Child Prostitution

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Theoretical aims and the truth: Child prostitution in Cambodia

Theoretical aims and the truth: Child prostitution in Cambodia

In Chapter four I discussed the concept of ‘living rights’; moral rights which are already maintained in society that turn into legal rights. Legal rights seem not to cohere with the cultural values that shape reality in Cambodia. Child prostitution is not allowed by law but Cambodian sex buyers who have sex with children do not seem to acknowledge the moral right that children should be protected from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. That, or these men do not perceive their behaviour as sexual exploitation or abuse. This might be the case in non-organized prostitution when a man approaches a child on his own accord. Because the child agrees to do whatever the sex buyer might presume the child is acting on an entirely voluntary basis. Unfortunately, this doesn’t have to be voluntary by definition; there might be enough other reasons for a child to be forced or feel obliged to accept even though no one has explicitly told him or her to do so since age hierarchy is an important aspect of Cambodian culture. This brings us back to the ‘will theory’ and the ‘interest theory’ of rights, discussed in paragraph 4.1. The ‘will theory’ states that only those capable of exercising choice can have rights. Girls who have lost their virginity and children who were trafficked into prostitution usually lack any choice in the matter of becoming a prostitute or not. In the case of the ‘will theory’, these children do not have rights. The ‘interest theory’ claims that anyone who has important interests can have rights. This means that also children with important interests have rights. Unfortunately, this does not (yet) seems the case for many children in Cambodia. On the other hand, prostitution of a child often leads to a more stable income for the family and one could argue that because of poverty, prostitution has become a right to survive? Or is it a possible right for the child to honour their parents? The latter could be the case because cultural norms of society place high value on children who support their parents. Obviously, this does not count for those who were trafficked into prostitution, which goes for the greater part of all child prostitutes.
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Defining Child Trafficking & Child Prostitution: The Case of Thailand

Defining Child Trafficking & Child Prostitution: The Case of Thailand

This is not to argue that child prostitution is an intrinsic part of Thai culture or that it is not abusive, but these responses do suggest that the children’s view of prostitution should be understood through the cultural reference points of duty and obligation. From the observations I made of these children, it was clear that they had profoundly different understandings of sex than Western observers. For these children, neither prostitution nor sexuality were the focus of their identity, which was based instead on belonging to a society and fulfilling obligations to their family and the community. The children felt that by earning money for their parents and keeping the family together, they were acting in socially sanctioned roles as dutiful daughters and sons. Prostituting themselves with the “right” intentions meant that there was little opprobrium on what they did. While outsiders might label prostitution with foreign clients as abusive, exploitative, and a form of trafficking, in the children’s view, selling sex was about social relationships and fulfilling their filial obligations to their families. 70
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Search | Preprints

Search | Preprints

understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. With careful attention to ethical considerations, a participatory approach was used to enable 19 girls and young women, whose involvement in prostitution began in childhood, to convey their own experiences and understandings of involvement. Data were collected using a range of methods, chosen by participants to match their abilities and interests. Data analysis and interpretation were aided by reference to the capability approach focussing on questions of human rights and social justice for women and girls. Generating rare insights into participants’ worlds, the research demonstrates how the persistence of deeply embedded cultural values in contexts of extreme poverty serves to sustain gender inequalities, constraining choices for girls and denying them opportunities to lead valued lives. The article ends by considering the theoretical and methodological implications of the study, policy and practice recommendations and opportunities for further research.
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Sexual offences against children in india: on the higher side

Sexual offences against children in india: on the higher side

Child Prostitution: - The sexual exploitation of children does not happen in a vacuum, but involve a wider spread exploitation of children, sexual or otherwise. Child abuse is universal phenomenon. Children all over the world are victims of various types of physical and psychological atrocities. India is a vast country with huge population. The majority of the people are poor and this becomes the major factor for child abuse. Child prostitution and involvement of a large number of children for flesh trade is the most serious manifestation of child abuse. It is the commercial sexual exploitation of children in which a child performs the service of prostitution for financial benefit. The term normally refers to prostitution of minor or person under the legal age of maturity. Child prostitution is the worst form of all forms of child abuse which has assumed the proportions of a multibillion dollar industry, with children being bought, sold and traded like any other goods or mass produced commodity. It is a complex social problem. Through ages, every civilized society has condemned it as a moral turpitude, but in spite of relentless efforts to combat this problem, it has continued as an organized trade. There are many responsible factors for the child prostitution in India, like threats of AIDS, poverty, tourism and trafficking, cultural traditions of prostitution and industrialization and migration, etc.
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'Voodoo' on the doorstep: young Nigerian prostitutes and magic policing in the Netherlands

