Classroom Research

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Beyond paradigm : The ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of classroom research

Beyond paradigm : The ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of classroom research

The motivation behind this paper was to discuss SLA research from two different paradigms that are rarely represented in a single article, and to consider the current state of classroom research in order to explore what might be achieved if researchers from a generative orientation engaged with the language classroom. Accepting the conclusion that the most successful language teaching is likely to include focussed explicit instruction, we have argued that beyond this very general claim, SLA researchers would do well to recognise what GenSLA research has shown about development by different linguistic domain, as well as development which requires interaction between language domains. In other words, more careful attention to the nature of the linguistic property under investigation is needed. In short, it is the nature of GenSLA as a property theory (Gregg 2001) which may provide the most useful contribution to the existing agenda of classroom research. Moreover, there are implications for pedagogy. Knowing that some aspects of language – like functional morphology – seem impervious to mastery, while others – like core word order properties – seem to be acquirable, could help a teacher decide how to approach different aspects of grammar, and what to expect from instruction.
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ETHICAL DIMENSIONS WHEN INTERVENING IN CLASSROOM RESEARCH

ETHICAL DIMENSIONS WHEN INTERVENING IN CLASSROOM RESEARCH

The researcher has his/her presuppositions and is naturally curious about finding out something about a phenomenon. In classroom research, practitioners (teachers and pupils) provide the data that the researcher needs. Thus, the researcher is dependent on them and has to build a relationship based on trust and mutual understanding. The practitioners may be led to believe that the researcher is interested in his/her own research more than what is actually going on in the classroom, i.e. the researcher exploits the field of practice with the only instrumental aim of doing research (and possibly obtaining a degree). On the other hand, the researcher may be misled to think that the practitioners are merely participants – objects to be studied – not subjects with their own theories, understandings, and solutions. Both extremes are hazardous. Hellesnes (1992) refers to the one-sidedness of understanding practice as scientism if it is done merely from the scientist’s perspective, and naivety if it is done solely from the everyday practical point of view. This encourages the type of research where both the researcher’s and the practitioners’ point of view are given value and respected. However, the very question of intervening, despite its popularity among some educational researchers, can be questioned. To provide an example, Steinsholt (2009) criticizes the Norwegian Educational Act of 2006- 2007 (The Norwegian Educational Act, 2006-2007), and compares it to the American No Child Left behind Act. His main concern is that these acts specifically state that valid, reliable and updated research results are to be used to make the teachers’ practice more effective. According to Steinsholt (2009), this way of decision-making is one-dimensional and instrumental. He questions the usefulness of intervening in teachers’ practice with the aim of improving it in accordance with research results that claim to be effective. What kind of truth do the research results represent? What does it mean that something is “effective” in education? Effective for what and for whom? This may be the main critique against intervening in classroom practices. For example, even though there is clear evidence from several research results that portfolio assessment with its formative elements is better for pupils’ learning conditions, it does not necessarily imply that this is true for all educational contexts and for all types of pupils. In fact, Steinsholt (2009) argues that it would be morally wrong to intervene in teachers’ practice, despite good intentions or results, for matters that will be elaborated on below.
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Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategies (open, axial, and selective) of grounded theory will be explained and concretised. An analysis of one example sequence demonstrates how grounded theory may be used to emphasise the communicative and substantive aspects (as well as the interaction between the two) of classroom interaction, therefore lending itself to data analysis. In this manner, grounded theory can also be used for an intensive analysis of a student’s learning process, as the authors have done in one student profile analysis, as well as for a comparative analysis of teaching practice in an actual class or even a variety of classes.
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SLA Classroom Research and EFL Teaching Practices of Oral Skills

SLA Classroom Research and EFL Teaching Practices of Oral Skills

Although, clearly specified outlines for teaching speaking would be of great help to EFL teachers, there are many obstacles that inhibit the enhancement of oral production skills of Saudi EFL leaners. For instance, EFL large class is one of the main hindrances that teachers may encounter. A negative effect on both learners and teachers is always present in such an environment. The majority of learners lack their interest in learning as they may rarely have the chance to speak in the classroom. Teachers, on the other hand, tend to master the scene as to save time and efforts and to have good control over a massive number of students that could be up to one hundred students in one class. In such learning environment, students' passivity is typical and writing skills seems to be the dominant skill for determining students' achievements and language proficiencies.
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Information skills for classroom research

Information skills for classroom research

It is strongly recommended that you keep a record of all the searches you perform. This will help you not to duplicate effort and will also provide evidence of your research process. Most databases allow you to create a personal account and provide a facility for recording your search history. Check the help option of the particular database to find out how to do this. Otherwise a writing pad and a pen will be sufficient.

