young (Bradley and Corwyn 2002). Due to financial and emotional strains, their parents are vulnerable to negative emotional states, such as anxiety, depression, and stress (Gallo and Matthews 1999). When parents often experience negative emotions, they could demonstrate harsh and neglectful parental behavior leading to poor parent-child relationships (Taylor and Seeman 1999). Lacking proper nutrition and parental care, children from low SES families are prone to chronic and acute diseases. At the same time, they are also less likely to receive adequate medical treatment when they are sick. Thus, people of low childhood socioeconomic background have greater risk for cause-specific mortality, such as cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (Frankel, Smith, and Gunnell 1999; Smith et al. 2001). They have shorter life expectancies than those of higher childhood socioeconomic status (Bravemen et al. 2010). With high mortality and morbidity rates, they are likely to pursue fast life history strategies. Considerable research has provided empirical support for this relationship. Wilson and Daly (1997) find that people from deprived neighborhoods, where life expectancy is shorter tend, to have their first child at an earlier age than those from wealthier
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Growing literatures examine the structural correlates of childhood maltreatment during childhood and in adulthood (e.g., Hanson et al., 2015; Pechtel, Lyons-Ruth, Anderson, & Teicher, 2014; Samplin, Ikuta, Malhotra, Szeszko, & DeRosse, 2013; Teicher, Anderson, & Polcari, 2012). Similarly, the correlates of childhood poverty have been studied in the child and adult brain (e.g., Jednoróg et al., 2012; Luby et al., 2013; Noble et al., 2015; Staff et al., 2012). However, there is a dearth of studies directly comparing childhood maltreatment and childhood socioeconomic status (SES). Although there is ample evidence for the involvement of stress in both, more direct comparisons are needed to determine the extent to which these experiences affect brain development through similar or distinct pathways. The present study examines the association
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For our key independent variable of interest, we construct a series of dummy variables indicat ing the decile of childhood SES at age 10. In constructing this metric, we follow the method first employed in Mazzonna (2011), validated in Havari & Mazzonna (2015) and subsequently used in Angelini & Mierau (2014). This measure consists of a principal components score, created from a combination of measures of childhood SES, at age 10, included in SHARELIFE: the number of rooms in the house (excluding kitchen, bathrooms and hallways), the number of facilities in the house (fixed bath, cold running water supply, hot running water supply, inside toilet, central heating), the number of books kept in the home (none or very few – 0 to 10 books [coded 1], enough to fill one shelf – 11 to 25 books , enough to fill one bookcase – 26 to 100 books , enough to fill two bookcases – 101 to 200 books , enough to fill two or more bookcases – more than 200 books ) and the occupation of the main breadwinner, according to Internatio na l Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) skills levels. The ISCO categorization consists of el ementary occupations (grouped together with those where there was ‘no main breadwinner’ [coded 4] ), ‘skilled’ occupations (service, shop or market sales worker, skilled agricultural or fishery worker, craft or related trades worker, and plant/machine operator or assembler ), ‘associate’ occupations (technician or associate professional, clerk  ), and ‘managerial’
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data about sugar intake during childhood. However, even among the respondents who consumed low amount of sugar, compared to that of sugar-free individ- uals, the prevalence of edentulism may still be high. Ex- posure to smoking and drinking environment during childhood has been associated with low educational achievements, and long-term effects on cognitive abilities, which in turn can potentially trigger health damaging be- haviors over the life course . Children expose to par- ental smoking are at increased risk of increased C-reactive protein in adulthood, which may contribute to long-term effects on low-grade inflammation . Regular alcohol consumption by the father is related to low family SES, which predicts less-skilled parenting practices and chil- dren ’ s developmental delay in children .
