Today, the same kind of conflict over public sector employment is being played out in a number of Latin American countries. Patronage—the discretionary allocation of public sector jobs to reward followers and to cement political and personal relationships— continues to be a dominant way government is staffed in most Latin American countries. Its use in the governance of Latin America has a long tradition, of course, easily dating to the conquest, if not before. Indeed, across empire and republic, civil war and unity, authoritarian and democratic regimes, centralized and decentralized administrations, economic growth and stagnation, rural and urban contexts—patronage systems have endured and flourished. Although pressures are mounting to replace patronage-based public administrations with career civilservicesystems, the region’s older systems are proving resistant to the imprecations of reformers, as was the case in the United States a century before.
Most EU Member States have senior managers at the top administrative level (civil servants) under different names or titles, with specific recruitment procedures. France selects its top recruits from its ENA (École Nationale d'Administratation), with concours for entering the school and for recruitment to top positions. Netherlands, which introduced a senior civilservice a few years ago, makes its top recruits by mirroring the way they are done in the private sector (i.e. without examination, by announcing the vacancy on newspapers, by taking into account the CV of candidates, interview with a selecting committee or panel, and so forth). Anybody meeting the requirements can participate (either from inside or from outside the administration). In UK, Permanent Secretaries, their deputies and the Under Secretaries and so forth (grades 1 to 5) are mainly drawn from inside the civilservice, although in recent times grades 1 to 3 vacancies have been exposed to external competition, mainly through a so-called Administration Trainee and Higher Executive Officer Scheme, which entails an assessment of the application forms and sitting a quite stiff qualifying test. Successful candidates go through an additional series of test, examinations and interviews by the CivilService Selection Board, which recommends selections to the Final Selection Board, which conducts further interviews. Also in UK the so-called “fast stream” for recruitment was introduced some years ago. The fast stream refers to a process of recruitment of graduates to the civilservice, with opportunities for fast track training and promotion. Graduates are generalists and are centrally recruited through the Recruitment and Assessment Service Agency, with tests, interviews and a panel review by the CivilService Selection Board. The senior civilservice is now mainly nurtured from this pool of generalists. In Spain certain positions, considered as senior managerial positions, are occupied by civil servants (certain positions may be open for non-civil servants with the required qualifications and experience) through a selection process based on public announcement of the vacancy and discretionary, but justified, decision of the minister. These appointments are always temporary and the incumbent goes back to his former (or similar) civilservice position when removed.
process is taking place in very different national contexts and against the background of widely varying traditions. In addition, the changing of some features has turned out to be more sensitive in some countries than in others. In the discussions and the analysis of the various civilservicesystems, much insight and many fascinating developments have been found. However, the results of this comparative analysis also represent a remarkable challenge regarding a theo- retical understanding of the discussed change processes in the field of civilservice reforms. In fact, many reform outcomes confirm the assumptions of path-dependency, political culture, rational choice, neo-institutionalism, Europe- anisation and convergence theories at the same time. Moreover, because of the growing fragmentation of national public services, the increasing diversity of the public sector workforce and the differences in structure and size of the national civil services, this study also challenges uniform public motivation theories. On the other hand, the findings do not challenge the existence of public service motivation as such. However, we agree with Perry and Hondeghem that it is necessary to investigate the influence of the country/region/civilservice structure as an institution of public service motivation. In addition, it is also important to carry out more research on public service motivation in different parts of the public sector. Do civil servants (still) have a different public service motivation than other public employees? Are civil servants in the ministries different to those in the agencies? Do civil servants in “bureaucratic” countries have different motivations and values than civil servants in post-bureaucratic countries? And – are civil servants more ethical because they are civil servants? This study gives evidence that different historical traditions and cultures as well as HR systems have a considerable impact on public management modernisation paths and on the outcomes of HR reforms. In a way, the findings in this study give an intriguing picture about the differences and similarities of the public servicesystems in Europe at the same time. It also illustrates the difficulties in identifying country models and geographical similarities in times of decentralisation, differentiation, greater flexibility and blurring of boundaries within the public sector and between the public and private sector. At the same time it
The CivilService needs a strong and effective approach to tackling underperformance. There are compelling reasons for this. First and foremost, the individual is being paid a salary and therefore has a responsibility to contribute efficiently and effectively to their organisations objectives. The individual who is underperforming impacts negatively on all staff. Colleagues may resent having to pick up the slack. They may become overloaded and feel under pressure. Targets may slip causing strain for all concerned. Where underperformance is not addressed, it can have a negative impact on overall morale in the business unit concerned. Other staff, who had previously been performing effectively, may be de-motivated by tolerance of poor performance.
The phrase «look, in face or form, if they have affected, affect or might affect» represents an unspecified statement objectively that in many cases can lead to difficulties in applying the rules specifically for the management of conflicts of interest. In some cases, situations of apparent conflict of interest can be quite noticeable, but the problem lies in those cases for which there can be a full conviction (or a reasonable perception) of the public that there has been or may have a influence of private interests of civil servants in carrying out unfairly duties and responsibilities of it. Doctrine on conflicts of interest, in this case, addresses the reasons reliable criteria that make the public think rationally - that decision is influenced by certain private interests. What would have considered «valid reasons»? And what we mean by «to think rationally?
The challenges posed for the civilservice by its increased size complexity responsibilities in Nigeria’s’ economic boom and depression, and made it a subject of public inquiry and target of mass purges by successive governments, all in an attempt to tailor it towards the accomplishment of societal goals. Some of the challenges also include poor remuneration, corruption, indiscipline, instability in the service and so on.
