13- Muris P, Verweij C, Meesters C. The anti-monster Letter as a simple therapeutic tool for reducing night-time fears in young children. Behav Change. 2003;20:200-7 . 14- Flovell JH, Flovell ER, Green FL. Development of the appearance-reality distinction. Cogn Psychol. 1983;15:95-120.
Based on mean score of 3.29, the opinion regarding “My children exhibit insecurity when I am not there at nights” is well understood as a factor that there is insecurity in the minds of the children. Employees working in shift work may not be successful in parenting since the working hours make it difficult for the parents to monitor and discipline their children (White and Keith, 1990). The time children spend with their parents is most important to build a good relationship. If the relationship is missing the children face behavioural problems and when the parents are not available at the required time, the insecurity creeps up in the children. According to Wen-Jui Han and Liana E.Fox (2011) stressed the importance of child well-being through the child – parent relationship, environment at home, and the activities after school, these all can be affected due to parental shift work. He said that a comfortable work environment, supportive family, frequent family activities creates a secured feeling at home.
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compared with placebo in multiple parameters of asthma control including: daytime asthma symptoms (cough, wheeze, trouble breathing, and activity limitation); over- night asthma symptoms (cough); the percentage of days with asthma symptoms; the percentage of days without asthma; the need for ␤ -agonist or oral corticosteroids; physician global evaluations; and peripheral blood eo- sinophils. The clinical benefit of montelukast was evi- dent within 1 day of starting therapy. Improvements in asthma control were consistent across age, sex, race, and study center, and whether or not patients had a positive radioallergosorbent test. Montelukast demonstrated a consistent effect regardless of concomitant use of in- haled/nebulized corticosteroid or cromolyn therapy.
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ABSTRACT Monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice is primarily performed by reviewing disease activity (daytime and night-time symptoms, use of reliever medication, exacerbations requiring frequent use of reliever medication and urgent visits to the healthcare professional) and the impact of the disease on children ’ s daily activities, including sports and play, in a clinical interview. In such an interview, most task force members also discuss adherence to maintenance therapy and the patients ’ (and parents ’ ) views and beliefs on the goals of treatment and the amount of treatment required to achieve those goals. Composite asthma control and quality of life measures, although potentially useful in research, have limited value in clinical practice because they have a short recall window and do not cover the entire spectrum of asthma control. Telemonitoring of children with asthma cannot replace face-to-face follow-up and monitoring because there is no evidence that it is associated with improved health outcomes.
Parasomnias are highly prevalent in children be- tween the ages of 3 and 13 years. Although night terrors and enuresis decrease markedly by adoles- cence, sleepwalking and body rocking persist in a considerable number of cases at 13 years of age. The high prevalence rates of somniloquy, leg restlessness, and sleep bruxism during childhood also decrease (albeit less dramatically) to draw near, at age 13 years, the substantial prevalence found in adults. The only robust gender difference is for enuresis. Results of the associations between parasomnias suggest that some conditions are strongly associated with each other, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and som- niloquy, and may represent 1 type of parasomnias, whereas leg restlessness, body rocking, sleep brux- ism, and enuresis would each represent unrelated clinical entities without specific association to any sleep stage. The present study confirms the presence of high anxiety levels in children suffering from night terrors and body rocking and reports it for the first time in children afflicted with somniloquy, leg restlessness, and bruxism in a large, controlled epi- demiologic study. Based on the present results, so- ciodemographic variables do not seem to play a ma- jor role in the occurrence of parasomnias.
