Child health and well being, especially Orphans and Vulnerable children

Top PDF Child health and well being, especially Orphans and Vulnerable children:

Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana

Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana

As a crisis response measure, cash transfers have gained prominence in most governments’ initiatives in meeting the Millennium Development Goals of 2015 (Bryant, 2009). The increased urgency, according to Adato and Basset (2009), has been as a result of continued interaction between HIV and AIDS and other drivers of poverty. Low-income countries affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic face the challenge of providing sufficient resources to satisfy the basic needs of their members, especially poor households (Fields, 2001). In Ghana, while considerable progress has been made in reducing high poverty levels as well as the prevalence rate of HIV and AIDS, major issues still persist. For instance, 18.2 percent of Ghanaians live in extreme poverty (Adjei, Aboagye & Yeboah, 2012; Ghana Statistical Service, 2008) and do not have adequate resources to meet their basic food requirements (Jones, Ahadzie & Doh, 2009). In addition, the HIV and AIDS epidemic has increased the burden of poor families in responding to their needs and that of their children, especially orphans (Marcus, 2004) and vulnerable children.
Show more

14 Read more

Well-being of Orphans : A Review on their Mental Health Status

Well-being of Orphans : A Review on their Mental Health Status

After reviewing almost twenty latest research studies conducted both in India and abroad related to the assessment of mental health among orphans placed in institutions, it was found that orphans ranked high in negative emotions like: depression, distress, anxiety behaviour and emotional disorders, hyperactivity, abnormal pro social behaviour, peer problem, phobias, post traumatic disorder and aggressiveness. Orphans were found to be highly at risk to psychological disorders as compared to their non-orphans. Studies have revealed the prevalence of overall social emotional and behaviour problems deep rooted in the early experience of these children. Loss of attachment and lack of parental love, care and affection have some or the other way contributed to deteoriate their mental health in later life. Study also concluded that beside degenerating mental health and leading to various psychological and psychiatric disorders, orphanhood also leads to drug addiction and evolution of suicidal tendencies among the orphans. The study concludes that there is an immediate need of supporting framework in the form of intervention programme or module to cater the needs of such vulnerable groups so that they could be availed with the suitable services and advantaged overall.
Show more

5 Read more

Lay vs  Professional Perspectives: The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda

Lay vs Professional Perspectives: The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda

An estimated 45.6% of all Ugandan orphans have lost parents to HIV/AIDS [23]. Recent statistics show 0.7% of all children to be infected with HIV while 20,000 children continue to be infected every year [7]. OVC have been reported to have high proportions of HIV infections, STIs and increased high risk sexual behavior com- pared to their peers [1] [3]. Local and international research shows that vulnerable children are increasingly us- ing sex as a source of economic exchange and young girls are especially at risk of being solicited for child pros- titution which in turn exposes them to HIV/AIDS [24] [25]. Uganda’s HIV/AIDS infection rates have continued to increase among 15 - 20 years old who represented over half of new infections in recent years [7] [26]. 25% of new infections are occurring among young people under the age of 25 and infection rates have also significantly increased among married couples. By the age of 18 - 19, girls are 18 times more likely to have HIV and 8 times more likely to be married. Only 31% of females aged 15 - 49 and 41.7% of Ugandans have comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Moreover, Uganda is among the 14 African countries with a low condom use rate of less than 20% [15] [27]. Existing sexual and reproductive health services have been reported to be largely “youth unfriendly” [7] [13] and the majority of health facilities experience continuous stock-outs of medicines and essential supplies like condoms, contraceptives and educative materials [28] [29]. In addition, the majority of OVC (52%) of vulnerable children live in rural areas compared to the 43% in urban areas where most servic- es are concentrated [30]; in fact services have been estimated to reach very few OVC in Uganda [8].
Show more

