Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing

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How do Nurture Group Practitioners Deliver Their Social and Emotional Wellbeing Curriculum?

How do Nurture Group Practitioners Deliver Their Social and Emotional Wellbeing Curriculum?

In a NG setting, children and staff work collaboratively to co-construct a shared understanding of the world. An example of this could be regarding meal-time rules and the consequences for abiding by or breaking the rules. A child who is involved in making the rules and consequences is more likely to observe them (DeVries & Zan, 2003). DeVries and Zan (2003) suggest that rule making is part of the overall environment and approach to the class, adding to mutual respect, with a goal of increasing the child’s moral and intellectual development. This is heavily influenced by Piaget’s work (1936), wherein he suggested that when adult-child relationships interacted with morality, where both were valued, it developed optimal moral and intellectual development for the child. Furthermore, this research concluded that staff actively seek the children’s opinions and adapt what they are doing to facilitate the child’s views. Gersch, Pratt, Nolan & Hooper (1996) highlighted the importance and benefits of listening to children and the increased engagement this creates. There is a strong evidence base regarding the efficacy of listening to children and hearing their views.
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Reconciliation: the effects of reconcilitation initatives (Apologies) on the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of     People affected by past forced removal policies - A Transnational Study (Australia, Canaba and New Zeland)

Reconciliation: the effects of reconcilitation initatives (Apologies) on the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of People affected by past forced removal policies - A Transnational Study (Australia, Canaba and New Zeland)

Litz, Orsillo, Friedman, Ehlich and Batres (1997) and Roathbrum (2001) investigated how patterns of betrayal lead to the development of persistent negative behaviour. They suggest that the trauma of betrayal as experienced through forced removal cannot be looked at on a plane with a single axis as outlined in the DSM V (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Freyd (2007) explains that the relationship between a child and its care giver/s is critical to that child’s capacity to maintain an inherent trust in their safety and security in broader society, for Indigenous people this is non-indigenous people. If there is a significant breach in this trust, the child will withdraw to protect its survival goals, which is the basic mechanism of human survival. This is an emotional survival mechanism in children, which will cause them to withdraw and retreat from society in order to maintain life. These works have common themes of; safety; and when the individuals cannot physically protect themselves, they do so through a psychological method. Becker et al. (2003, p.185) describes this as:
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Family separation and its effect on children’s social wellbeing: in the case of Bedelle administrative Town

Family separation and its effect on children’s social wellbeing: in the case of Bedelle administrative Town

Most of the time divorce has negative impact on separate families as well as on the society. According to Fagan and Churchill (2012) the effects of family separation is irreversible harm to all who involved in, but critical to the children. The problems often are affecting the children even before parents’ separate, starting from the conflict between parents and painful separation process (Wallenstein, 2012). When children have got less attention, receive less emotional support, financial assistance, and practical help for academic support and encouragement. They may lose stimulation of socialization; resulting decrease of pride, affection and social maturity of the children. Zing and Enzi (1999) stated that following parental divorce, children are encountered psychological problems like depression, trauma, anxiety and unhappiness. According to Markham (2013) family separation has both short and long term effects: if the parental separated children are too young to understand the situation fully they might feel guilty or responsible for the divorce. In the short term effect they become increasingly aggressive, violent, uncooperative, and emotionally become needy. Markham (2013) agreed that effects of family separation on children seem to be short term, once they fade; it takes time to adjust their living situation. According to Markham (2013) result parental separated children are suffered with multi-dimensional effect; those children are more likely to be less educated, experience poverty or socio-economic disadvantage, and develop anti-social behavior. They may not easily recover from the effects of family separation; even it may happen in their future live. Wallenstein (2012) agreed that some children are not as resilient as others; those may be affected negatively by the divorce
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Maslow's hierarchy and social and emotional wellbeing

Maslow's hierarchy and social and emotional wellbeing

Culture defines the beliefs, behaviours, sanctions, values and goals that mark the way of life of a group of people. It includes for example language, values, rituals or expectations for behaviour, social controls, what we eat and how we communicate. It provides the context within which we view the world and make decisions about how we will live. Significantly it enables us to develop our self identity, defining who we are and what our role is (Gorman and Best 2005). In Freudian terms it enables us to form our culturally enriched ego-ideals, ideals that we internalise and which are essential for psychological health, for SEWB.
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Indigenous patient experiences of returning to country: a qualitative evaluation on the Country Health SA Dialysis bus

Indigenous patient experiences of returning to country: a qualitative evaluation on the Country Health SA Dialysis bus