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The draft instrument was pilot-tested in 18 English- speaking parents of children with clinically diagnosed asthma and unrelated adolescents with asthma. The pilot test resulted in minor revisions. The final instru- ment contained 5 attributes with 3 levels each. The attributes and levels were: Night-time symptoms (none; 3 days per week; 5 days per week), Wheezing or tightening of chest (no chest tightening or wheezing; chest tight- ening or wheezing but it is manageable [does not worsen]; chest tightening or wheezing and is bother- some [may worsen]); Changing medication (no changes needed to medication; more doses or adding on another asthma medication needed; adding oral steroids for 5 days needed), Emergency visits (no Emergency room visits; 4 Emergency room visits per year; 10 Emergency room visits per year) and Participation in physical activ- ities (no physical activity limitations; 2 limitations per month; 10 limitations per month). Numeric values for levels were designated rather than ordinal values (e.g. never, occasionally and often) so that respondents would interpret each level in the same way. The use of extreme values (e.g. Night-time symptoms 5 days per week, Emergency room visits 10 per year) is useful in BWS experiments to enable measurement of negative as well as positive preferences. A reasonable time inter- val was selected for each attribute (e.g. week, month or year). For example, an interval of one month was se- lected for activity limitations as children typically par- ticipate in organized physical activity on a weekly basis over several months and parents and teens could there- fore express their preferences for the indicated levels without difficulty. Similarly, parents have been shown to be reliable reporters of asthma emergency room visits over one year  and choosing this interval allowed for the specification of a wide frequency range. Table 1 A sample best-worst choice task
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providing the following measurements: (1) sleep onset latency (time to fall asleep), (2) sleep efficiency (effective sleep time during total bed time, which is calculated as a percentage), (3) wake after sleep onset (awake time after awakening in minutes), and 4) total sleep time (Souza et al., 2003). The model used was AW-64 (Mini-Mitter Co., Inc.), and the records were analyzed using special- ized software (Actiware-Sleep, v. 5.0). For the actigraphy analysis, only participants who had records for at least five nights at each stage (pre- and post-intervention and follow-up assessment) were considered. Thus, partici- pants with incomplete records and absence of records in the pre, post or follow-up stages were excluded. The re- cords were analyzed with a large threshold (= 80) to identify awakenings, which are more appropriate for children at this age. The device was used only at night on the non-dominant wrist.
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Objectives: to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation among children, its causes, and parents’ awareness of the effects of sleep deprivation on their children’s health. Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out among mothers in Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from August till November 2016. Our study comprised all the mothers in Saudi Arabia raising children aged from 6 to 13 years old who agreed to participate. 2010 responses which were conveniently collected through self-administered semi structured questionnaire prepared by the researchers. Results: There is 44% of the sample following a regular schedule for sleeping and waking, while 49.6% of them is not. We noted that 74.9% of the sample of children sleep more than 5 hours in school nights compared to 70.4% of them who sleep the same duration in the night before the vacation or the weekend, but for the time to wake-up in the morning, we noted that 49.6% of them wake up at (4- 6) am in regular nights compared to 11.5% of them who wake up at this time during the nights of the vacations. We found that 89.1% of them use computer, TV and video games, while only 10.9% of them don’t. Conclusion: About a quarter of Saudi children suffer from sleep deprivation. About half of Saudi children aren’t following regular schedule for sleeping and waking. There is a poor knowledge of parents regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on their children’s health. We recommend educating the parents about it, and teaching them how to overcome this problem.
Ostensibly pushing the naïve sentiment that awareness leads inevitably to action, this sequence in fact offers much more. The activity shown onscreen or with screens (the film exhibitions, the Facebook groups, the YouTube posts) is in a dynamic relationship with activity off screen. Here, publicity is only one component of a larger campaign, used to support such activities including direct services, lobbying and capacity building. Whatever one may think of Invisible Children, they developed a nationwide network of student activists focussed on what was then one of the lesser-discussed issues in Central Africa—an issue whose prominence has grown in recent years. Covertly, this sequence models one of the key principles of video advocacy outlined by WITNESS Programme Manager Sam Gregory: video
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Considerable evidence suggests that parenting stress affects parent-child relationships. Although, some of the parents of hearing impaired children do not show symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, these problems are highly seen among others and it may have negative impact on their child. There for, the main aim of this study is to evaluate the level of depression, anxiety and stress in mothers of deaf and cochlear implanted children. Two groups of mothers whose children were between 5-8 years old were compared by depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS-21) . After gathering the data statistical analysis was done through multi variate analysis of variances (MANOVA). According to test results of DASS-21 scale, mothers of hearing aid children reported more depression, anxiety and stress than the mothers of cochlear implanted children. In addition, child’s age was a negative predictor of parental stress. Cochlear implantation decreases the level of depression, anxiety and stress in mothers of cochlear implanted children. However, the mothers of hearing aid children significantly show the symptoms of psychological problems. This finding has been confirmed by different researches. For example a study in 2008(1) explored the correlates of parenting stress in parents of deaf children. Cochlear implantation plays an important role in improvement of the psychological parameters in mothers of hearing loss children.