'Voodoo' on the doorstep: young Nigerian prostitutes and magic policing in the Netherlands

More than child prostitution as such, a phenomenon known to Dutch society one might say almost from time immémorial, thé combination with an African occult form of religion in particular[r]

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Child trafficking : an international problem

Child trafficking : an international problem

trafficking and adoption is linked in cases whether pregnant women, sometimes under the age of 18, are trafficked for the sale and adoption of their newborn babies. There may also be a link with trafficking where children are moved from one country to another for the purpose of illegal adoption to create monetary gain for those organizing the adoption. However, the element of exploitation in the adoption process is hard to define unless the adoption or the way in which it was conducted does not give due consideration to the child’s best interest. Therefore, instead of child trafficking, it is more likely that such adoption may be related to the sale of children or the illegal transfer of children instead. Even so, the definitions of these terms as found in national law, often linked to the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000), creates a blurring between these terms as some address child trafficking and the sale of children together, making no differentiation between the two. In any case, studies indicate that statistics on children who leave one country for adoption do not always coincide with the number of children who actually reach their destination country. Thus it is possible that trafficking of children could happen under the guise of adoption and even though child trafficking and adoption may be related to some extent, there is a need to better understand the connection between the two issues as they are two distinct phenomena.*
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GENDER ROLE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

GENDER ROLE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Evidence of Gender inequality and exploitation exists in most societies, the problem is more severe in many parts of the developing world. In its most horrifying form, the list of injustices includes forced and painful female genital circumcision in parts of Africa: the sale of child brides for dowries in India: wife beatings in Zambia and economic deprivation that forces large numbers of third world women in to prostitution (Handelman, 2006). Some traditional cultural practices such as maltreatment of widows, food taboos, child marriage, child prostitution, child labour, childhood scarification, male child preference, unequal access to education, unequal access to health, unequal access to inheritance, widowhood practices, female seclusion and exclusion, and sexual violence perpetrated by the man dominated society are capable of causing physical and emotional pains or damage to women’s health thereby limiting or stunting her role in the country’s development (Owoyemi and Tinuala, 2010: Idyorough, 2005). In most human relationships, females have been battered in marriage, rapped in times of war, have been major victims of childhood sexual abuse, have often been consigned by manmade decrees to second-class citizenship and have had limited opportunity for education. Consequently, the denial of women’s opportunity to contribute their quota to the socio-economic and political development means denying the entire society the best hands and brains which would have (if given the opportunity) contributed significantly to the growth and socio-economic development of the society since the deprivation faced by women in cultural, religious, and traditional beliefs practices restrict them (women) of access to information and wealth creating assets like land, credit facilities and so on. It is in view of these prevailing situation that this study was initiated to investigate gender roles and socio-economic development in Nigeria.
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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

As, p value is >0.05, we accept our null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the Price Earnings ratio (PE ratio) of the companies before th[r]

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[Not] Buying It: Prostitution as Unwanted Sex

[Not] Buying It: Prostitution as Unwanted Sex

While I share many of those criticisms, in this paper I focus primarily on the harms to women involved in prostitution, and thus on some of those who are most directly responsible for causing those harms: the men who buy their services. In this way, my approach mirrors and amplifies the increasing focus in public debates over prostitution on challenging and/or ending demand—that is, on diminishing the harms of prostitution by targeting those who are buying, rather than those who are selling. The most prominent approach here is the so-called “Nordic model” of legislation, which decriminalizes those who sell sex (and supports them in exiting the trade) while criminalizing pimps and buyers. As the Nordic model continues to gain traction in Europe, it is important to underwrite the approach by articulating a clear moral critique of Johns’ behavior. While such a critique will not suffice alone to legitimize the Nordic legal approach, to which many empirical and ethical questions are relevant, it would be hard to support that approach absent any moral critique of Johns: if they are not doing anything wrong, then why should their be- havior be criminalized?
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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

agenda for Adding Value and Delivering Results (1997). He describes a multi-faceted approach to delivering HR services that meets the needs of both employees and [r]