The findings of this study illustrate how a mobile health delivery strategy can improve the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous ESKD patients dislocated from their Country, which has significant clinical implications. The health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians are strongly connected to land and family [41] and the con- sequences of removal from this are well documented [42]. Similar connections to land and health are identi- fied for other Indigenous peoples in Canada [43], with similar disparities between rural and remote dwellers on their incidence of CKD [44], identifying a need for better access to specialist health services in geographically iso- lated settings. The dialysis bus was consistently reported to have positive impact on patients, providing them an opportunity to return home to participate in Country and culture and spend time with family, alleviating the pain and grief from separation and displacement. The authors were unable to find data on the benefits of a rural mobile health delivery service, or on ways of alleviating the grief associated with the displacement that comes with relocating for dialysis. Whilst there are two dialysis bus services in Australia that provide this service [24], and one mobile dialysis service that pro- vides a similar service in Canada [23] and Australia [22], evaluations have not been reported. This study provides initial insight into the benefits of such a service, as well as examining the ways that it operates and succeeds.
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Scoping exercise with Black and minority ethnic groups on perceptions of mental wellbeing in Scotland Final Report August 2008

Scoping exercise with Black and minority ethnic groups on perceptions of mental wellbeing in Scotland Final Report August 2008

Material relating to the psychometric properties of scales for wellbeing goes some way to illuminating the differences between populations in terms of their conceptualisations of wellbeing. Echoing Kleinman (1977), Byrne & Watkins, (2003) observed that constructs and their measurements are not entirely equivalent across cultures. From their development of a psychological wellbeing scale based on the Ryff scale with a Chinese population in Hong Kong, Cheng and Chan (2005) found that some terms were semantically problematic for Chinese people. These related to purpose in life, personal growth and self- acceptance and items relating to autonomy also proved to have low internal consistency. Cheng and Chan suggest that this may reflect that these concepts are not unidimensional within Chinese culture. They refer to how it may be more difficult to assess autonomy for Chinese men because they are subject to two influences- to be autonomous by virtue of their gender role but at the same time living within a collectivist culture, emphasising harmony in personal relationships. This lack of unidimensionality was also reflected on the scales relating to self- acceptance, particularly for older Chinese people. These scales relate to two aspects: liking for oneself and what one has achieved; and, accepting one’s life history, despite ups and downs.
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How young people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds experience mental health: some insights for mental health nurses

How young people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds experience mental health: some insights for mental health nurses

Parental disapproval for the westernised lifestyle including such things as drinking, dress styles, kissing in public, sleepovers, lack of respect for parents and the lack of warmth amongst Australians was a difficulty for some young people. However they appreciated the democracy and social security and Australia’s multicultural society. Other positive aspects were the respect that was given to children, tolerance and the high level of compliance towards rules and regulations for eg. Road safety.

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The state of the service nation : youth social action in the UK : June 2013

The state of the service nation : youth social action in the UK : June 2013

factor in determining the type of social action that is available to young people. Our research has shown that there is currently a very limited number of specific social action programmes for young people in the UK, particularly for the younger end of our age range (10 to 14 years). Within the programmes we investigated there is also a shortage of age-specific data for participation rates. This is because programmes that cover large age ranges such as the Girl Guides (10 to 18) or vInspired (14 to 25) do not include detailed breakdowns of their participation rates. As a result it is difficult to gain a detailed picture of the landscape of youth social action in the UK today. The programmes outlined here, therefore, demonstrate that social action is still a broad concept and an emerging
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Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning of Children With Cancer

Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning of Children With Cancer

gest that small effect sizes ( , 0.25) may be present. It is possible that children with cancer were having difficulties, but we did not have sufficient power to detect small effects. Second, these findings represent children from one treatment center. It is conceivable that basic supportive care activities at this center are the key reason that children with cancer were func- tioning well. Replication from additional centers would enhance the credibility of these findings and could begin to identify key environmental factors associated with positive outcomes. Third, it is feasi- ble that results from peers, teachers, and parents are related to a sympathy factor. Although this notion is not supported by previous work directly examining adult perceptions of childhood cancer patients 60 and
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Children Should Not Be Silenced

Children Should Not Be Silenced

Many studies assert that children’s mental and emotional health depends on the efficiency of the relationships that adults construct with them from conception (Cable, 2010). Parents and teachers are responsible for child- ren’s health and development. They should relate to the children in order to promote children’s wellbeing. For many years, children’s competencies were underestimated by adults. Adults controlled and influenced their lives completely and children were considered totally dependent. However, new studies into children’s competencies from birth changed the vision on children’s potential and needs (Johnson, 2010). In the century of change, adult’s abilities are considered to be vital, such as supporting children’s emotions, understanding stressful situa- tions, developing relationships and communication skills, promoting critical and creative thinking and demon- strating empathy. Children’s collective voices can contribute to the development of positive adult-child rela- tionship (Foley & Leveret, 2008: p. 161).
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THE HEART OF SOCIAL NETWORKS: THE RIPPLE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL ABILITIES IN RELATIONAL WELL-BEING