Available Online at www.ijpret.com 18 line pairs/mm respectively The driver of the military truck uses half the field of view of the night vision aid. For identification of objects on road and drives the vehicle and the other half off axis field of view for recognition or detection. The night vision objective met the field of view versus performance requirements of military truck drive
Do occu um me en ntta attiio on n:: check recent reviews of children and young people who have been demoted or promoted. A one off serious incident could provoke a review, but should not automatically lead to demotion. The scheme should incorporate immediate warnings (such as direct incident reports or loss of points) or loss of a minor privilege for a short period that provides young people with the opportunity to quickly improve their behaviour or regain their points without any long term impact on their status on the rewards and sanctions scheme. There should be clarity that this does not amount to unofﬁcial punishments.
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Regular use of Moringa leaf powder has been shown to increase the nutritional status of the subject. Research done by Zongo et al.  in Burkina Faso, shows that children who are malnourished given Moringa leaf powder have increased weight than those not given Moringa leaf powder. Research conducted by Srikanth et al.  in India with Moringa leaf powder fed to children showed significant weight gain among children with grade I and grade II Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). It was found that 70% children with grade II PEM improved to grade I and 60% children with grade I PEM had shown significant improvement in their nutritional status. As nutrient supplement, adding one large spoonful (8 g) of dried Moringa leaf powder to any complementary foods three times each day will ensure that a child is getting a nutrition-rich diet. Technical bulletin of USAID identifies how dried Moringa leaf powder contributes to the recommended daily allowances of young children and women for key nutrients given in Table 2 .
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The diurnal cycle of light and dark is among the toughest ecological aspects of life on Earth. Numerous classes in both terrestrial and aquatic animals use the level of ambient light to control their metabolic rate, growth, and behavior. The night sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban and suburban areas disrupts this natural phenomenon and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even from some distance away from the sources light. It might be assumed that reasons that increase the brightness of the sky amplify the amount of this ‘‘ecological light pollution’’. It shows that cloud coverage intensely increases the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 (Kyba et al., 2011).
Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). A double and inde- pendent forward- and back-translation procedure was carried for the translation into Italian of the NEQ by the authors and one bilingual Italian-English psychologist. After the achievement of a consensus among transla- tors was reached, another Italian-English researcher, blind to the original NEQ, translated into English this preliminary version. Minimal discrepancies that did not invalidate the content of the items were found between the original and the back-translated version. Items were conceptually corresponding to the original test and eas- ily comprehensible. Then the newly developed Italian NEQ was administered to 25 participants whose an- swers are not included in the present study in order to check the understanding of the items. All 25 considered mood disorders 5 , and SRED 6 . The NES seems to play
The environment in which a child is raised matters. Genetic endowments (ie, one ’ s innate abilities) are nearly equally distributed among low- and high-income children. 39 However, success is not. Social and economic disadvantage, not only income but a host of other asso- ciated changes, depress student performance 40 and have a deleterious effect on everything from their educational attainment to their overall success. Its cognitive load is estimated to impair performance comparably to chronic alcoholism or a 24 hr sleep deprivation. 41 Factors asso- ciated with poverty, such as poor health, housing instabil- ity, crime, inadequate pre-literacy experiences, inadequate after school enrichment opportunities, and higher teacher turnover rates, make it dif ﬁ cult for disadvantaged students to take full advantage of even the best classroom instruction. 42 In addition, experiences associated with lower educational attainment, such as childhood trauma or violent victimization, are more common experiences for the disadvantaged. 43 The harm associated with living in a poor environment is magni ﬁ ed when children live in areas where jobs disappeared long ago, and drugs, vio- lence, and high levels of stress are commonplace. 31 Today, these environments can include suburban and rural
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placebo to women with insomnia at 2.00 AM and studied their performance in a driving simulator at 7.30 AM, 5.5 hours after taking the medication. A battery of computer-administered neuropsychological measures was completed in the morning and polysomnographies (PSGs) were done each night. Par- ticipants were 23 women with primary insomnia as defined as having a) complaint of difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or of nonrestorative sleep, for 1 month; b) the sleep dis- turbance or related daytime fatigue caused clinically significant impairment, and c) the sleep disturbance did not occur in the context of other disorders. All were between 35 and 60 years of age (mean age 49.5 years), had driver’s licenses for at least 5 years, and reported driving at least 5000 km each year.