05: Paraprofessionals - Occupations in which workers perform some of the duties of a professional or technician in a supportive role, which usually require less formal training and/or experience normally required for professional or technical status. Such positions may fall within an identified pattern of staff development and promotion under a “New Careers” concept. Included: research assistants, medical aids, child support workers, policy auxiliary welfare service aids, recreation assistants, homemakers aides, home health aides, library assistants and clerks, ambulance drivers and attendants, and kindred workers.
Another important factor in calculating an employee’s retirement benefits is the formula multiplier. In a state’s DB plan, an employee’s benefits are generally calculated by multiplying the employee’s years of service by a formula multiplier, and then multiplying that product by the employee’s final average salary. All but seven of the state employee DB retirement plans are coordinated with Social Security (i.e., a state employee earns Social Security benefits while employed by the state). Plans that are not coordinated with Social Security tend to have a higher formula multiplier to help compensate for the lack of Social Security benefits.
Excess Service occurs when an employee's service exceeds the maximum 80% benefit allowed (usually 41 years, 11 months). Retirement deductions then go into a voluntary contribution fund, provided that the employee must first pay any deposits or redeposits available. Excess service deductions are automatically refunded with interest with the first regular annuity payment. The retiree is advised by letter from OPM of the additional annuity allowed. If the retiree returns the deductions, the annuity is recomputed accordingly.
EU strategy “Europe 2020” states that Member States should implement reforms aimed at growth driven by knowledge and innovation. The reforms should aim at improving the quality of education / training and ensuring access for all, and to strengthen the transfer of knowledge in general. Strategy for the development of human resources in the civilservice for the period of 2010. to 2013th year, and the Action Plan, set strategic objectives including the implementation of ongoing training for civil servants. For the implementation of training programs intended for officials of the public administration in charge is the National School of Public Administration, which does not possess sufficient human, physical and financial re- sources to carry out a given role. Development of key competencies and in particular the in- itiative and entrepreneurship, which refers to an individual’s ability to turn ideas into action is necessary, because public officials must begin to think strategically and project work and it can be learned by attending seminars for entrepreneurs.
The expectations on government function in contemporary social order have completely changed since 1980s. Globalization and the dynamics of ICT expansion contributed to a new impetus of societal maturity and to an innovative insight of the optimal organizational arrangement and techniques of institutional management. Hence, as an alternative to the traditionally hierarchical and authoritative model of public administration, the New Public Management model is desired (Vidaeak, 2000). According to Minongue (2001), since 1980s, there has been continues public sector reforms as a shift from the inefficient traditional public administration modal to the New Public Management (NPM). The NPM is considered as a new paradigm shift to provide high quality services, increasing managerial autonomy, evaluating and prizing both the performance of an organization and individual public servant, capacitating public managers in terms of human resource, financial and physical asset as well as technological support to achieve the expected outcomes (Polidano and Ewalt, 2001). CivilService Reform (CSR) is one of the most visible and comprehensive areas of administrative reform. The efforts to reform the civilservice all-round the world is stressed on the need for increased de-politicization of the civilservice, promoting the model of neutrality and merit-based civilservice. However, in all nations, especially in developing countries, pure merit based systems are the exception and political appointments are common in most civil services assignments (UNDP, n.d.).
In view of Proposition 1, the situation of declining real wages (W1 above) in the public sector, widening public/private wage differentials (W2), and rigid pay scales based on non-meritocratic HRM (H1) do not constitute an incentives structure appropriate to good behaviour. In response, we see the growing importance of perks and emoluments that are external to the job (H3). The difficulty in providing adequate incentives to civil servants may lie in the attempt to maintain rigid and uniform pay scales across the civilservice. This also makes wage setting a very difficult task from a political point of view (H2). The public sector product is extremely heterogeneous, ranging over services such as health, police, education, sanitation, and justice. Most CSR efforts seek to maintain the notion of a unified civilservice with uniform pay
When we see the case of Ethiopia, Article 13, Sub-Article 2 of the FDRE civil servants proclamation states that “a vacant position shall be filled only by a person who meets the qualification required for the position and who scores higher than other candidates” (FDRE Civil Servants Proclamation, 2007). There is also an implementation manual that indicates the procedure of recruitment and selection to be followed uniformly by all civilservice institutions. The manual covers the issues of merit principles like qualifications, work experience, knowledge, skills as well as other capabilities and the overall procedure to achieve fair and open competition. Thus, it can be argued that at policy level, except being position based system, the recruitment procedures and considerations are similar to other developmental states. However, in practice various reasons account for the non-meritocratic recruitment into the Ethiopian public services. Some of the challenges are discussed under this chapter and the others will be seen in the remaining subsequent chapters.
The interaction and the existing theories we outlined earlier do not grasp the total picture of politico-administrative relations. ‘Third parties’ are a prominent actor in top political positions. They are engaged in the fulfilment of political executive’s responsibilities and have a share in the policy process. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the politico- administrative relations in regard to that third party. Several names for this party apply and the leverage in policy making differs between countries, according to the states culture and civilservice tradition (Connaughton, 2008, p. 163 – 166). Functions of this party might range from upholding relations with the party, other ministers or other players, helping with policy proposals and advising on current topics, writing speeches to taking care of ministers public appearances. In general, there are three roles for this third party: strategic advisor, media advisor and technical advisor (James, 2007, p. 10 – 11 and a provisional OECD report 2010, p. 11). Based on this classification, we identify three general types which grasp the reality of most countries. However, we do not intend to say that the third-party identification is similar in all policy-domains and in every case in a particular country.