Further, the negative association between autistic traits (as measured by the AQ) and propensity to conform was maintained even within a group of typically-developing children. These results provide further evidence of
Based on the research that has been discussed previously obtained that this public space already covered of ChildFriendly Integrated public space, in terms of facilities, the park was already full of facilities that fit the criteria, wanted by children in general, most of them were enough to meet the criteria hoped by residents around South Meruya, especially for residents who were not far from Menara Meruya Selatan, it has been able to become a child- friendly park that was comfortable and fun because many of the facilities provided were very complete, but for the security it would be even safer if there was security around the public space, if there is a Security post, it would create a more organized security, because the security would guard within 24 hours a day by using alternating methods.
The approach that we are developing will encour- age each hospital or health center, intending to qual- ify for the awards, first to audit its practices in rela- tion to each standard proposed. It could then develop a ChildFriendly Policy Statement consistent with those standards identified/developed as appro- priate for the cultural and other socioeconomic cir- cumstances prevalent in each country and indicating its practical commitment to the principles of the CFHI and UNCRC. The senior children’s nurse and doctor for the hospital/health center should be fa- miliar with this policy. S/he should be able to de- scribe how staff is made aware of it and trained in its implementation.
the school building was situated in an old countryseat in middle of a nice park and near a forest. children with learning and/or behavioural difficulties got extra social inputs after school: there were no tVs or computers, but a lot of time for walking, talking and thinking; for art and other activities. in the beginning the school staff had no clear idea about the pedagogical methods, only the aim was fixed: the principal of school wanted to improve children’s behaviour through love and peaceful study environment (through the so-called childfriendly scool). the hypothesis was: if the ordinary school caused problems for some students, the solution must have come from a different (opposite) school type. the observed school was the very last possibility to get the obligatory general education in an ordinary school system for these children with learning and/or behavioural difficulties. the next step would be the hospital of mental illnesses or the special school with very strict rules.
The inclusive CFS policy is one of the five components of the CFS. According to the CFS Manual (MoE 2010:1), the CFS concept has five major components: An inclusive childfriendly school in which the school is adjusting the environment and curriculum to suit the needs of learners’ diversity; A safe protective school that guarantees a cordial and safe environment that ensures physical, mental and social wellbeing for every learner; equity and equality promoting school where all girls and boys have equal opportunities for a full participation in the learning process that addresses the basic and unique needs of girls and boys; health and nutrition promoting school that seeks physical, mental, emotional health and nutrition, teaches life skills and HIV and AIDS, provides gender-based violence education; positive experiences for children/psycho-social development; and enhancing school-community linkages and partnerships where the school is encouraging the community to support the provision of quality education to all pupils.
This study is a literature review, based on documents in gathering data and content analysis in analyzing data. The content analysis is carried out by deductive method to know the relevance of the rights of the child in Islam with those of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and inductive method to know the fulfillment of the rights of the child in the implementation of childfriendly education. Some data refer to two main sources of Islamic teachings: Al-Qur’an (Allah’s words) and Hadith (words, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad). Quotations from verses of Al-Qur’an are just their translations in English, not mentioning the verses due to easiness in looking for them. But, quotations from Hadith refer either to their texts in Arabic or their translations in English due to difficulty in looking for the texts of Hadith in Arabic.
There have been several studies conducted relative to CFSS implementation including that of Orkodashvili’s (2010) which revealed that experience is now showing that a framework of rights-based, child-friendly schools can be a powerful tool for both helping to fulfill the rights of children and providing them an education of good quality. Enueme (2011), in her evaluation of the program disclosed that the system has positive impact to both the children, teachers, and the school community as a whole. Moreover, Chidi (2013) also pointed out that quality assurance should be demonstrated through capacity building and monitoring by the government and UNICEF. Hence, there should be constant in-service training of teachers on childfriendly pedagogies.
Table 2: W ithin group analyses Group A and Group B of BBT, QOM and AOU scale. The mean values of 0 days and 90 days in group A and group B of BBT, AOU and QOM scale shows that there is significant improvement in hand function of the patients after 90 days of treatment with both childfriendly CIMT( group A) and PLAY THERAPY ( Group B). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to find out the significance of the analysis between 0 days and 90 days of group A and group B. As significance level was found to be less than 0.05, null hypothesis was rejected.
