From table 4.2.1 majority of children at risk who joined the JRC had profound behavioural problems (28 %) with severe ones being 22 %. This meant that the misbehaviour of CR had escalated by the time of identification whose key trait was conflict with societal law. This identification does not concur with a report by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000) who states that misbehaviours should be identified early enough by a multidisciplinary team. Children with mild and moderate behavioural problems were 25 % implying that their misbehaviours could easily be addressed without a need for incarceration by SNE teachers in regular schools. The above view is supported by Combs et al. (2010) that if Special Needs Interventions (SNI) are applied to children with mild and moderate EBD, their delinquency can be adequately addressed.
The benefits of early care and education early intervention (EI) have been well documented in policy and research in terms of improving outcomes for children at risk of or identified with SEN. Whilst not all children born prematurely will be identified with SEN, ongoing monitoring of their learning and development has the potential to ameliorate any future delays or difficulties (Blackburn, 2016). This means that early years professionals and the wider early years workforce need to be equipped with knowledge about the bio-psycho-social consequences of premature birth, including
yers into the network of specialists to whom primary care providers can refer their patients. Laws and regula- tions that foster the health and safety of children and that can facilitate the management of childhood asthma are not implemented uniformly. More than one half of poor and moderate-income families face serious civil and legal challenges, which often are not perceived as legal issues. The addition of lawyers to the medical team can promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to the effective care of asthma through screening of pa- tients and their families for social problems that can affect asthma management, assistance with the resolu- tion of specific social problems, and enhancement of the effectiveness of advocacy by the entire health care team. This team includes physicians and social workers and ensures that patients receive all of the needed services to which they are entitled. The Medical-Legal Partnership for Children has enhanced the medical center’s ability to address patient stressors in the areas of housing, immi- gration, income support, health insurance, education access, and disability and family law by thwarting the illegal denial of various benefits and helping patients navigate the intricacies of bureaucratic regulations, which have shifted in recent years from an emphasis on helping families to one of preventing fraud.
Research has demonstrated that the sensitivity of a caregiver is a significant factor that determines the parent-child relationship. Sensitivity itself refers to a caregiver’s ability to accurately respond to and understand a child’s communication (Ainsworth, 1973). A sensitive caregiver responds to the subtlest of cues from his or her child, and interprets these cues accurately. Based on attachment theory—which holds that the key determinant of the attachment relationship is based on the sensitivity and responsiveness of a caregiver—children who have caregivers that are sensitive and empathetic mature into adolescents and adults who feel secure and perceive the world around them as reliable and trustworthy (Bretherton & Munholland, 1999). In contrast, children whose caregivers are insensitive, that is non-empathic and unreliable, grow into adults who feel the world around them is untrustworthy (Bretherton & Munholland, 1999). The role of maternal sensitivity was the focus of a meta-analysis van IJzendoorn (1995) conducted of 18 attachment related studies (N = 854) in which he found that maternal sensitivity was a primary factor in the intergenerational transmission of attachment.
Normally, adequate sleep, water and oxygen intake, and sputum discharge are provided to children with severe pneumonia to maintain normal vital signs. Etiological treatment is also necessary to achieve some efficacy . However, because severe pneumonia is a com- plicated condition that is already at a severe and critical stage and because it is very likely to cause a lower respiratory tract infection, especially a bronchiole infection, it is essential to have an effective nursing intervention dur- ing the treatment for improving symptoms and promoting recovery and rehabilitation . Moreover, most of the patients are young and the routine nursing care is normally aimed at avoiding cross-infection, with measures such as isolation, anti-infection, and maintaining a suitable room temperature and humidity, thus other emergences apart from the symptoms of the disease itself, such as other systemic dis- eases and drug resistance, can be overlooked, resulting in poor symptom improvement and a high respiratory tract infection rate in many children. Therefore, a personalized nursing care model of higher quality is needed clinic- ally . Some research has reported that mechanical ventilation can cause trauma to children, causing family members to feel dis- tressed and intolerant and have a psychologi- cal burden . Thus, it is necessary to provide psychological care for the families. Quantitative assessment is a targeted and individualized nursing intervention based on a comprehen- sive risk evaluation of patient’s condition and offers the care with the quality and intensity that match the needs and conditions of the patients, which maximally benefits both pa- tients and the hospital. Some studies reported that quantitative assessment applied in the nursing of patients after undergoing chemo- therapy for breast cancer could increase the efficacy of postoperative rehabilitation by 0.5
When low-income, first-time mothers become pregnant, it is frequently under less than ideal circumstances. It is critical for these women, their families, and their children to have quality access to a safe environment, good health practices, community support, and resources to help them attain their educational, economic, and personal goals. Sometimes these new mothers just need an advocate to help them get a foothold in their new situation. And then some new mothers need more than an advocate. Community health workers, in my particular experience, Nurse Home Visitors, often find themselves on the receiving end of a tearful disclosure of undiagnosed mental illness, family dysfunction, post traumatic experience, addiction, or even emotional, sexual or physical abuse. In San Antonio, Texas, the number of domestic violence calls for service was 45,008 in 2012, as per the San Antonio Police Department quarterly domestic violence report. Domestic violence crimes in San Antonio in 2012 numbered a little over 10,000. 1
to identify students at risk of failing year 4 National Board of Medicine Examiners surgery, found that the apparently unrelated year 2 pathology was the best predictor of success for this examination. In the present study, the moderate (42% predictability) of unit 1 for the final National Board of Medicine Examiners clinical sciences examination almost 6 years later is difficult to explain, but warrants further investi- gation. It may be that the long vignettes in the National Board of Medicine Examiners require a good command of English, as well as critical thinking skills. Successful students in unit 1 may therefore be individuals with higher English and/or higher order cognitive abilities.