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The study members watched an average of 2.05 hours (SD: 0.83) of weekday television between the ages of 5 to 11 years. At ages 13 to 15 years of age, this increased by more than an hour per day to 3.13 hours per week- day (SD: 1.43). There was a significant correlation be- tween childhood and adolescent television viewing (r ⫽ 0.39; P ⬍ .0001). Early attention problems and attention problems in adolescence were also correlated (r ⫽ 0.44; P ⬍ .0001). Results from linear regression models found that childhood television viewing predicted adolescent attention problems, adjusting for gender, with a stan- dardized regression coefficient ( ␤ ) of .12 (P ⫽ .0001). This association remained when further controlling for early attention problems, early cognitive ability, and childhood socioeconomic status ( ␤ ⫽ .09; P ⫽ .0020), representing a 0.09-SD increase in attention problems for every 50 minutes of television viewing. When ado- lescent television viewing was added to the model, both childhood and adolescent television viewing were inde- pendently associated with attention problems in adoles- cence ( ␤ ⫽ .06, P ⫽ .0515 and ␤ ⫽ .16, P ⬍ .0001, respectively).
The menarche age is important with respect to indicating the society’s biosocial status, and is affected by ecology, biological and social factors (14,15) . However, we can not ignore the effect of genetic characteristics on menarche age. Some studies show that menarche age was related to mothers’ and sisters’ mean menarche age (7,16,17) . In some studies, when mothers’ and sister’s mean menarche age ratios were analyzed, significant decrease was observed (18) . In our study, we analyzed and found the relation between the mothers’ and sisters’ menarche age and that of our subjects’. This revealed the fact that the genetic factors affect the menarche age.
The hypothesis that psychosocial factors may cause the socioeconomic health gradient proposes that although the basic material requirements of health (such as food and clean water) may be met, lower SES people suffer higher levels of stressor exposure through financial strain, monotonous work, greater number of stressful life events etc , . In addition, individuals of lower social status may suffer greater distress for a given level of stressor exposure, as a result of poorer coping skills, lower self esteem or feelings of mastery that may be differentially distributed by SES , . Greater levels of social support may be able to moderate both the level of stressor exposure and the health effects of greater stress experienced by lower SES individuals (Pearlin and Aneshensel, 1989 cited in ), but lower SES may be associated with lower levels of social support . Thus the physiological impact of a stressor is subjective, depending on the objective features of the stressor, as well as the availability of buffering resources .
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www.wjpr.net Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018. 1568 among young generation economic development, the changing lifestyles have which is very occasionally screened for nonresulted in a transition in the health profile of the population.  Pakistan is the sixth most populous communicable diseases in a country like Pakistan. We conducted this study among adolescents in their mid and country in the world, but a country in which close to 80 late teens, belonged to a diverse ethnic background and million of its individuals (approximately 50% of the socioeconomic class. The study revealed, more than half population) suffer from one or more of these chronic conditions.  Although large population based studies on of the sample (56.7%) had positive family history (FH) of hypertension, 54.4% had FH of Diabetes, 43.9% had prevalence of these conditions are lacking, there are FH of high cholesterol, while 12.9% had FH of asthma smaller surveys that have shed light on the burden they and 4.7% had FH of sleep apnoea. Family history of pose. Translating these figures to a population of 180 cardiac disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus is a million individuals means the numbers affected by these strong predictor for the development of these diseases in conditions are staggering. An estimated 40 million future life. There is a possibility of underestimation or individuals in Pakistan suffer from high blood pressure, overestimation in these figures because children may not be aware of their family's health problems. In addition, non-awareness about these diseases in the individual family members is also quite likely. In Pakistan, up to 85% of hypertensives and 64% of diabetics are un-aware of their disease.  A positive family history of cardiac disease, hypertension and diabetes were reported by 4%, 23% and 16% of children respectively in a study done by Khuwaja, A. K., Fatmi, Z., Soomro, W. B., Khuwaja, N. K. (2003). 
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In Ghaffari’s study, blood pressure increases in a linear fashion among people without enough sleep as they grow older; after adjustments, this relationship proved significant for disrupting variables (30) . In the present study, the highest rate of hypertension went to the 60-69 age group, which is supporting other studies which tapped the age over 60 (7, 31, 32) . It appears that age over 60 years is a man risk factor to blood pressure; in this study, the OR of hypertension in the 60-69 age group was 8.97 times more than the 20-29 age group. McEniery has estimated this at 7.01 (31) . Marital status also plays a role concerning blood pressure, though there is no certain pattern in this regard; in the current study, the hypertension prevalence among the married people was more than the singles. The widowed had the highest prevalence rate of hypertension (46.1%).