Built in Jakarta in 2015, the RPTRA Bahari in South Gandaria district, South Jakarta is one of the city’s 6 RPTRA pilot projects. Initially, the project aimed to provide Jakarta with a communal space for children. This aim was in line with the governor’s plan to provide a child-friendly city for its citizens (Permanasari, Nurhidayah, & Nugraha, 2018). Unlike the previous urban approach, Ahok wanted RPTRA to be developed by the bottom up model using participative design approach. The participative design approach in RPTRA Bahari followed the 6 steps of the design process: social mapping, discussions about the initial design, final design, working together in building the RPTRA, and discussion about RPTRA management. The whole process took approximately 6 months during which the society was included in every step of the process.
Abstract: ChildFriendly School (CFS) is a democratic environment based on children's rights, where all students are accepted, teaching-learning processes are organized according to children's interest needs, health, safety and protective measures are taken for children and gender-based discrimination is not provided. Preschool education institutions, which are considered to be very effective on the future of the child and the society, should be childfriendly in this way. The aim of this study is to identify the teaching-learning environment of independent kindergartens in the context of a child-friendly. The data of the study was obtained from the independent kindergarten in different socioeconomic environments with “CFS Diagnostic Form”. According to the results, it was seen that in terms of effectiveness, the physical areas and materials of the schools were sufficient, but the places and qualifications that increase the effectiveness of teaching were insufficient; in terms of inclusiveness, all children attend school without discrimination in terms of inclusiveness, but female students have low access to school; in terms of democratic participation, means are used to ensure communication with the environment, in terms of healthy, safe and protective environment, physical requirements are fulfilled, necessary measures are taken, but ventilation and out-of-school safety measures are not sufficient and in terms of gender sensitivity, there is no discrimination based on gender. It has been concluded that the independent kindergartens are largely child-friendly, despite some inadequacies.
In this study, we assessed a prototype of an interactive child-friendly software appli- cation focused on spelling, intended to promote sensibility to Portuguese orthographic rules. Specifically, four complex graphemes were trained, within the context of words. Words were presented orally in parallel with the constituent letters that appeared on the screen, shown in a non-sequential order (the grapheme <nh> corresponding to the pho- neme /N/; the grapheme <lh> corresponding to the phoneme /L/; the grapheme <rr> corresponding to the phoneme /R/; the grapheme <in> corresponding to the phoneme /3n/).
The right to a fair trial entails that the judgment should be given to the juvenile defendant in public (art. 6(1) ECHR). The CRC Committee also provides that ‘The verdict/sentence should be pronounced in public at a court session in such a way that the identity of the child is not revealed’ (General Comment No. 10, para. 66). Moreover, the judgement should be duly reasoned, as part of a fair trial (see art. 6 ECHR). It is important to note that the official judgment is not always provided orally to the juvenile. It can be the case that the judgment is pronounced at a later hearing (e.g. in the case of a serious offence) or that the judgment is only in writing and sent to the juvenile by post. Moreover, the presence of the juvenile is not always compulsory. The right to be heard implies that children are given feedback on the outcome of the case in which they are heard. In the Guidelines on Child-friendly Justice it is stated that ‘Judgments and court rulings affecting children should be duly reasoned and explained to them in language that children can understand, particularly those decisions in which the child’s views and opinions have not been followed’ (para. 44). Moreover, the Guidelines specify that in any given judicial procedure the child’s lawyer or other legal representative should communicate and explain the final decision or judgment to the child in a language that he understands. Moreover, the legal representative should give information on possible steps that he could take, such as appeal or a complaint mechanism (para. 75). Communicating and explaining the decision or judgment is seen as a child-friendly practice. This information should be supplemented, though, with an explanation to the child of the possible measures he can take next, such as appeal.
Abstract: Public spaces are essential for the social and psychological development of children since informal learning, attitudinal and behavioural formation occur in such areas. However, most public spaces in Nigeria are incapable of nurturing the socio-psychological development of children. This is ascribed to numerous challenges, which prevent children from adequately using designated public spaces. Therefore, this study examined the various challenges that hamper the use of child-friendly public spaces in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The methodology adopted survey research design, 114 respondents (57 adults and 57 children) were randomly selected from different locations in Ilorin. The quantitative data were analysed through descriptive and inferential techniques. The results indicated that public spaces in Ilorin lack the basic architectural landscape element required to facilitate the socio-psychological development of children. In addition, it was observed that existing public spaces are not adequately reserved for children, while most are overtaken by the adults who use the spaces for assemblies or businesses. Hence, the existing public spaces are unsuitable due to the lack of basic architectural landscape element required to enable the socio-psychological development of children.
