Do all this using simple and direct language — as outlined above in 126.96.36.199.
5.5.6 Cross-examination 132
Cross-examination is generally seen by children and youngpeople as the hardest part of the court process. Children and youngpeople find it very difficult to have their motives misconstrued and to be accused of lying. While it is important that a child’s or young person’s evidence is properly tested, it is also important that over-zealous cross-examination does not intimidate the witness into keeping silent, lead them to contradict their response or produce emotional disorganisation and distress. Research has consistently shown that many of the strategies used by lawyers to cross examine children are stress-inducing, developmentally inappropriate, suggestive and evidentially unsafe.
188.8.131.52 Psychological therapies in general
The evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies shows that a number of therapies are effective at treatment endpoint (see below for details), but no psychological therapies have been shown to maintain a significant superiority to non-active control treatments at 1-year (or more) follow-up. The overall conclusion seems to be that while a range of therapies produce gain during treatment which is reasonably well maintained at follow-up, where a minimal treatment comparison group is included, this group tends to catch up over the following several months. An accelerated resolution of depression (by say 6 to 12 months compared with a control group) is a very important achievement for the emotional, social and cognitive life of a child or adolescent. Thus, finding that minimally treated children catch up over time does not mean at all that treatment was not effective. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of children and youngpeople do remain depressed at the end of treatment, or are highly at risk of later relapse, even where group results are encouraging. There is some evidence that treatments that have specifically planned booster or follow-up sessions may be effective in maintaining treatment gains, but there clearly needs to be continuing research on the treatment of ‘resistant’ depression. These findings also argue for maintaining a range of treatments to help those who do not respond to first and even second-line treatments. Thus, for example, an unpublished study (TROWELL) found that a very high proportion of moderately to severely depressed youngpeople offered one of two relatively intensive and long-term treatments (family therapy or individual child psychotherapy) improved and stayed well. This study obviously needs to be replicated to establish for which children or youngpeople longer-term treatment may be needed.
The aim is to help clinicians understand and track change from the point of view of those they are working with, in order to help guide clinical interventions. The set of tools are chosen to provide information that can complement other information, and service users feedback, gained through clinical conversations.
Evidence shows us that if we get our approach to monitoring outcomes right, children and youngpeople feel more involved in their treatment and together we achieve better outcomes. The role and attitude of the therapist when giving children and youngpeople or their parents these tools is critically important – this is more than an add-on to your session. The forms for children, youngpeople and parents in this pack are designed to be completed direct by service users but can also be used as prompts or aids for discussion and completed in conversation in the session (e.g. in particular the feedback on sessions questions) and the form filled out afterwards to capture the scores .
Child and Adolescent Mental Health services are provided under the NHS. However, unlike other paediatric health services, families are forced to wait without advice or support while their child’s health breaks down before them. Many of the families we work with experience challenging behaviour from their children including aggression and violence. It comes as no surprise that such high numbers of children and youngpeople who offend have underlying, diagnosable mental health conditions. The Scottish Government has pledged that by December 2014, CAMHS waiting times will be 18 weeks or less, but, as a consequence of lack of resourcing and prioritisation of such services, along with an acute shortage of educational psychologists and child and adolescent psychiatrists and increased demand, this is not even close to being achieved by some health boards. Areas like Ayrshire and Arran and Tayside fall short of the current 26 week target by 32% and 29%
Do you have a childcare/youngpeople-related vacancy in Islington? Would you like to advertise this vacancy in the FIS's 'Work with Children and YoungPeople in Islington' jobs bulletin for free? If so, please email your vacancy to: email@example.com or alternatively ring the FIS on 020 7527 5959. In order to ensure that the jobs list is sent out promptly each fortnight, all adverts will need to be submitted by the Thursday prior to distribution (though of course late advertisements will be added to the following jobs list). We ask that your advert includes: a description of your setting/organisation; qualifications and experience required; a description of the job responsibilities; closing date; interview date if known; working hours and rate of pay along with how to apply for the vacancy.
2.31 One of the key aims of the Government’s ten-year anti-drugs strategy Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain 23 is to help people resist drug misuse in order to achieve their full potential.This includes a target of reducing the number of youngpeople under the age of 25 reporting the use of Class A drugs and to reduce the proportion of youngpeople using the drugs that cause the most harm – heroin and cocaine – by 25% by 2005, and by 50% by 2008. In 1997 we allocated £63m for spending on drug education and prevention services for young people.These include targeted prevention programmes through Health Action Zones and the Healthy Schools Programme. In addition the Confiscated Assets Fund has been used to set up 24 Positive Futures projects, specifically using sport to divert youngpeople from drug misuse and anti- social behaviour. We have now allocated a further £152m over three years on education, prevention and treatment services which will contribute towards implementing a fully-integrated approach to drugs services to incorporate these services within existing children’s services.This war against drugs will never be won by the Government alone but can be won neighbourhood by neighbourhood across the country, so further resources will be announced to support a new anti-drugs campaign, involving prominent figures from the world of business and sport to mobilise communities against drugs.
suggests that this is even more important for disabled looked-after children and youngpeople who generally have a strong wish to access services alongside their able-bodied peers.