THE HEART OF SOCIAL NETWORKS: THE RIPPLE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL ABILITIES IN RELATIONAL WELL-BEING

Four possible combinations illustrate this duality between instrumental and affective considerations (see table below): instrumental value and affective value can be either high or low (this table and terminology follow Casciaro & Lobo’s work, 2005, 2008, 2012). In the optimal situation, both values are high: social interactions are favored and flourish, when employees interact with competent, loveable coworkers. The situation deteriorates when both instrumental and affective values are low, when employees interact with incompetent jerks. Individuals avoid such interactions, so they are usually non-sustainable over time as one or both parties strive to end their relationship. Instrumental and affective considerations show no trade-off in both the high-high (H-H) or low-low (L-L) situations: individuals wish to sustain (H-H) or exit (L-L) situations. However, when instrumental and affective values are incongruent (Casciaro & Lobo, 2005, 2008, 2012), a tradeoff occurs in which people could be characterized as competent jerks (high instrumental/low affective value) or loveable fools (low instrumental/high affective value). Research has shown that emotional bias leads individuals to favor their well-being, even at the cost of accessing less-valuable instrumental information. That is, their positive feelings toward a less-competent coworker propel them to seek that coworker for task advice rather than seeking a more-competent but less-favored coworker. Casciaro and Lobo (2012) also showed that
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Children and Young Peoples Emotional Health and Wellbeing Needs Assessment; Merseyside.

Children and Young Peoples Emotional Health and Wellbeing Needs Assessment; Merseyside.

knowledge of the health care and welfare systems of that nation (Crawley, 2010). They are likely to experience poverty, dependence and a lack of cohesive social support arriving in a new country as a refugee. Children and young people could be living with adults that are unfamiliar to them. They may have experienced the death of a close family member or friend, or be unaware of their current circumstances leading to an increased sense of vulnerability (Connelly et al. 2006). Such factors can undermine both physical and mental health. Health is culture dependent (Burnett & Peel, 2001) and both what a young person is able to talk about in relation to their health, and the symptoms they present with may be influenced by their cultural background and current circumstances. For example, in some cultures having stomach aches or headaches or a low mood, may be their way of discussing anxiety or depression.
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Mindfulness and wellbeing

Mindfulness and wellbeing

Brown & Ryan (2003) carried out five studies on the benefits of mindfulness and its role in psychological wellbeing. The authors assessed that using Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) a unique quality of consciousness can be measured in relation to enhanced wellbeing and self-awareness and that mindfulness is associated with greater wellbeing. They also concluded that neuroticism (including worry and self-consciousness) can preclude mindfulness, so is considered to be a variable of wellbeing to which mindfulness is meaningfully related (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Also, studying mindfulness as a predictor of day- to-day wellbeing the authors’ results were that mindfulness was associated with positive experiences, like higher levels of autonomy, more intense and frequent pleasant affect.
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Subjective wellbeing and school failure in children and adolescents: influence of psychosocial factors

Subjective wellbeing and school failure in children and adolescents: influence of psychosocial factors

significant differences between children and adolescent that are or are not retain at least one school year. Students that were retained present less positive social and personal health indicators, such as less optimism, less resilience, present low self-esteem and less social support satisfaction related to parents and friends. Several authors conclude that problems with friends, teachers and school can negatively influence children’s self-esteem (Lehman & Repetti, 2007). Subjective wellbeing and subjective quality of life involve social support and psychosocial adjustment and competences related to self- esteem, resilience, optimism, stress and coping (Dawson & Pooley, 2013; Gaspar et al, 2012; Harding, 2001; Utsey, Hook, Fisher & Belvet, 2008). Children with more risk factors and less protective factors present a more negative subjective wellbeing. Our results revealed a strong association between subjective wellbeing and Retained Students. The school success and achievement are positively related to subjective wellbeing (Gaspar et al, 2009). In order to understand the Table 2. Study of the impact of Retained Student, personal and social characteristics in subjective wellbeing – three
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Social emotional ethics of education for Children