11 Read more

HIV/AIDS and orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zimbabwe

HIV/AIDS and orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zimbabwe

Over the years, HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic in many countries, especially is sub-Saharan Africa, costing people their lives and destroying homes and the future of many children. As indicated earlier, the number of orphans and vulnerable children are at an increasing rate in Zimbabwe. Garbusand Khumalo-Sakutukwa (2002) show that the percentage of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in 2001 stood at 76.8% as against 16% in 1990. According to the statistics on HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe (2016), as of 2015, 1.4 million people had HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe, adult prevalence rate stood at 14.7% and the number of AIDS-related deaths were 29,000. Although this was an improvement in the rate as compared to the previous years, we cannot overlook the effects on the children who are affected. The actual fact that there is high HIV/AIDS prevalence and related death rates means there will be more orphans and vulnerable children. Even in cases where the HIV adult prevalence rate falls, the number of orphans will remain high over a long period due to the gap between infection and death (UNICEF, 2006). One important factor that cannot be overlooked is the immense rate of gender inequalities both in marriages and other sexual relationships, resulting in the inability of these women or girls to express their opinions or opt for protection during sexual activities. The rates of sexual initiation among girls who lose their mothers at any age and those who lose their fathers while below age 12 tend to be high. Young girls who have lost their mothers or both parents tend to have multiple sexual partners and are less likely to use condoms at first sex. Moreover, many Zimbabweans have the belief that promoting condom use for the youth is a way of encouraging early sex
Show more

5 Read more

Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

This study uses secondary data sources collected using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method (LQAS), which has been used extensively to monitor and evaluate community-based programmes in Uganda and elsewhere. These data result from the roll out of LQAS as a national health sector monitoring system in Uganda, which has been supported by USAID since 2009 (http://www.starelqas.ug) [26]. Uganda used standard LQAS procedures [27, 28]. LQAS is an established analysis technique [29] originally developed as a classification method for industrial quality control during the 1920s and adapted to health sciences in the mid-1980s [27, 28, 30] to classify management units, referred to as supervision areas (SA) according to a performance target. In Uganda SA are usually counties or sub-counties. At the district level the data are aggregated as a stratified sample, which results in a prevalence estimate with a 95% confidence interval that is no greater than +/-10%. The confidence interval also narrows con- siderably when multiple district data are aggregated [26, 31, 32]. We refer the reader to other sources for an in-depth description of the LQAS method [29, 31, 33].
Show more

10 Read more

What are the factors associated with depressive symptoms among orphans and vulnerable children in Cambodia?

What are the factors associated with depressive symptoms among orphans and vulnerable children in Cambodia?

This study adds to the literature on factors associated with depressive symptoms among OVC in Cambodia. Both boys and girls who reported having been too sick making them unable to work or go to school in the past six months had a higher level of depressive symptoms. In Cambodia, infectious diseases such as acute respira- tory infections and malaria still affect the general popu- lation including the younger generation [38]. These diseases cause a loss in productivity and prolonged ill- ness among those affected [39]. Moreover, injuries from traffic accidents have also become a major health issue among young people in Cambodia [38, 40]. Injuries from traffic accidents are a major concern as they could cause permanent loss in productivity. Prolonged illness might cause a sense of despair among the affected OVC as they had to cope with both the demands of the illness and their daily chores. On top of that, being very sick would affect the OVC’s school attendance, and this in turn would affect the OVC’s psychological well-being. A study in Zimbabwe reported that a higher prevalence of psycho- logical distress was more common among OVC who were out of school [41].
Show more

8 Read more

Parent child Relationship and Filial Piety Affect Parental Health and Well being

Parent child Relationship and Filial Piety Affect Parental Health and Well being

The parent-child relationship matters more than filial piety for parental self-rated health and life satisfaction, especially respecting filial piety, which may be a stressor for children. Rapid changes to the traditional family-centered society of Taiwan challenge the parent-child relationship and the social norm of filial piety. Parents may not expect traditional instrumental support from children anymore, but the parent-child relationship and appropriate expectation of children’s responsibility to family may be the core of the family atmosphere and may affect parental health and well-being. Parents may not be able to ask adult children to follow their wishes, but a more harmonious parent-child relationship would make parents healthier and happier. Such reciprocal harmonious relationships need the investment of time and an empathic perspective of the other’s needs from both parents and adult children. A new paradigm of filial piety or the parent-child relationship is evolving. In addition, the parents in this study were middle-aged, and most of them were in relatively stable health. When the parents grow old, their health problems may become more obvious, and the effects of the parent-child relationship on parental health and well-being may be different. Further changes in the older cohorts could be observed in future research.
Show more