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A new research agenda for teacher education: the value of a partnership approach to classroom-based research

A new research agenda for teacher education: the value of a partnership approach to classroom-based research

undertaking research activity as part of their teacher education course. The aim is to strengthen the call for maintaining university input into teacher education preparation, which is currently being marginalised by new policies increasingly promoting school-based training for teachers in England. Twelve Religious Studies student teachers undertook classroom research during their school teaching practice or practicum (each observing and interviewing three different teachers with the same class with a focus on differentiation). Qualitative data content analysis was used to explore the data. Teacher educators generated data on the reflections of these student teachers. Findings suggest that conducting research was a significant learning event for the student teachers in that their development as researchers helped their appreciation of the importance of differentiation strategies when teaching in diverse classrooms. Further developments for extending the learning opportunities for all involved in teacher education utilising the expertise of the academy are forwarded. A video conference with others undertaking similar research in the USA helped to explore the findings from an international perspective.
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Research on the Application of Flipped Classroom in the Teaching Reform of Business English Writing

Research on the Application of Flipped Classroom in the Teaching Reform of Business English Writing

interest in learning, enhance the confidence. The new teaching method of flipping the classroom, English writing teaching mode is more flexible, between students, to explore the interaction between teachers and students, communication, cooperation, continue to increase, the students really into the collective learning environment for. Have a full study and sufficient preparation before class, [3] students can actively participate in classroom activities to get rid of English writing learning the usual negative emotional weariness, reduced to writing anxiety, learning from the harvest of joy, harvest full, learn to bring their own self-confidence.
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A Research on Quality Assurance in Arts Classroom Teaching in Higher Education in China

A Research on Quality Assurance in Arts Classroom Teaching in Higher Education in China

Ever since the Ministry of Education of China implemented the new policy of rapidly expanding the enrollment of new studentsin higher education in 1999, there is no doubt that the quality of classroom teaching has declined due to a shortage of lecturers, professors and teaching facilities including computers, classrooms and libraries. The issue of gradually increasing difficulties for graduates in finding jobs has appeared and be- come very grave. Also, Qian Xuesheng, the well known scien- tist posed this question eight times to Wen Jiabao, the Prime Minister of China: “Why do universities in China not cultivate excellence at all times?”The “Questioning of QianXuesheng” pushes the quality assurance in higher education to the front of the debate (The Ministry of Education Press Office&China National Institute for Educational Research, 2010). Moreover, in theEssentials of National Middle-Long-term EducationalRe- form and Development Plan(2010-2020),the Chinese govern- ment pointed out: “ improving quality is the core task of educa- tion reform and development”(Ministry of Education of Chi- na,2010).Classroom teaching is one of the key aspects and links to assure quality of education. Therefore, how to improve the effectiveness of classroom teaching to guarantee higher educa- tional quality becomes more necessary and important.
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Research on Dance Teaching Mode Based on Flipped Classroom in the Internet +Age

Research on Dance Teaching Mode Based on Flipped Classroom in the Internet +Age

The development of Internet technology has injected new impetus into the reform of education, and also posed new challenges to the traditional teaching mode. In recent years, as an extension of educational informationization, the flipped classroom has developed rapidly, and academic attention has increased year by year. At present, the flipped classroom in Colleges and universities in China has penetrated into many disciplines. Dance teaching should conform to the development of the times, optimize the teaching mode of dance education, open up innovative consciousness, and form a multi-channel teaching pattern. On the basis of discussing the theoretical and practical research on the mode of flipping classroom teaching in the dance teaching, this paper puts forward and designs the structure map of the pattern of the teaching mode of the flipped class in the ordinary university, and carries out a 4 month teaching experiment for the dance students. Through the analysis and verification of the data from the investigation and feedback, the conclusion is that the teaching mode of the dance flipping classroom has significant effect on improving the students’ basic dance quality, dance performance and autonomous learning ability.
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From the forest to the classroom: Energy literacy as a co-product of biofuels research

