This paper is based on panel data of 30 provinces and cities in China from 2008 to 2017, The convergence of innovation efficiency is tested by σ convergence and β convergence test, Using stochastic frontier model and principal component analysis to analyze the impact of Chinesescience and technology finance on entrepreneurial efficiency. The study found: Venture capital investment is more flexible than the output of entrepreneurial man-power investment, technology finance has a significant positive impact on entrepreneurial efficiency, but there is a problem of regional development imbalance. Convergence and divergence analysis found, the gap in entre-preneurial efficiency between the central, eastern and western regions is gradually narrow; Factors such as social capital, economic development level and foreign direct investment also have a positive impact on entrepreneurial efficiency. Finally, this paper also puts forward some suggestions on improv-ing the efficiency of entrepreneurship from the perspectives of upgrading science and technology financial services, developing science and technology financial innovation and entrepreneurial environment.
To the extent that this is true, publishing regulations in China mean that the internet and other digital forms of publications, such as video games and online message boards, have become increasingly important outlets for science fiction. The Three-Body Problem, for example, was serialized first in the online-only Science Fiction World before being published as a book, and Western publication outlets like Clarkesworld have partnered with China-based Storycom to publish more Chinesescience fiction in translation online. Because of the expectation of a global audience that online publication ensures, science fiction is changing as readership expands, yet the balance of global power remains uneven. Noted science fiction authors such as Xia Jia still describe science fiction coming out of China as having the mission of educating Western readers (Xia 2016), while English translators are increasingly burdened with the necessity of explaining historiocultural specificities through lengthy footnotes. (Liu 2014) That is, just as the West applies the term “Sinofuturism” to an entire national development project, Chinese authors are put in the position of responding and catering to Western assumptions in order to be legible on a global scale.
Zhi Hong Wan *† , Siu Ling Wong ‡
ABSTRACT: Teaching nature of science (NOS) is beginning to find its place in science education in China. This exploratory study interviewed twenty-four Chi- nese science teacher educators about their conceptions of teaching NOS to pre- service science teachers. Although five dimensions emerged, this paper mainly focuses on reporting the findings relevant to one dimension, i.e., incorporating NOS instruction in the courses of training pre-service science teachers. There were two preferences: twelve out of the twenty-four educators preferred having NOS instruction infused into the teaching of various course components, includ- ing inquiry-based science teaching approach, history of science, science subject content, and school science textbook analysis. The others chose to have a separat- ed NOS module in their courses, though they indicated NOS might be also touched upon in other course components. It was found that three factors influ- enced their preference; the textbooks currently used by Chinesescience teacher educators to train pre-service science teachers, their views of NOS content to be taught, and their vision of teaching NOS. We argue that the findings in this study provide some hints on ways to encourage science teacher educators to give higher priority to NOS instruction in their courses, which is believed necessary for achieving the goal of developing public’s scientific literacy.
China's economic reform over the last four decades has unleashed an unprecedented economic development. Meanwhile, its financial system demands a corresponding progress to support and promote the economic rise (Levine, 1999; Rousseau & Wachtel 2000; Beck & Levine, 2004). The Chinese stock market, whose total market capitalization ranked the second and the third in the world at the end of year 2017 and 2018 respectively, has witnessed a long-lasting prosperity ever since its establishment in 1991 (Franklin et al., 2018). Yet, the relatively lag of financial market accessibility contrasts with the rapid growth of its depth, as evidenced by the indices of financial market depth (FMD) and access (FMA) of China in Figure 1. Since the ability of firms to access financial market is pivotal in measuring one country’s financial system development and the prosperity of the economy (Levine, 2005; Svirydzenka, 2016), further reforms become urgent for both the short-run and long-run growth of Chinese economy. Chinese financial market accessibility, mainly featured by the initial public offering (IPO) system, however, is being widely challenged by its inefficient selection rules and process (Johanssona et al., 2017).
These urgent requests stimulated a major financial reform of the Chinese capital market Back to December, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress announced the authorization of the stock pilot registration system. The progress, however, grinded to a standstill in 2017. November 5, 2018, president Xi Jinping, officially announced the establishment of STAR and pilot registration system and depicted the promising development of this new-established financial market. And on January 30, 2019, the CSRC issued the guidelines of implementation of STAR and the pilot registration-based system in Shanghai Stock Exchange. According to the guidelines, STAR has no rigid requirements for the profits and capital structures of the IPO applicants, which fundamentally supports various technological innovations in the country 4 . STAR mainly targets on small and medium-sized technology start-ups and strategic emerging sectors with great growth potentials.
sphere. This topic was covered on a few occasions prior to 1970. In his paper in the Bibliotheca Mathematica (1910), Mikami traces the historical development of computation methods for "circle-squaring" employed by various Chinese mathematicians, and contrasts them to those used elsewhere. J. M. Barbour (1933) seized upon the work of Chu Tsai-yü — who has been accredited with the discovery of equal temperament in the 16th century — "to show possible skeptics that it is not unreasonable to suppose that Tsai-yü [sic] was familiar with C h ’ê n g ’s approximation 22/7. . . . In the "Notes and Correspon dence" section of the 1948 Isis is a short account from Goodrich on the approximations of , especially that proposed by Tsu C h ’ung- chih, giving references to relevant documents. Erwin Reifler in formed us in 1965 that, "some time between A.D. 1 and 5 the famous astronomer, calendar expert and bibliographer Liu Hsin supervised, by order of the "usurper" Wang Mang, the making of sets of five cali brated standard grain measures. . . . The metrological and mathema tical details of these standard measures are recorded in the histo ries of the Han and Sui dynasties, in commentaries to the CHIU CHANG SUAN SHU, etc., and also in inscriptions on the extant set. The author of these inscriptions is assumed to have been Liu Hsin him self. Much has been written in ancient and modern times on the philological and mathematical problems involved and most Chinese scholars studying the inscriptions have come to the conclusion that the presumed mathematical inaccuracies were — to use the verdict and wording of Tsu Ch*ung-Chih — 'brought about by the imperfection of
From 1990 to 2004, Chinesescience and technology policy developed quickly. The Chinese government played an especially important role in policy development, which attached importance to S&T studies all the while, especially the development of high- tech industry, and it affected the advancement of S&T remarkably. According to the analysis and models in this paper, the further development of Chinesescience and technology can be achieved when certain policy is carried out.