8 Read more

Comparison of the Quality of Life of Vulnerable Children Resident in Household and Those Resident in Institution in Jos Nigeria

Comparison of the Quality of Life of Vulnerable Children Resident in Household and Those Resident in Institution in Jos Nigeria

Background: There are over 143 million orphans globally, however, sub-Saharan Africa/Asian regions account for over 80% of the global burden (143 million orphans), Nigeria inclusive with over 10 million orphans. This has caused a crisis of shelter, as more children drift towards institutional care rather than staying in communities that are laden with a high prevalence of poverty (70% in Nigeria). This development is not the best practice in the care of Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) based on national policy of OVC care which recommends Household rather than institutional care. Since studies have shown that Institutional care has a negative impact on a child, the place of placement is thus crucial to the outcome of vulnerable children (VC) which can easily be assessed by measuring the Quality of life (QOL).
Show more

10 Read more

A Public Health Model and Framework to Mitigate the Impact of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

A Public Health Model and Framework to Mitigate the Impact of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

In Africa, a large number of children do not live with their biological parents and are not raised by them; they are often fostered by the extended family. In Senegal, for example, child fostering is very common as 25% of chil- dren under age 15 do not live with their biological parents and 35% for children of the 10 - 14 age group [11]. In Cameroon, the proportion of foster children is estimated at 22% [12]. The placement of children within the kin- ship network and through connections is a long-standing and frequent practice in Africa. Thus, many children, when they become orphans, did not necessarily live with their biological parents. Even if a child lives with his or her biological parents and if one of them dies, he or she may not be considered an orphan because the traditional rules governing African societies facilitate the care of these children in particular through the movement of these children within the kinship systems. Locoh [12] pointed out that: “the care of related children has always been a means to handle health crises and to protect children if their parents die. This is the case with the AIDS pan- demic. Grandparents—but also uncles, aunts, and older siblings—are in the front line to assume the care of or- phans. The movement of children between various related households is not restricted to orphans. It is a very com- mon practice, which makes the child part of the extended family circle and not exclusively raised by his or her biolo- gical parents”. This model seeks to provide an integrated community mechanism for the care of OVC in Cameroon.
Show more

11 Read more

Educational support for orphans and vulnerable children in primary schools: Challenges and interventions

Educational support for orphans and vulnerable children in primary schools: Challenges and interventions

Absenteeism and lateness to school were other challenges likely to negatively influence OVC’s academic performance. Teachers from different schools reported that: “they don’t come to school regularly” (T1SE); “there is poor school attendance, and they come late” (T6SB). Although our study did not focus on the reasons why OVC absent themselves from school, reasons given by Mishra and Bignami-Van Assche (2008) and those by Eberson and Eloff may apply to our case. Mishra and Bignami-Van Assche (2008) revealed that various reasons could make OVC be at greater risk of absenteeism and dropping out of school. The reasons according to them would include inability to pay fees, need to help with household labour or having to stay at home to care for sick parents or younger children. Ebersohn and Eloff (2002) also observed that the marked decline in school attendance in the South African education landscape is due to the effects of HIV/AIDS, sickness, poverty and stigma, child labour or caring for sick relatives. The reasons given could attempt to explain why OVC in our study could not attend school regularly which is likely to impact negatively in their performance in education.
Show more

16 Read more

“All is well”: professionals’ documentation of social determinants of health in Swedish Child Health Services health records concerning maltreated children - a mixed method approach

“All is well”: professionals’ documentation of social determinants of health in Swedish Child Health Services health records concerning maltreated children - a mixed method approach

comparison group and living conditions was almost totally missing. What are the reasons not paying attention to liv- ing conditions in the documentation of vulnerable chil- dren, when we know that they deeply affect child health? Is it a matter of omitting sensitive information, is it viewed as being insignificant or outside the professionals’ remit or is it seen as impossible to influence? All these explanations are possible, together with time restraints, and are particu- larly noticeable when lots of family problems dominate health visits. Studies suggest that parents fail to tell health- care services about their contact with the Social Services, as they are worried that sensitive information may not be treated as confidential [30]. Some psychosocial information has been shown to be consciously omitted from health re- cords and has taken the form of peer-to-peer verbal com- munication within and between health and social services [31]. A study of school nurses showed that they had diffi- culties documenting suspected or verified abuse, even when reports to the Social Services had been made, and some avoided the problem by making temporary notes elsewhere [28]. This might be the case in the present study, but it does not fully explain the low reporting rates to Social Services, unless professionals omitted to docu- ment that they had reported to Social Services. However, the finding of the present study is in line with earlier re- search about CHS professionals not reporting child mal- treatment to Social Services [20, 21, 32].
Show more