From the forest to the classroom: Energy literacy as a co-product of biofuels research

We know that energy and biofuels literacy can be challenging to teach in the classroom. Energy concepts and applications are complex and holistic, and draw from the major sciences: biology, ecology, chemistry, physics, math, earth, and environmental. We also know that while researchers and educators have developed literally thousands of resources for teachers, it can be difficult to understand how resources can be used to teach different components of science, and how those resources link back to the state and national science standards that all schools follow. The NARA Education team meets this challenge through:
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ABC Analysis For Inventory  Management: Bridging The Gap  Between Research And Classroom

ABC Analysis For Inventory Management: Bridging The Gap Between Research And Classroom

ABC analysis is a well-established categorization technique based on the Pareto Principle for determining which items should get priority in the management of a company’s inventory. In discussing this topic, today’s operations management and supply chain textbooks focus on dollar volume as the sole criterion for performing the categorization. The authors argue that today’s businesses and supply chains operate in a world where the ability to deliver the right products rapidly to very specific markets is key to survival. With suppliers, intermediaries, and customers all over the globe, and product lives decreasing rapidly, this focus on a single criterion is misplaced. The large body of research was summarized based on multiple criteria ABC analysis that has accumulated since the 1980s and recommend that textbooks incorporate their key findings and methods into their discussions of this topic. Suggestions are offered on how this discussion might be structured.
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A Study on Creating a Successful Classroom Learning Community via Action Research

A Study on Creating a Successful Classroom Learning Community via Action Research

Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2013) [7]. Teacher leadership always fas- cinates a great variety of researchers, nevertheless, they have not arrived at con- sensus of its definition. The earliest model focused on teacher leaders as efficient managers (Evans, 1996) [8]. Leithwood and Jantzi’s studies (1999, 2000) [9] also took managing classroom conditions to be an aspect of leadership. The second model focuses on teachers as instructional guides. Afterwards, York-Barr & Duke (2004) [10] came to a conclusion that there are different opinions of what teacher leadership consists of. Those various definitions are fundamentally categorized based on what teacher leaders do in their schools.
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ABC Analysis For Inventory Management: Bridging The Gap Between Research And Classroom

ABC Analysis For Inventory Management: Bridging The Gap Between Research And Classroom

ABC analysis is a well-established categorization technique based on the Pareto Principle for determining which items should get priority in the management of a company’s inventory. In discussing this topic, today’s operations management and supply chain textbooks focus on dollar volume as the sole criterion for performing the categorization. The authors argue that today’s businesses and supply chains operate in a world where the ability to deliver the right products rapidly to very specific markets is key to survival. With suppliers, intermediaries, and customers all over the globe, and product lives decreasing rapidly, this focus on a single criterion is misplaced. The large body of research was summarized based on multiple criteria ABC analysis that has accumulated since the 1980s and recommend that textbooks incorporate their key findings and methods into their discussions of this topic. Suggestions are offered on how this discussion might be structured.
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Transposing from the Laboratory to the Classroom to Generate Authentic Research Experiences for Undergraduates

Transposing from the Laboratory to the Classroom to Generate Authentic Research Experiences for Undergraduates

DG students were surveyed in fall 2010 concerning the amount of time they spent participating in research upon completion of the course. Of the 45 respondents (in- cluding students who chose not to complete the CURE survey), 53% participated in a subsequent research pro- ject for at least one semester (Figure 6B). The majority of those students, 58%, remained in research positions for at least 1 yr. The comments from students on the survey were overwhelmingly positive. Their response is exempli- fied by this statement from one student, “The Dynamic Genome class gave me confidence to pursue other re- search opportunities, because I know (from my experience with our Dynamic Genome final project) that I can de- velop a question, design an experiment, perform the nec- essary techniques, and then create an informative poster about my results.”
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Research and Design of Intelligent Classroom

Research and Design of Intelligent Classroom

With the rapid development and application of wireless network technology and cloud processing technology, it has been a hot issue to research and design an intelligent environment for human life. Education is one of the most important parts of human life, and intelligent classroom related to education is one of the spots, this paper first analyzes its necessity and importance, and second describe its key elements in the composition of intelligent classroom, and presents its concept of design, its structure of physical and software, and finally introduces in detail about how to make use of big data and cloud processing to meet intelligent classroom’s demands.
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A close up on close-to-practice research: reflecting on teacher educator’s experiences of and engagement with a classroom based research project