The examinations of the implementation of the concepts, i.e., scientific literacy and 21 st -century competencies in the Finnish and Chinesescience curricula have the implications for the understanding of “glocalization” of international standards. First, the findings help to explain the glocalization phenomenon of policy initiation, which illustrates a complex integration of global trends and local contexts at the national level represented through the national curriculum. Second, the findings reinforce the argument that any declared reforms at the national level using worldwide recognized fancy slogans may vary in their meanings. Therefore, any declaration should be examined because the objectives described with abstract concepts may affect the outcomes of their implementation. Consequently, the clarification of “concepts” by developing structured international standards explicitly should be significant, which can guide the educational reforms around the world at a similar pace. But people may refute internationalized standards with the concerns that globally uniform reforms may decrease diversity and increase the inequality in education. However, the worries are not necessary because each country can initiate the policies consistent with its context. Nonetheless, internationalized standards should be helpful in guiding countries in developing their standards and keep pace with the most recent movements globally, which is particularly significant for countries with developing education systems.
represent the sounds. For example, the term Zhongwen, 'Chinese language', is composed of two square Chinese characters, but eight Roman letters (the textbook capitalizes the "z" following the English writing convention of capitalizing the first letter of proper nouns). In the scripts of the dialogs, language points, and exercises, the author spaces out the Chinese characters and words to line up with the space required to spell out the words in pinyin, as well as to separate out grammatical parts of speech in Chinese. The result is inconsistent spacing between Chinese characters and words while the pinyin is spaced evenly. (See Figure 2.) It is perhaps a matter of learner preference to visually match up Chinese characters and words with corresponding pinyin. The teaching of literacy of Chinese should expose the learners to authentic writing of Chinese: both the characters and how they are spaced in relation to punctuation marks. By the time learners reach the intermediate level, it might be damaging to develop a reliance on inauthentic spacing to distinguish parts of speech and collocations for meaning.
Combining a Chinese Thesaurus with a Chinese Dictionary Combining a Chinese Thesaurus with a Chinese Dictionary Ji Donghong Kent Ridge Digital Labs 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace Singapore, 119613 dhji@krdl[.]
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427 The results of the SFAs (section 3.1) identify opportunities to improve the management of 428 nutrients in three significant crop production systems in China. They are consistent with 429 previous studies that similarly suggest that nutrient management in Chinese agriculture can 430 be better optimised to more closely match crop nutrient requirements (e.g. Chen et al., 2014; 431 Powlson et al., 2014; Vitousek et al., 2009). They are also consistent with a contention that 432 systemic analyses are needed to underpin improved management. For example, the 433 ‘integrated soil–crop system management’ approach, designed to optimise use of solar 434 radiation and temperature whilst achieving greater synchrony between crop demand for 435 nutrients and their supply from soil, environment, and applied inputs (Chen et al., 2011). 436 Approaches such as this will facilitate transition from reliance on inorganic fertilisers towards 437 accounting for multiple nutrient sources and the closure of nutrient loops. Failure to be 438 systemic in approach and to improve nutrient use efficiency will continue to incur the costs of 439 wasteful inorganic fertiliser application and risk of nutrient export to the environment.
Ken is the Executive Director and founder of the Qigong Research & Practice Center. He is a world-renowned health educator, China scholar, and Qigong Grand Master with more than 45 years experience. A former collaborator with Alan Watts, he is the author of the internationally acclaimed book The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing, self-healing audio and video courses, and more than 200 journal articles. In 2003, he won the leading international award in energy medicine, the Alyce and Elmer Green Award for Innovation and Lifetime Achievement. He speaks and reads the Chinese language and is the author of various works published in China. He received his Teaching Certificate from the William C.C. Chen School of T'ai Chi Ch'uan in 1974 and was a student of Taoism and Taoist literature with Drs. Michel Strickmann, Wolfram Eberhard, Edward Schafer, and other renowned scholars. He is a leader in the dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern science. Probably the first Qigong practitioner in the West to treat physician-referred patients, his sponsers have included the American Cancer Society, the Mayo Clinic, Health Canada, and numerous hospitals, medical schools, conferences, and cultural organizations. In 1994, he was chosen as keynote and sole representative of Chinese medicine at the World Congress on Energy Healing in Switzerland. For most of his life, he has lived at the edge of the Indian Peaks Wilderness in Colorado, and he raised his family in this beautiful environment.
With the progress of globalization, the cultural exchanges between the countries are becoming more and more frequent. The culture is created by long-term efforts and is the heritage of the society; the values are the core of the culture, and the different cultures can be distinguished according to different values. The difference in the way of geography, history and mode of thought leads to the heterogeneity of culture, which is called, cultural difference. The difference in the translation activity has the phenomenon of "lack of culture". This paper, based on the differences of the Chinese and western cultures, studies the translation methods and strategies used in the translation activities of the translator with different cultural background, and probes into the influence of the difference between the Chinese and the western culture on the translation.