Conclusion. This study does not support the hypoth- esis that early AR is promoted by high-protein intake. None of the dietary variables tested were significantly associated with timing of the AR, and timing of AR was not associated with socioeconomic status. Parental obe- sity was associated with an earlier AR. Pediatrics 2000; 105:1115–1118; obesity, child, body mass index, macronu- trients, adiposity rebound.
turn, is associated with an increased likelihood of current smoking. A similar effect was found when looking at financial strain mediating the relationship between socioeconomic status and cigarettes smoked per week. Lower socioeconomic status was found to be associated with greater financial strain, which in turn, was associated with an increased number of cigarettes smoked per week. Our findings support the importance of addressing financial strain within cessation programs for lower socioeconomic status individuals. Future research should determine further evidence for this relationship in a larger sample. Cessation programs for lower socioeconomic status individuals should include some component that explicitly addresses financial strain as a significant factor in the perpetuation of smoking related behavior as well as its ability to act as a barrier to successful cessation. Financial strain is an important factor in the maintenance of smoking behaviors for lower socioeconomic status individuals and addressing it as an important component of interventions may help reduce the disparity in smoking prevalence seen across the socioeconomic status spectrum.
Self-assessed financial position has been identified as an important factor for mental health status by several studies [22,34,42,43,47,48]. Likewise, our results show that perceiving the familial financial position as poor de- creases adolescent's life satisfaction and increases the risk of mental health problems. Adolescents from socioeco- nomically disadvantaged families are probably deprived in many ways in comparison to peers from socioeconomi- cally advantaged families (holiday destinations, possession of high-tech devices, clothing, etc.), which could influence their perceived position among peers. On the other hand, in contrast to some other studies’ findings [49,50], FAS and parents’ occupation have not been found to be an important factor.
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Study IV further showed that high ethnicity diversity index has protective effect on childhood survival with similar findings reported in prior studies. (136;137) This relationship could be linked to cultural, educational, and socioeconomic differences of various ethnic groups constituting a given population. For example, polio is still endemic in the northern part of Nigeria which is predominantly dominated by the Hausa/Fulani ethnic groups who do not want their children get vaccinated against polio virus because they believe that polio vaccine for prevention of polio disease contains anti-fertility agent and HIV virus.(138;139) Therefore, polio immunization acceptance in these ethnic groups is seen as an indirect method of controlling their population growth by the western countries. Consistent with findings of other studies investigating differences in UFMR at regional health services and geopolitical zones context, (140-142) we found that a number of communities had considerably higher than predicted UFMR.
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The biological explanation for the association between socioeconomic mobility and health outcomes may in- volve changes in stress-related processes and the cardio- vascular system which is one of the most susceptible systems to stress . A recent cohort study conducted in South Africa showed that an upward SES change (measured with a physical asset-based tool for the deter- mination of household socioeconomic status) between infancy and adolescence was significantly associated with lower systolic blood pressure at the age of 18 years, compared to a persistent low SES .
The relation between the socioeconomic status (SES), migration and perinatal health varies depending on health issue, socioeconomic indicator, migrant and com- parative groups, and adjustment variables considered [4, 5, 10, 11]. Studies carried out on the subject can be divided into two types, mainly: a) those which focus on the influence of ethnic or geographical origin (place of birth) on perinatal health, by adjusting for socioeco- nomic factors [5, 10, 12–15] and b) those which identify socioeconomic factors that influence perinatal health specifically among migrants [4, 16–19]. There are many studies using the first approach, showing different re- sults, sometimes contradictory ones. Although certain groups of migrants or ethnic groups have a higher risk of suffering adverse pregnancy outcomes, other groups show more favourable perinatal health indicators even if they are socioeconomically vulnerable. The example of mothers of Mexican origin living in the United States, also known as the Mexican paradox, is the most cited . In Belgium, mothers from Maghreb are in a similar situation. They show lower rates of low birth weight and preterm births despite a low SES [13, 20, 21]. In a previ- ous study, we analysed in detail the risk of adverse preg- nancy outcomes according to the place of birth of mothers residing in Brussels .