Evidence statement C3.8
Early interventions that focus on preventing adverse behaviours such as offending behaviour, substance misuse, smoking, obesity, and bullying are key to improving children and young people's health and wellbeing in the future. Evidence suggests that activities and interventions that positively promote health and wellbeing – such as diet, exercise, emotional health and forming friendships, are the most engaging and successful. Such interventions are delivered to varying degrees in schools and universal settings with all children, but often, looked-after children and youngpeople miss out on sessions or do not benefit from the consistent approach to these issues from a school, due to their frequent moves during care or the periods of school absence they experienced prior to coming into the care system.
This guideline offers best practice advice on the care of children and youngpeople with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Service users and healthcare professionals have rights and responsibilities as set out in the NHS Constitution for England – all NICE guidance is written to reflect these. Treatment and care should take into account individual needs and preferences. Service users should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and treatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals. If someone does not have the capacity to make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the Department of Health's advice on consent and the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity Act and the supplementary code of practice on deprivation of liberty safeguards. In Wales, healthcare professionals should follow advice on consent from the Welsh Government.
Health care staff should not prohibit children and youngpeople making appointments and seeing a doctor without an accompanying adult. Although there are circumstances in which it is reasonable for doctors to want a parent present – because, for example, the child has a serious condition and needs help in complying with a treatment regime – a rule prohibiting young patients attending alone could lead to a complaint against the doctor and is also not good practice. Establishing a trusting relationship between the patient and doctor at this stage will do more to promote health than if doctors refuse to see young patients without involving parents. Both ethically and contractually, GPs, for example, are required to provide
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was their parent. I am also a part time youth worker and therefore have contact with youngpeople often. I think this helped me in carrying out my analysis, as I had current interactions with children and youngpeople at work which helped to contextualise some of the issues people were describing. I do not have CD but do have close friends who have food intolerances. One friend in particular was hospitalised for a substantial amount of time before she was diagnosed, and I witnessed her anger and confusion at being unwell. I felt helpless watching my friend suffer, but at the same time tried to engage in practical tasks to reduce the visibility of her illness. I would be naïve to think that these were not in my mind during both data collection and analysis. At the start of this project I didn’t know I was actually intolerant to both cow’s milk and yeast, and toward the end of the project I had to omit these from my diet. I was shocked, frustrated and then felt resigned to living without these things in my diet. Consequently I went through transcripts again to see whether, as a result of this, I would have picked out any different ideas (whether phenomenological or interpretative in nature); I didn’t, but I felt a stronger connection to the data and a greater desire to do justice to it. I’m particularly interested in motivation for certain behaviours and this relates in this study to adherence to the GFD, and during the study I began to question my own assumptions about the ease of maintaining a specific diet when others around you were not.
The arguments for public policy to engage in promoting non-school cycle travel by children and youngpeople are not as strong as for the school trip, for all the reasons considered above. But they are still strong. Many journeys are made to friends, out-of-school activities and leisure destinations. Given this – and also the amount of recreational cycling by children and youngpeople in parks and open spaces, in woodlands, on cycleways and elsewhere – the invisibility of these trips compared to the school run is a missed opportunity. While non- school trips may have less potential to reduce peak-hour congestion, they are just as significant as school trips in promoting healthy physical activity. They may be even more significant than the school run as a first step in taking up cycling as a travel mode. The issue of cycling in parks and open spaces may be worthy of further examination. These public spaces offer children the chance to learn to cycle and to develop their skills in a traffic-free setting. But there is also potential for conflict between cyclists and other user groups. In many parks this has led to bans or severe restrictions on cycling, limiting their potential as a safe venue for child cycling. Sport-related cycling may be another area worth giving focused policy attention to, given the growing popularity of off-road cycling and other forms of competition.
All journeys should only be for named children/youngpeople and other people family/friends etc should not be transported with the child/young person if they are not named and part of the arrangement.
The law makes drivers responsible for ensuring those under 14 years of age wear an appropriate seatbelt or child restraint. However, where staff are transporting children/youngpeople as part of their job then they will at all times be responsible for ensuring the children/youngpeople they are transporting are wearing a suitable restraint irrespective of their age. As there are very clear dangers to passengers and drivers if restraints are not worn then if a driver becomes aware of this they should stop the journey as soon as it is safe to do so. If the passenger continues to refuse to wear a seatbelt/restraint then the contract system should be implemented and the journey ceased until a solution is found. For further details on child
Issues surrounding the UK’s children and youngpeople are rarely out of the news. Indeed the ‘state’ of Britain’s children is now a matter of general public debate. According to the media, many of our children are out of control or involved in risky behaviours such as drugs, alcohol, unsafe sexual activity, fighting and crime. And now, a much- publicised 2007 UNICEF report (1) tells us that we are failing our children in a number of ways. Whether it’s material well-being, family and peer relationships, health and safety, risky behaviours or children’s own sense of well-being, the UK appears to perform poorly in a ranking of 21 industrialised countries worldwide. But what should we make of such widely reported studies or more generally voiced concerns? What are the real facts and what can the latest research tell us about the state of childhood and adolescence in the UK?