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It Can't Wait: Exposing the Connections Between Forms of Sexual Exploitation

It Can't Wait: Exposing the Connections Between Forms of Sexual Exploitation

America is suffering from systemic sexual exploitation. Evidence supports the fact that child sexual abuse, prostitution, pornography, sex trafficking, sexual vio- lence, etc., are not isolated phenomena occurring in a vacuum. Rather, these and other forms of sexual abuse and exploitation overlap and reinforce one another. We call on our federal government to stop approaching these issues as separate _______________________________

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

Classify the objects by using Fisher’s quadratic discriminant function, Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance Compare the results of object data classification among Fisher’s quad[r]

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

‘stain’ on their karma and must therefore redeemed themselves by performing good actions, thereby cleansing their Karma once again.The trade in women in Thailand arose from social conditions which were external to Buddhism as a body of thought, but has been consolidated by the biases inherent in Buddhism. It is thisvery fact that women want to purify their soul by doing work which will help their families, not to escape them. The daughters feel that by showing their gratefulness to parents for want they have been given, thy not only have an opportunity to alleviate financial pressures on their family, but also as a chance to purify their karma and as one more step to reaching nirvana ( the highest level of enlightenment ). The Buddhist view of women is one which puts them on lower level than men. Women are looked down upon especially by monks who view them as merely dangerous objects that provoke sexual interest in men. Buddha advises his disciples not to look at them or to talk them.Buddhism acknowledges the view that women’s natural role is for having children, but it excludes the notion of women being sexually desired or attractive. The fragmented conception of the female body and the process of biological reproduction may be regarded as one of the major source of gender bias which has implications for the social position of women. Although this bias does not exists in Buddhist thought, the girl enter prostitution knowing that they are not being judged by the family, they know that they are taking the opportunity to make merit for their family and to purify their Karma. While Buddhist attitudes prevail about women as inferior beings, their status is karmicand not due to a personal failinf or moral flaw. Temporary work in the sex industry may be seen as fate or karma, not a moral flaw in the girl herself, or it may be seen as work for her family that gains her karmic merit. The Sangha, the Buddhist institution, do not reflect Buddhist teachings perfectly. Their negative attitudes towards the prostitutes lead Thai society to see those women in a bad sense. The Sangha maintains a reluctant attitude towards the ‘worldly concerns’ of the common man. Their understanding or misunderstanding make it difficult to expect any logical or effective involvement about the issue of prostitution.
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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

Initially, for the intact condition, an equivalent thickness of bonnet assembly is determined and a CTPT for rectangular plate with Simple-Clamped-Simple- Clamped (S[r]

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"Sometimes You Have To Be The Leader": A Minnesota Oral History On Fighting Sexual Exploitation

"Sometimes You Have To Be The Leader": A Minnesota Oral History On Fighting Sexual Exploitation

The first task was to locate funding for a Runaway Intervention Program (RIP) that would allow follow up care for sexually exploited children. In 2005, Laurel was able to obtain a small grant, $20,000 from the Children’s Hospital Association. This grant allowed Laurel to do home visits and follow-up on care for children and youth. She was the only one doing the work at this point. Laurel was able to provide health education, reproductive health care, and even connected some of the youth to jobs. Laurel and Lieutenant Tim Lynch discussed the RIP program and Lieuten- ant Lynch assigned two St. Paul police officers, Benny Williams and Chris Stark, to work with the RIP program. Benny and Chris located runaways in several other states utilizing social media and excellent police work. As not all runaways ended up in prostitution, there were distinctions of what kind of services youth needed.
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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

Multi level inverter is used in applications that need high voltage and high current. The topologies of multilevel inverter have several advantages such as lower EMI gen[r]

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

While knowledge management systems use Information Technologies (IT) to manage the creation, storage, sharing, and use/reuse of knowledge; health care presents a special [r]

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

A DDC allows the frequency band of interest to be moved down the spectrum so the sample rate can be reduced, filter requirements and further processing on the [r]

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

8 Packaging color composition stands out on the best compared to others .616 9 Colored chocolate bar image on Cadbury Chocolates often seeks your attention .727.. Shape & Size.[r]

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Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution in Thailand

By using 6-sector look- up table with common mode emissions during the steady state period the torque ripples are slightly high compared with conventional method of vector control a[r]

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