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In the present study, we found that both low childhood SES and low adult SES were associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes among women. Established biologic or lifestyle risk factors for diabetes did not fully explain these increases. However, the risk increases were modest and were markedly attenuated after adjustment for BMI. Nonetheless, the range of potentially confounding and intermediate variables that we included in the regression models could not fully account for the observed associations between childhood and adult SES and incidence of diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to examine childhood SES and incidence of diabetes. Higher degrees of adult social deprivation have been previously linked to higher prevalence of diabetes (9–12), and in such deprived groups of people with diabetes, the risks for long- term complications are also higher (7, 8). Our study extends these findings by showing that the incidence of diabetes is higher among persons with lower childhood or adult so- cioeconomic circumstances. Furthermore, women with a socioeconomic position that declined from childhood to adulthood had an increased risk of developing diabetes,
Quality of life (QOL) is a vague concept. It is multidimensional and theoretical in nature. It incorporates all aspects of individual’s life. The main aim of the present study is to explore the sociodemographic correlates (i.e. gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, religion, educational status and social support) of quality of life. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, short version (WHOQOL-BREF) was administered to 100 adults. WHOQOL comprised of four domains i.e., physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental domain. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data.
Shrewsbury and Wardle’s review  also found a high percentage of inverse relationship between parents’ edu- cation and childhood-adolescent weight status (specific- ally, in 75 % of studies that used this SEP indicator). The mechanisms whereby the different family SEP indicators influence children’s and adolescents’ weight status are probably different. For instance, parents’ education is as- sociated - to a larger extent than is either occupation or income - with a series of healthy lifestyles that influence children’s and adolescents’ weight status. In the adult population, a strong relationship is observed between edu- cation and the prevalence of healthy lifestyles [180–187]. Similarly, a number of studies have pointed that in homes where the parents have a higher educational level, the children are far more likely to follow a healthy diet and be more physically active [188–192]. Something that, at least in part, would be accounted by the influence of the par- ents’ educational level on attitudes to health and by the exemplary nature of their lifestyles [193–196].
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In this study there was a negative association between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and family income, parental education level and father’s job .Several studies have shown an association between leukemia and high SES (13-18). Over all, studies utilizing area based socioeconomic measures have demonstrated an increased risk of A.L.L. among people with high SES (7, 1, and 19). On the other hand, the results of the studies of SES and childhood leukemia using individual level assessment are controversial (15-17, 20-24). High levels of family income and parental education, reassured individually have been consistently associated with a lower risk of childhood leukemia, while association of parental occupational class with childhood leukemia demonstrates a contrary association; i.e. high rates are correlated with high SES (49-51), Including findings from 2 cohort studies (25-26).A recent case-control study conducted in united kingdom did not show any difference in childhood A.L.L risk according to deprivation levels, whether using area-or. Individual based measure of SES at the time of birth or diagnosis (27).Recently, Pool, et al. pointed out the difficulties in making quantitative comparisons between studies, since many different types of SES measure were utilized and their distinct social implications can vary by place and time (8). In fact, the adequacy of the measure is also related to the study aims and availability of information in each particular country (28). In this study, high percent of fathers in case group were workers or farmers, it can indicates social class of job and probably shows that fathers contact with risk agent at work can increase risk of childhood A.L.L which has been reported in several studies (29) We categorized family income state as low, intermediate, and high based on the parents view, and amount of family income and other factors such as family size, living place, and social class of parental job have not been recorded. It is recommended to conduct cohort studies with more subjects, and more accurate SES measures.
Family income is important in controlling children’s BMI because healthier food tends to be expensive and participation in physical activities can be costly [26–29]. Previous studies have shown that childhood poverty in- duces breakfast skipping , which can lead to high BMI among adolescent girls who regularly skip breakfast [31, 32]. Our result for girls was similar to a previous study’s finding of an association between overweight and breakfast skipping at least once per week . Moreover, breakfast skipping in adolescence is associ- ated not only with overweight but also with larger waist circumference and higher levels of fasting insulin, total