Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

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The role of phenotypic and genetic basis of livestock selection for climate change adaptation and mitigation: A review

The role of phenotypic and genetic basis of livestock selection for climate change adaptation and mitigation: A review

livestock breeds are the basics for the future challenging climate. Properties of the skin, hair, coat color, coat type, sweating, respiration capacity, tissue insulation, surface area relative to body weight, endocrinological profiles, and metabolic heat production are important factors involved in heat tolerance. Selection based on these phenotypic characteristics could have an indispensable contribution to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Molecular information is used to know the candidate genes for heat tolerance, their action, specific function and location on chromosomes and thereby important for modification of gene and selection of heat tolerant and feed efficient animals. Marker-assisted selection and proteomics may also be valuable in selection for secondary traits linked to adaptation, such as the genes for high levels of blood urea and ruminal ammonia in certain genotypes, associated with adaptation to low-quality C4 grasses. Scientific research results demonstrated that heat tolerance is a heritable trait and there is variation between/within livestock breeds, thereby this variation and heritability of the trait open the window for selection of heat-tolerant animals. Therefore, combining genomic selection using genome-wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress and phenotypic selection could accelerate breeding of highly productive and heat tolerant livestock breeds. This, in turn, calls for further research on molecular characterization & identification of indigenous breeds and on the identification of genes/genomic regions associated with thermoregulation, feeding and production efficiency in order to develop suitable adaptive and mitigation strategies.
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Organic farming: as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy

Organic farming: as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy

Organic farming, as an adaptation strategy to climate change and variability, is a concrete and sustainable option and has additional potential as a mitigation strategy. The careful management of nutrients and carbon sequestration in soils are significant contributors in adaptation and mitigation to climate change and variability in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Organic farming as a systematic approach for sustained biological diversity and climate change adaptation through production management, minimizing energy randomisation of non-renewable resources; and carbon sequestration is a viable alternative. The purpose of potential organic farming is therefore to attempt a gradual reversal of the effects of climate change for building resilience and overall sustainability by addressing the key issues. Research is needed on yields and institutional environment for organic farming, as a mitigation and sequestration potential.
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Biotechnological advances for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the case of goat production – A review

Biotechnological advances for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the case of goat production – A review

Climate change influences goat production directly and indirectly thru its effect on reducing the quality and quantity of feed resources, and increasing spatial and temporal distribution of infectious diseases. The advances of biotechnology now a day’s opened an avenue to improve the nutritive value and digestibility of fibrous feeds by using biological methods (e.g., white rot fungi) and through recombinant DNA engineering techniques. Moreover, supplementation of probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics and organic acids modulate the activities and composition of the rumen microbial ecosystem thereby reduce lactic acid content, improve nutrient digestibility, reduce methanogenesis, optimize voluntary fatty acid profiles, and decrease ruminal ammonia production and protein degradation. All these effects increase productive performances and reduce methane emission from goat production. Genetic engineering and introgression of genes between adapted and non-adapted populations have been used to improve the diseases resistance of goat. Vaccines are used to control infectious diseases, increase productivity by modulating hormones or the immune system functions. Immuno-castration and ectoparasite control are also important biotechnological tools. Immunological and molecular techniques diagnostic technologies (PCR, RT-PCR, microarray, proteomic technique, biosensors, fluorescent-in-situ-hybridisation (FISH) and nanotechnologies) are used to detect and identify diseases and their causal agents. However, the aforementioned biotechnological tools are not yet well developed in developing countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, review, evaluation, and implementation of biotechnological tools in goat production in developing countries is paramount to increase production and productivity, and realize the potential use of biotechnology for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
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Plant Species Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Plant Species Diversity for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Climate change is one of the hottest issues of the world and one of the most important factors which influences the behavior, abundance and distribution of species, as well as having a strong influence on the ecology and ecosystems. Diversity and plant species are highly interlinked and the relationship between biodiversity and climate change adaptation should be explored from several perspectives. As climate change increasingly puts a strain on ecosystems and species populations, it is important to find ways to increase their resilience to current and future climate change (Reid and Swiderska, 2008). At the same time, the conservation and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services can play a key role in helping societies to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is affected by climate change, with negative consequences for human well-being, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services and function it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate- change mitigation and adaptation (UNEP, 2009). Consequently, conserving and sustainably managing biodiversity is critical to addressing climate change.
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‘Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Implications for land acquisition and population relocation’

‘Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Implications for land acquisition and population relocation’