Social emotional ethics of education for Children

This is problematic as, like all of us, students are faced with ethical decisions on a daily basis. Students must make decisions about the (at times) competing values of honesty and the possibility of ‘getting ahead’ through various forms of academic dishonesty; students must consider and evaluate their responsibility (or lack thereof) to respond to pressing ethical issues in their school, in their families, and in their broader community; students are also engaged in formative interpersonal relationships that raise ethical issues, including their treatment of others and, in turn, the way they themselves are (or ought to be) treated by friends and partners. If we do not work with students and help them learn to recognize, consider, and respond to these situations, as well as many others, we are setting them up for ethical failure. At this point, then, more care needs to be taken in articulating a conception of ethical competence that can be operationalized in classrooms and, further, to consider potential avenues for educating for this distinct competence. In addition, rather than continue to conflate social and emotional competence (or literacy) with ethical competence, we call for greater collaboration between SEL and ethics educators to produce research and curricula for social-emotional and ethical literacy, for an education for the whole child.
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Peer-to-peer support model to improve quality of life among highly vulnerable, low-income older adults in Cape Town, South Africa

Peer-to-peer support model to improve quality of life among highly vulnerable, low-income older adults in Cape Town, South Africa

The WHO-5 is a 5 question assessment which has been validated in a number of studies [46–48] in various popu- lations across the world [48, 49] including numerous geri- atric populations [48, 50, 51]. The total score range is 0– 25, with 25 representing the highest state of wellbeing. Total scores are multiplied by 4 to obtain a percentage score. A 10% shift in score indicates a significant change in wellbeing. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS) is a 19-item, self- administered social support survey [52]. The scale is considered useful for assessing changes in the levels of social support available to those who have been identified as being socially iso- lated. It can be used as a measure for the outcome of ser- vices or areas of work focused on reducing social isolation or increasing levels of social support [53]. Each of the scale’s four domains can be used in isolation and, for the purposes of this study, the 8-question subscale (MOS-SS 8) on emotional/ informational support was used as this best fit the profile of the AgeWell intervention. This scale has been demonstrated to be psychometrically sound, is considered universally applicable and has been used in various populations over more than two decades [53, 54].
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The Aboriginal Australian family wellbeing program: a historical analysis of the conditions that enabled its spread

The Aboriginal Australian family wellbeing program: a historical analysis of the conditions that enabled its spread

The history of FWB scaling involved the evolution of the program through three interwoven social arenas: employment and com- munity development; training and capacity building; and SEWB promotion and empowerment research. Within this evolution, the program was tailored to meet the needs of participant groups and, in some cases, radically adapted. Despite demand and commitment of end user groups, the sustained implementation of FWB in only 6 of the 60+ sites suggests the difficulties that Aboriginal organizations face in continuing to deliver programs with small, short duration grants. Conditions that enabled scaling were government policies and the availability of funding support and control; leadership by Aboriginal Elders and others and asso- ciated networks; and research evidence which built credibility for the program. The continued scaling of such programs requires enhanced support for provider hubs to facilitate negotiations of program transfer and their sustained implementation by com- mitted partner organizations and individuals within these social arenas.
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Focusing on the whole person in continued care for SUD patients 
The acceptability and possible impact on wellbeing of an ACT based after care intervention in people previously treated for substance use disorder

Focusing on the whole person in continued care for SUD patients The acceptability and possible impact on wellbeing of an ACT based after care intervention in people previously treated for substance use disorder

An interesting finding was that SUD-patients seemed to appreciate social support and guidance: the guiding, warm and empathic role of the trainers and being in an intimate, stable group setting was experienced positively. This finding raises the question whether the intervention would have been as well accepted if it were provided individually. The apparent need and appreciation for social support and guidance might be explained by reduced self-efficacy in SUD-patients, which means that they have reduced belief in their ability to reach a desired goal (Taylor & Williams-Salisbury, 2015). As studies have found that enhanced self-efficacy improves treatment outcomes in SUD- patients (Kadden & Litt, 2011) and reduces the risk of relapse (Tate et al., 2008; Ilgen & McKellar, 2005), SUD-patients might especially benefit from the support and guidance of this ACT-based after-care. One could wonder however, whether an after-care intervention without ACT-components, focusing on social support alone would be sufficient to gain similar results.
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Quality of social and emotional wellbeing services for families of young Indigenous children attending primary care centers; a cross sectional analysis

Quality of social and emotional wellbeing services for families of young Indigenous children attending primary care centers; a cross sectional analysis

studies have reported better timeliness and coverage in younger children [25, 26]. Low coverage of mental health services and social support for families of school aged children and adolescents has also been reported [27, 28]. However, there appear to be no other published studies that have assessed quality of social and emotional wellbeing services for young children in primary care settings. There are more data on the deliv- ery of primary care services across differing geographic locations. Vaccine delivery, anaemia care and oral health care were reported to be better in small remote communities compared to urban areas [24, 26, 28, 29]. Australian health service providers report that this is due to better communication and engagement with smaller population cohorts [27, 30]. We reported no difference in the documentation of social and emotional wellbeing care across remote, rural and urban commu- nities in our study. However, these analyses were under powered as only four urban and 14 rural clinics were included in our study.
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