Non-formal education or non-school education based on Government Regulation No. 73 of 1991 Article 2, essentially that the educational objectives outside of school are: (A) Serving, (B) Fostering, (C) Meeting needs, developing skill levels, attitudes, and values that enable him to be an efficient participant and effective in the family environment and even society and the State, (D) Actualizing human potential so as to manifest human beings who like to learn and teach, as well as improve the standard of living participating in social activities and community development. Even in non-formal education or non-formal education, the government has also made a lot of efforts to ensure that the distribution of education in various settings and age is still applied. Starting from early childhood education (ECD), Establishment of Community Learning Center (CLC). Questioning Early Childhood Education why should it be associated with value education? Value education is one aspect that is considered important in the formation of the character of the nation from an early age , it is hoped that in the future children will be able to assess and distinguish something that is good or bad, right or wrong, and children will apply it in their daily lives -day. This will later have an impact on the child in socializing with the community or accepting whether he or she is in the community.
The violence that is inherent in the sexual act of intercourse is taken to brutal extremities in The Book of Night Women. Not only is the woman and her consent to the act treated as inconsequential but she is also expected to confront all sexual atrocities with mute submission. When Lilith murders the Johnny-jumper who tries to rape her, the other Johnny–jumpers see her as an aberration-as someone who needs to be made an example out of. The fact that she was only acting in self-preservation was all but ignored. Women are not supposed to react aggressively to men, irrespective of the violence they are subjected to. Anyone who goes against this unwritten law is faced with brutal consequences. Rape was even used as punishment for women who needed to be ‘put in place’. On Montpelier estate, the slave men were tortured and whipped but the slave women were tortured whipped and raped.
While preparing the mosaic approach based education program, including activities that will develop involvement level of children were considered. Under the content of mosaic approach based education program, Turkish activities, art activities, play activities, movement activities, drama activities, music activities, science and mathematics activities were included. The Mosaic approach based education program was applied to a total of ten weeks and for three days per week. Themes in the Mosaic approach based education program were determined by emphasising easy expression of opinions and experience in education environment by children. In education program, total of three themes were included which were learning centres, activity types, and play areas. Under each theme, three separate education plans were created. After preparing mosaic approach based education program, this program was presented to expert view of 7 different academicians and experiences pre-school teacher who works on different approaches in pre-school education. Experts were asked to evaluate compliance of education program to predetermined objectives, compliance of gains to purpose of program, sufficiency of learning processes, appropriateness and sufficiency of materials, appropriateness of objective distribution and were asked to mark as “suitable”, “partially suitable”, “unsuitable” and state their ideas in “explanation” section. Criticism and recommendations of experts on education program were considered and necessary corrections were applied. After making necessary corrections on the program, first theme in the education program was applied to five-years-old children in a private pre-school under Ministry of Family and Social Policies between 8-19 August 2016 at Afyonkarahisar city as a pilot study. Final corrections were made based on pilot application and program was shaped.