11 Read more

Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

Based on the research engagement, in 2010 a documen- tary film was commissioned by RDD with the intention of disseminating key findings to a wider audience and spread- ing awareness of the plight of OVCs using easily an under- standable format and language. This was a response to stakeholders’ suggestion that dialogue and wider recogni- tion of the issues was necessary and social empowerment was an important strategy. The film was a ‘docu-drama’ that told the emotional story of an orphaned child living in the community, and featured interviews with high-ranking government officials. The message is exemplified in the statement from the film, “ We must pull resources together, we must work in collaboration together, we must comple- ment each other ’ s efforts, and once we are able to do that in harmony I think we stand a better chance to improve upon the situation with our OVC ” (Ruth Addison, Head of Programmes, Ministry or Women and Children ’ s Affairs). The RDD links to government were such that it could negotiate that the film was aired at low cost on primetime television across the three national networks over the Easter holiday weekend. The public’s response to the docu- mentary was striking, and prompted widespread discussion and demands for the government to act. As a response to the RDD research, the Ghana AIDS Commission expressed commitment to creating an index of OVC in Ghana to assess what services are being delivered. The links facili- tated by RDD in these examples highlight the potential of intersectoral working within HIV activities.
Show more

5 Read more

Orphan Care

Orphan Care

Other than basic material needs children need emotional and psychological care, which institutions usually cannot provide. As they are still in the phase of learning to differentiate between good and bad and are easily controllable they become easy target for labour force, trafficking, prostitution, etc. After bad experiences, - may that derive from the above mentioned, domestic or other type of abuse, - some children become over- sensitive, some insensitive after such bad experiences. There is an innate capacity of resilience in every child, but not to the same degree, however, it is something that can be learned with a good caregiver. Some children learn to master and see their experiences from another perspective, while others try to suppress their emotions. The factor for becoming a perpetrator seems to raise in the latter case. If the child is not able to communicate his/her problems verbally, might act it out physically, sometimes committing the same abuse as the one s/he had suffered. The severity of trauma is not necessarily in parallel with the gravity of abuse or other similar experiences.Orphans and abandoned children do not have a role model due to the lack of family, or even if they do it is often not a good one. Thus, caretakers should try to provide a role model too, through their behaviouran communication as well. "Eevidence and best practice clearly demonstrate that the better models of residential care offer small, “family-style” environments with qualified and consistent caregiving. Such care is a recognized option within the continuum of alternative care for children when family care is not available or possible. Enabling INGOs to monitor countries has the advantage of learning about children’s circumstances. For instance, Human Rights Watch has shed light on the circumstances of Russian orphanages, where more than 50% of orphanages are made up of disabled children.In these isolated places often, there is frequent "physical and psychological abuse of children. Staff frequently injected children with sedatives to punish them for not following the institution’s ‘routine.’"With such consequences as "a 7-year-old boy with an intellectual disability died in a Russian orphanage after a health worker used cloth diapers to tie him to his bed. A preliminary account stated that the boy may have choked on his own vomit and that beingtied down stopped him from rolling over to
Show more