The Centers for Disease Control and FITNESSGRAM BMI per- centile thresholds are commonly used for obesity screening in youth. It is assumed that these thresholds are predictive of metabolic health risk, but little diagnostic data are available. Both thresholds are predictive of metabolic syndrome, more so for boys than for girls, although with differing sensitivity and spec- i ﬁ city. The diagnostic details of the thresholds can inform clini- cians and practitioners about how these standards perform in practice.
These children, especially boys, often encounter violence. As a rule, most boys live in 'gang's which are tightly knit and function based on their own rules and norms. Entry into gangs is difficult, and membership is guarded. These gangs facilitate peddling of illicit alcohol and narcotic substances. In order to protect such financial interests of gang membership the gangs display territorial behaviour, which at times leads to violent encounters with other gangs. “how could they operate in our area? ... One day, we ambushed them and cut (them) with razor knives” - FGD 9.
we do not have reliable estimates of the number of Mennonite families living in our service area, we were not able to calculate the incidence of VPDs requiring hospitalization for Plain peoples overall but were only able to do so for Amish children. We only included children with VPDs who were hospitalized at Penn State Health Children’s Hospital. It is likely that there were additional VPDs in the region that did not require hospitalization but were successfully treated as outpatients. As such, in our study, we describe incident cases of more severe VPDs rather than providing a comprehensive evaluation of all VPDs in the region. It is possible that some cases of VPD were treated at other hospitals in the region; however, our hospital is the only children’s hospital within a 75-mile radius, and most pediatric patients requiring hospitalization for these infections were likely to have been admitted to our institution. It is possible that some of the infections in the non-Plain children were because of transmission from Plain children. However, Plain children often have little contact with non-Plain children, so the impact of these potential transmission events is likely to be small. Finally, no serotyping was performed on the meningococcal or pneumococcal isolates; it is possible that many of these infections were not actually vaccine preventable.
Eosinophilic cystitis (EC), is a rare inflammatory dis- order of the bladder of uncertain etiology Despite many case reports in both the adult and pediatric population, its etiology remains unclear. It is thought to be incited by an IgE mediated attraction of eosinophils to the blad- der wall with subsequent mast cell degranulation. A history of previous systemic allergic conditions is fre- quently elicited from patients with EC. Presenting symp- toms of EC are most frequently irritative in nature and mimic those of urinary tract infection: enuresis, dysuria, frequency, urgency, and hematuria . Spark et al., re- ported that 27 (50 %) of the 54 patients with EC demon- strated either a significant eosinophilia or eosinophiluria . In our study, a high eosinophils count was an as in- dependent risk factors for EN in children with asthma. We did not perform further laboratory tests (eosinophi- luria, cystoscopy, biopsy) for diagnosis of EC in our study population and cannot affirm that EN in children with asthma is associated with EC.
in this study (17.3%) corresponds to the finding of only 17% exclusively breastfed children under six months of age in Nigeria by NDHS 2013  and Agho et al. finding of 16.4% average exclusive breastfeeding rate among infants younger than 6 months in the nation  but higher than NDHS 2008  report of a decrease in compliance with the WHO/UNICEF recommendations in the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, as one in ten (13%) infants below six months of age were exclusively breastfed in the nation. However the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in this study is lower than the finding of Onadeko et al.  in a study to evaluate factorsth at are associated with exclusive breastfeeding inIbadan, Nigeria, and reported that exclusivebreastfeeding rate of children in Ibadan dropped from 57.4% at 1 month to 23.4% at 6 months of age. This implies that the practice of exclusive breastfeeding has not increased appreciably over the years, indicating a need for more advocacy and behavioural change communication on importance of the practice. The early introduction of complementary foods and water to the children before four months of age by large proportion of respondents was believed to contribute significantly to the observed low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among the study population. Most mothers (95.1%) reportedly fed their children on demand, and this may also be linked to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded in this study. 3.2 Prevalence of Overweight and
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/vc_majorthefts/cac/innocencelost The FBI launched their Innocence Lost Task Force in 2003 and aimed it at addressing domestic sex trafficking of children in the United States. Since its implementation, the groups and subcommittees the task force created have successfully rescued over 1,000 children and have convicted over 600 pimps, madams, and other associates.
The study findings are consistent with a self- controlled case series of adults and children 0–24 years of age with and without epilepsy which found no in- creased risk of seizure requiring inpatient or outpatient hospital care during the risk periods 0–7 days or 8– 30 days after adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza immunization versus the controls periods 31–90 days pre-immunization or 31–90 days post-immunization.  However, the risk was not assessed specifically in young children and the 0–7 day risk period may have been too long to detect a transient increase in risk 24– 48 h after an inactivated vaccine. [7, 8] In addition, this study captured only seizure events severe enough to re- quire hospital care, while our study also captured non- severe seizure events managed via telephone or in the outpatient clinic.
were coded as binary variables unless otherwise indicated and included the following: sex, age (5–7.9 years old, 8–11.9 years old, or 12–18 years old for girls and 5–7.9 years old, 8–13.9 years old, or 14–18 years old for boys, accounting for variability in appendicitis risk and alternate causes for acute abdominal pain by age and sex subgroups), a fever in the ED >38°C, duration of pain (<24 hours, 24–47 hours, or 48–96 hours), a history of nausea, a history of emesis, migration of pain to the right-lower quadrant (RLQ), maximum tenderness in the RLQ, abdominal guarding, and pain with walking, coughing, or hopping. For these analyses, “unsure, ” “don’t know, ” and “missing” responses were coded as not having the sign or symptom. We evaluated the white blood cell (WBC) count and