A close up on close-to-practice research: reflecting on teacher educator’s experiences of and engagement with a classroom based research project

wonder as a sense of inquiry into their practice). The paper’s central argument is that whilst a national policy drive has necessitated a change in research culture within initial teacher education, reasons for involvement go beyond a feeling of ‘because we have to’. The participants regarded involvement as key to their professional growth. Time and opportunity to research pedagogical practices in other teacher’s classes opened up space for the participants to ‘wonder’ about their own practices. They also felt that the experience supported a shift towards adopting the identity of ‘researcher’. The paper considers why this is so important in the current climate of educational change in Wales.
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Research on the Effectiveness of the Confucius Institute (Classroom) Based on Linear Regression Models

Research on the Effectiveness of the Confucius Institute (Classroom) Based on Linear Regression Models

It can be known from Tab. 5 that excluding those variable without sufficient observed values, the ternary LRM incorporated with Confund has the highest R 2 of 0.967883 and is higher than that of Textbook in the binary LRM; F statistics is the largest and the corresponding P value is 0.019208 which is less than 0.05, indicating that the combined explanatory variables have significant effects on the number of Chinese language learners,. However, as for the sole Confund, its T statistics is -1.154409 and the P value is 0.3676, showing less significant influence on the explained variables. On the whole, LRM incorporated with Confund (“the Confucius Institute (Classroom) Construction” project) is still the optimum choice. And the less significant influence might be caused by multicollinearity, which can be verified through correlation coefficient test methods. At present, relevant coefficient matrix of these three variables is listed as below:
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Formative Classroom Assessment and Benjamin S. Bloom: Theory, Research, and Implications

Formative Classroom Assessment and Benjamin S. Bloom: Theory, Research, and Implications

Although much recent attention has focused on gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for decades. This paper presents the problem as one of reducing variation in students’ achievement, and reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin Bloom on this problem. Bloom argued that to reduce variation in students’ achievement and to have all students learn well, we must increase variation in instructional approaches and learning time. The key element in this effort was well constructed, formative classroom assessments. Bloom outlined a specific strategy for using formative classroom assessments to guide teachers in differentiating their instruction and labeled it “mastery learning.” This paper describes Bloom’s work, presents the essential elements of mastery
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Using a multiliteracies approach in a Malaysian polytechnic classroom: a participatory action research project

Using a multiliteracies approach in a Malaysian polytechnic classroom: a participatory action research project

This participatory action research project investigated how students in a Malaysian polytechnic classroom context, who were used to examination-based learning, negotiated learning using a multiliteracies approach (The New London Group, 2000). The study explored 12 students’ experiences in learning English as a Second Language (ESL) and drew on qualitative methods including classroom observations, informal conversations, a research journal, professional discussions and classroom artefacts. With two polytechnic lecturers involved as part of the research team, the study also investigated the research team’s experiences in engaging in a collaborative research process in two cycles of planning, action, observation and reflection.
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Using a multiliteracies approach in a Malaysian polytechnic classroom: a participatory action research project

Using a multiliteracies approach in a Malaysian polytechnic classroom: a participatory action research project

161 December 2010), I noted that “students were cooperative in answering questions in the handouts. They answered all questions and were able to share their answers with the class.” However, the students seemed to have issues in completing tasks that required them to work in a team. This was evidenced by the research team’s observation of classroom activities involving group work. In one instance, we conducted an activity that required the students to work in groups. We asked the students, in groups of four people, to search for two social networking sites online and provide a critical analysis of those sites based on their usefulness of the sites in terms of language, designs and functions. When forming the groups, the students seemed uncomfortable; however, after firm encouragement, the students managed to form groups, which did not consist of four people in a group. Most groups were grouped according to gender, so we had almost all female and all male groups. Only two groups had a mixture of male and females in the group. In order to uphold a sense of freedom of choice to the students, we had allowed such grouping. During the discussion time, some students were doing the work attentively; however, there were also some students especially the male students who were not paying attention. It turned out that only one or two people in the group actually completed the task and the rest of the group members preferred to talk about other things. Arfah noted this to me in one of our informal conversations. Arfah commented that “The students are clueless. They sit in their groups and they don’t know what to do. Some students just sit and talk about other things! They are not doing the task that we asked them to do!” (Informal conversation, 15 December 2010).
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