It is striking that while the students perceive their schools as high-level child-friendly in terms of the management of relationships, it is actually very close to the moderate level limit. When the items in the scale are analysed, it can be said that generally, teachers do not have negative attitudes during the in-class communications and that they avoid the implementations focusing on societal gender roles. However, it is understood that the students do not have equal right to speak during the classes. It is also seen in the interviews that the teachers and the principals do not make any gender related discriminations but they find the female students more responsible. This might be rooted in the social roles attributed to genders. In a research of Reimer  it is emphasized that despite the arrangements of CFS, cultural values are important to perceive the gender roles. According to Gray&Leith , in accordance with the claims that girls have higher working standards and that they are more honest; girls are more meticulous, on the contrary to boys, girls are motivated more by their teachers, have better behaviours and expect less attention.
mitigating human trafficking, child labour, forced labour and modern slavery in supply chains. Given the gravity of the issues involved, the process and actions in remediation can be complex, but are necessary to undertake. Remediation, much like, Due Diligence, involves close engagement and seeking cooperation of supplier and business partners in supply chain, in the first instance. Collaboration with suppliers and business partners can facilitate engagement with and support of other stakeholders (such as LEAs, CSOs, International and local industry associations). Other stakeholders can play a vital role in effectively addressing the differentiated and specific vulnerabilities of the victims of trafficked persons in specific geographic contexts. Depending on the severity and gravity of the situations, conditions and practices of human trafficking, child labour, forced labour and modern slavery in supply chains identified, the remediation measures may also involve extending the initiatives to community and families of victims and survivors. The suppliers also should be encouraged and supported to undertake these steps in their supply chains.
opportunity to choose activities that suit their interests (Kristanto, Khasanah and Karmila, 2011). In this case child- friendly education not only focuses on the implementation of learning process that nullifies the practice of repressive style to the students, but also to every policy of the educational manager that makes him lose his fundamental rights as the subject of education. ChildFriendly Schools should respect the rights of students when expressing their views on everything, especially about science, technology, art, and culture, so the students feel comfortable and fun in the learning process at school (Utari, 2016). In addition, child- friendly schools should ensure every student's opportunity to enjoy his/her rights in education without discrimination based on disability, gender, ethnicity, religion, type of intelligence, and parental background. Child-friendly schools should also consider safe, clean and healthy school situations, caring and cultured, living environment, respect the rights and protection of students from violence, discrimination and other unfair treatment, and ensure the participation of students in planning, policy, learning, supervision, and complaint mechanism related to the fulfillment of rights and protection of students in education (Iskandar, 2015). SD Negeri 109 Palembang is a school institution that has redesigned its school planning into a child-friendly school. It is manifested with various supporting indicators, such as Vision & Mission, extracurricular program, teachers’ training related to learning, playing facilities, talent interest and various other supporting indicators. In the learning system at SD Negeri 109 Palembang requires all teachers to have a fun teaching ability by using Active, Innovative, Creative, Effective, and Exciting Learning system. This is done to produce the fun teaching and learning activities and the students do not feel bored. Thus, the lessons taught can be easily accepted by the students. Likewise with the school environment at SD Negeri 109 Palembang designed in such a way as to provide space and stimulate the creativity of children.
developing countries. To nurture my deep interest in developing policy and design guidelines for making cities childfriendly, I joined the Habitat International Coalition in 2002 to work on children’s housing rights in South Asia as a research associate. It was during that time I came across the UN ChildFriendly City (CFC) network. I was very excited to discover a real legitimate organization working on an idea that I had tried to develop through my work in design and research in the last few years. But very quickly I found out just how little work had been done to improve the physical environments of children as childfriendly ones in cities around the world. My housing rights work took me to poor communities where even the basic needs of a shelter for children were often not met by governments who had ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and hence promised to provide an adequate standard of living to children. NGOs working on the ground knowing my background in architecture would ask me to propose a childfriendly housing alternative to the inadequate government proposed ones in resettlement areas outside Delhi. I quickly realized that very little empirical knowledge existed about how to create childfriendly environments, and hence passed on the invitations to contribute through design. It was through these first hand experiences of lack of knowledge to guide action on creation of childfriendly physical environments, I was convinced to pursue a PhD to help me become more useful in my purpose of improving children’s lives through making cities childfriendly as well as to contribute to the discourse of the childfriendly city from the perspective of improving quality of life of children in the global South. I formally enrolled in the PhD program in Community and Environmental Design at the North Carolina State University in Spring 2003.