6 Read more

Child Marriages in Uganda after Enacting the Death Penalty for Defilement

Child Marriages in Uganda after Enacting the Death Penalty for Defilement

Analysis of the 2002 Uganda Population and Housing Census conducted twelve years after the amendment of the law shows to what extent the penal code amendments have been put in practice or have not been observed or have not reduced the practice of marrying off children in the country. In studying the homogeneity of children, [10] showed that one of the child vulnerability factors in Uganda is early marriages. Many scholars have indicated that orphans particularly girls are usually married off too early. The 2002 Census had a question on marital status of those aged 10 years and above and analysis of responses to this question gives results in Table 1. Among children aged 10-17 years, 4.5 percent were currently in a marital union or had ever been married at the time of the Census. An issue of major concern was that out of these, about 0.33 percent were in polygamous unions. In the whole population, 0.33 percent translates into over 17,000 children in the country being in polygamous union, while over 10,000 children were widowed. Overall, more than 230,000 children aged 10-17 years countrywide were either in marital union or had ever been in a marital union, which is a very serious social and health problem as this data represents 10 percent. Apparently, there were more girls in this category (6.5%) compared to the boys (2.5%). This statistic confirms the higher susceptibility of females. However, this was less than what was reported in 1990 in which the proportion of child marriage was 5.4 percent with girls being more than 5 times compared to boys in that year.
Show more

10 Read more

Contribution of taking charge of psychosocial improvement of orphans and vulnerable children of the 4th administrative subdivision of cotonou

Contribution of taking charge of psychosocial improvement of orphans and vulnerable children of the 4th administrative subdivision of cotonou

Following the first official case of AIDS in Benin in 1985, the country is engaged with the other countries of the world, to fight against this pandemic which destroys human beings. 28 years later, Benin still counts some 63.000 people living with the HIV for a prevalence of 1,2% whit the general population Since 2000, this rate is stabilized and the sexual intercourses without protection constitute the main means of the transmission of HIV/AIDS on the national level. Three studies inform on the epidemiologic data of the infection in Benin. It is about the sentry supervision survey by the pregnant women in prenatal consultation, second generation supervision survey by selected population more exposed to the risks of infection and the specific under populations (ESJG, 2008), the demographical and health survey associate to the biology of HIV and Stitches surveys have given the following results.So, the level-headed prevalence of HIV infection is estimated respectively to “1.7, 1,9% and 1,89% during “the years 2010, 2011 and 2010. Within the key populations more exposed to the risks ofinfection; the prevalence of the infection by the HIV is estimated respectively with the sex workers (SW) and their clients in 2012 to 20.9% and 2,3%” (ESDBIN Benin, 2012).With the specific groups “the prevalence of HIV infection is estimated to 3,2% in 2012 among the lorry drivers, and 16% among the tubercular’s in all mixed up forms” (PNT 1, 2012), “2,9% among the prisoners inprison environment (2009), 6,7% among the injectable dry users (IDU)” 1 and “12,6% 2 among men-men sexual intercourses”. Benin, in 2011-2012, has organized a demographical and health survey associated to the Biology of HIV and STI.
Show more

6 Read more

A comparative analysis of the effects of household economic strengthening on well being of orphans and vulnerable children in Migori County, Kenya

A comparative analysis of the effects of household economic strengthening on well being of orphans and vulnerable children in Migori County, Kenya

services including education and healthcare. Their willingness to accept additional children into their family is typically determined by their ability to feed and clothe them, and to provide them with care and shelter, even while they struggle to care for their own offspring. Preliminary evidence from elsewhere in the region suggests that providing small cash grants to families prepared to take in children might dramatically reduce the number of children living in 'child-headed households', through encouraging relatives or other community members to take responsibility in providing care. Such care is crucial to avoiding OVCs falling into a vicious cycle, whereby they have no choice but to live and work on the streets or engage in risky behavior in order to survive (UNICEF, 2007)
Show more

121 Read more

Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Uganda; Are Orphans More Malnourished Than Non-Orphans

Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Uganda; Are Orphans More Malnourished Than Non-Orphans

However, the extent to which children become affected with lack of food will depend on a number of factors. According to the International HIV/AIDS alliance, 2003 7 , in Malawi and Uganda, some orphans reported that they are isolated at mealtime; “We are used to sharing small amounts of food…., we usually give the larger portion to the younger ones. When there is no food at all, we miss meals”. This statement does not in any way suggest that there is a deliberate policy by families to mistreat orphans. It is more related to poverty and the lack of sufficient food for the family. Dennings 8 et al (2003) found that allocation of food, education and health care does not favour orphans in Uganda. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health 7 report, (2004) indicated that for all nutrition indicators, orphans are worse off, irrespective of age and type of orphanhood. The double orphans were worse off followed by the paternal orphans with maternal orphans being the least affected among orphans. This can be explained by the fact that fathers were the bread winners ensuring that the family had 3 what to eat in a cash economy.
Show more