contract that lets you text and call as much as you like, you can be sociable and don’t get left out. It’s a real issue for youngpeople who don't have those items:
you either buy them, or stay on the sidelines.” – Female, 16
The majority (85%) of respondents thought children and youngpeople are under pressure to own certain items, although 67 (15%) children and youngpeople do not think this is the case. A range of reasons are given but overwhelmingly those who think there are pressures on children, say it is because of the pressure to fit in. Peer pressure and not feeling alone are also cited. Other reasons are because of the risk of bullying, the pressure to look cool and to be popular. One of the themes that came out of the responses is that some children and youngpeople feel pressure not to look poor. Whilst this has not come out strongly in the quantitative results, it is a common underlying theme in the answers and discussions. For example the theme of pressure to look “better” than they think they are in terms of status or wealth came through.
There are some conditions such as diabetes which are becoming increasingly common in childhood. Its incidence has doubled in the last 20 years. This disease imposes a severe toll on sufferers by reducing average life expectancy by 23 years in type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent). Type 1 diabetes is increasing in all age groups, but particularly in under-fives and youngpeople and the average age of diagnosis is between 10 and 14 years. Caring for children and youngpeople with diabetes is fundamentally different from providing services for adults. It is a complex process that must be firmly focused on the child and their family, supported by a wide range of healthcare professionals working as a team taking account of the medical aspects in the context of the child’s life and the need for normal day-to-day
As the country’s leading sight loss charity, RNIB Scotland supports families, children and youngpeople from their early years all the way through to transition from nursery to school to further/higher education or employment. We place an emphasis on an aspirational “can do” attitude that promotes positive self esteem and allows them to thrive, to lead
Enough leaders are needed to make sure a space is safe for both the leaders and the children/youngpeople. As a general guideline, you will need a minimum of two fully screened and trained leaders on site and participating in all programs. If you have more than 16 participants, you should have additional leaders to provide a minimum ratio of 1:8 (one leader for every eight participants). This is a starting point, you will definitely need to adapt this ratio to your specific context. You will need more leaders the younger the children are or if there are children with additional needs or if you are doing a lot of activities outside. For older teens, you may need less leaders depending on the activity/program.
Many other programmes contribute to alleviating the impact of poverty, and we have appointed a task group to advise us on the creation of a child poverty strategy to maximise their impact.
• Language - we are committed to Wales becoming a truly bilingual country, and our strategy, called laith Pawb, sets out actions being taken in support of the language. The strategy aims to make sure that the Welsh language is fully taken into account across the Assembly in every Minister’s work. Today's youngpeople hold the key to the future growth and prosperity of the Welsh language. laith Pawb emphasises that all children and youngpeople should have opportunity to learn the language and use it. But English and Welsh are not the only languages of Wales. Wales is now fortunate in being home to a number of different cultures and languages. Some of these have been here for well over a century, while others have arrived only in the last generation. The Assembly Government believes that all should be embraced as contributing to the cultural richness of Wales; all represent different ways of being Welsh. We are committed to providing services to children and families that take account of cultural differences and the need to provide services in different languages.
NICE clinical guideline 116 – Food allergy in children and youngpeople 74 Why this is important
Non-IgE-mediated food allergy often presents with non-specific problems that are common in children and are often non-allergy related, such as colic, reflux, diarrhoea, eczema and faltering growth. Failure to recognise food allergy causes unnecessary morbidity, whereas appropriate food elimination can result in rapid improvement in symptoms. In the absence of a simple diagnostic test, it remains for the history to provide the best diagnostic clues as to which child may benefit from a trial of an elimination diet. A validated, primary care-focused questionnaire, developed by comparison with proven double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge outcomes, would significantly improve the process of diagnosis.
CACHE Level 3 Children and Young People’s Workforce Extended Diploma
controlled by food rewards. One of Skinner’s best- known inventions is the ‘operant conditioning chamber’ (the Skinner box). Skinner showed how positive reinforcement worked by placing a hungry rat in the box, which contained a lever in the side As the rat moved about the box, it would accidentally knock the lever; as soon as it did so, a food pellet would drop into a container next to the lever. The rat quickly learned to go straight to the lever after being put in the box a few times – the consequence of receiving food if it pressed the lever ensured that the rat would repeat the action again and again (McLeod 2007a) This experiment demonstrates Skinner’s idea of operant conditioning. Unlike Pavlov’s classical conditioning, where an existing behaviour