8 Read more

Increasing the health and well being of vulnerable children who grow up in poverty

Increasing the health and well being of vulnerable children who grow up in poverty

Children who grow up in an environment where they experience poverty often have several health and well-being problems. Negative effects can appear in the short or the long term. Short term effects are: the children who live in poverty feel unhappy, worry about their situation and participate less in social activities like sports and cultural clubs(8). About 30% of the children who live in poverty are not a member of a sport or cultural club because of the money it requires to become a member(9). In the long term, poverty can negatively affect the level of their education, increasing the chance that the poverty still exists in their adult live(8). Smoorenburg (10) made a connection between growing up in poverty and a developmental delay of the formal education of the child(10). Poverty is also found to be a determinant of child abuse(11). The longer people live in poverty, the more serious the consequences are(12). The stress of the parents about their situation can make them less able to raise their children (13).
Show more

49 Read more

Marriage and the Well-Being of Children

Marriage and the Well-Being of Children

These questions suggest how argu- ments about state sanction or pro- hibition of certain types of marriages that are based on the effects of those marriages on children inevitably lead to deeper questions of political phi- losophy. They require a compelling normative principle that will help us understand how the state should or- ganize civil marriage or should support child-rearing. Speci fi cally, should the state confer the bene fi ts and status of civil marriage only to relationships that promote a satisfactory level of well- being for children? We have 2 main objections to such public policy. Most fundamentally, this premise, by including the quali fi er, “ only, ” implicitly assumes that the sole value that should guide civil marriage policy is children ’ s well-being. But why should that be the only value that states consider when designing civil marriage policy? Mar- riage is a multipurpose institution that serves a wide variety of important hu- man ends. As such, the state could have multiple kinds of reasons for confer- ring the status and bene fi ts of civil marriage to a particular couple. Some relationships might merit state recog- nition because they promote children ’ s well-being, whereas others (such as childless marriages) merit it because they foster general happiness or social stability. Thus, absent a good argument to the contrary, it seems justi fi ed to reject the quali fi er, “ only. ” A tendency to promote children ’ s well-being may be 1 good reason for conferring civil marriage status on a particular re- lationship. That does not mean that it is the only reason for doing so. Policy
Show more

7 Read more

Maternal Migration and Child Well Being in Peru

Maternal Migration and Child Well Being in Peru

endogeneity of the migration decision. To evaluate whether these effects are truly the result of migration and not the effect of other variables, we now examine one particular migration group which, as we have mentioned, may be considered more exogenously driven: those who have undergone forced migration. By exploiting the uneven geographical spread of violence in Peru during the eighties and first half of the nineties as an exogenous source of variation in migration (conditional on some pre-treatment characteristics), we try to tackle the common problem of missing data on the counterfactual. This is done by comparing outcomes of children born to ‘mothers who migrated from high-violence areas before pregnancy’ to those of ‘mothers who did not migrate from low-violence areas before pregnancy’. As we have seen in Section 4.1, forced migration was widespread during the period of internal war that affected Peru during the eighties and first half of the nineties, especially in the highlands. One may contend, however, that the level of violence faced by a community is unlikely to be independent of the characteristics of this community, thus potentially creating a problem of comparability between high-violence and low-violence areas. To evaluate if this is true, we have calculated the correlation between the level of violence at the district level and district level characteristics, like poverty, access to key public services and remoteness. As is apparent from Table 9, most of the correlations are low and not significant. Only remoteness, measured by the distance between the district and province capital, is marginally significant at the 10 per cent level. It is important to stress that the absence of correlation between district socioeconomic characteristics and violence intensity does not mean that violence was not heavily concentrated in poor areas, as is the case and is convincingly documented by many (e.g., CVR 2003). What the absence of correlation shows is that there were many other districts in Peru that were as poor but were not as heavily touched by the internal war. If this is the case, they may indeed be candidates for being part of the counterfactual.
Show more

65 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...