of any clear consensus on a more general framework for climate financing. Despite the flagging momentum behind Fast Start it presents both opportunities and risks for any ambition to use climate change adaptation and mitigation processes as leverage to tackle the weaknesses in national and international frameworks for managing land acquisition and population resettlement in the development context. Fast Start financing, by its nature, carries the risk that projects may proceed without the full and necessary scrutiny of legal and policy measures to fully protect against land acquisition and resettlement that is poorly managed, underfunded or purely speculative. The channelling of Fast Start funds through the World Bank administered GEF provides both a risk and an opportunity. On the one hand, there is concern that the World Bank’s Country Systems Approach, in which the implementation of bank-financed projects increasingly relies on borrower governments’ institutions, laws and policies rather than on the Bank’s own environmental and social safeguard policies to ensure that people and the environment are not harmed in the development process , marks a further retreat on the part of the Bank towards setting and upholding international standards on resettlement and protecting the most vulnerable. Balasundaram and Dobinger acknowledge that the adoption of country systems by the institutional members of the GEF has important implications for the projects it funds and ultimately ‘might affect the effectiveness of such safeguards’ (2006:12). On the other hand, the high-level ministerial engagement in the Fast Start and GEF, which includes the UN Secretary General’s Advisory Group on Climate Finance and numerous bilateral talks, represents an opportunity to position the social impacts of any decisions taken on climate financing to be at the centre of those discussions. For some years, western governments and UN agencies (including UNHCR and UNDP) have shown a reluctance to engage with developing country governments at any senior political level on involuntary resettlement, however, the current political momentum and the broad nature of the discussions around energy policy, urbanisation, and biodiversity protection offer an opportunity for such engagement to take place on a constructive basis where adaptation and mitigation projects are not stand alone but are rather fully integrated into national development planning and international cooperation.
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Evaluation of Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation in Mandera County, Kenya

Evaluation of Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation in Mandera County, Kenya

The high vulnerability of Sub-Saharan Africa region to the impact of climate change results from over dependence on natural resources, poor infrastructure, pervasive poverty and the weak institutional capacity to respond and mitigate environmental disasters effectively. In Kenya, Mandera County is characterized by fragile and sensitive ecosystems with persistent droughts, floods, epidemics, livestock diseases and conflicts. The objective of this study was to evaluate strategic options for climate change adaptation and mitigation in Mandera County, Kenya. Sampling strategies included cluster random sampling, multistage sampling and simple random sampling. The study sample size was 384 household heads and the use of questionnaires, interview schedules, key informant questionnaires, focus group discussion and observation schedule were employed in data collection. Data analysis involved the use of Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and Ms Excel. The results revealed that of the 384 household heads 13.3 % (51) embraced climate smart agriculture, 11.2 % (43) diversification of livelihood, 9.1 % (35) use of green clean energy resources, 8.3% (32) commercialization of livestock and livestock product while 3.4% (13) supported livestock banking respectively. The main internal (community based) measures included drilling of boreholes and wells 9.6% (37), planned grazing 8.1% (31), promotion of good governance, transparency and responsible leadership at the county level 7.8% (30) and construction of large scale dams 7.6% (29) respectively. External measures included provision of early warning system 12.5% (48), construction of viable high capacity dams 12% (46) and provision of subsidized animal feed by the County government 11.5% (44) respectively. Chi-square tests conducted on climate change adaptation mechanisms and key mitigation strategies against climate change showed that there was high significant (P<0.01) variation amongst the respondents. Coping strategies included; migration to areas with water and pasture 33.33% (128), praying for rainfall through special prayers i.e. robdoon and hersi 12.5% (48) and herd splitting ( hoga rac ) 10.2% (39) respectively. Indigenous knowledge mechanisms included observation of livestock behaviour 19.5% (75), observation of migration pattern of birds 16.4% (63) and signs of trees shading leaves 13.3% (51).
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The Effect of Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation Measures on Heat Stress in Retirement Homes in The Netherlands

The Effect of Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation Measures on Heat Stress in Retirement Homes in The Netherlands

The collected questionnaires in this research showed that regarding climate change adaptation measures in retirement homes in The Netherlands green roofs, increased vegetation and construction of surface waters were implemented. Green roofs can have a positive effect on heat stress as it lowers the temperature within a building as opposed no roofs without vegetation. The effects differs per green roof, as a green roof can exist of different layers and different types vegetation. The effect of increased vegetation is also dependant of the type of vegetation. Large trees and bushes can provide shadow and prevent the heat gain in buildings. If there is a significant amount of trees, the so called “oasis effect” can take place, in which ambient temperature is lowered as a result of evapotranspiration of the vegetation. Increased vegetation could also block the wind. This would mean less ventilation through open windows, but also protection from hot summer winds. Surface waters can absorb solar energy in the form of heat throughout the day, but releases this heat in the night. It can thus bring relieve to heat stress during daytime, but could enhance heat stress at night. The mentioned climate change adaptation measures have positive effects on heat stress, but the extent to which these positive effects reach, are dependant of different factors. There are also not only positive effects of climate change mitigation measures; construction of surface waters could worsen heat stress at night. The first hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between climate change mitigation measures and heat stress can thus only be confirmed partially.
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Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

In the current situation, access to and increased development of (local) markets for the products, local processing possibilities, and export infrastructure are of particular importance for OA. For this, the role of international institutions and trade policies (World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Environmental Program, etc.) has to be discussed. The institutional environment for OA as an adaptation and mitigation strategy also has to be identified, in particular, on a global level. Knowledge transfer has to be institutionalized. There is a wealth of knowledge available on OA, especially in the north (e.g., in various EU countries). Clearly, this knowledge is tied to specific climatic circumstances and cannot be transferred to other regions without due caution and modification.
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Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Implications for land acquisition and population relocation

Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Implications for land acquisition and population relocation

It is generally the case that NAPAs contain statements of intent rather than specific project proposals, which mean it is difficult to assess with accuracy the location, scale and societal implications of adaptation plans in terms of land-use change. There are, however, some exceptions. The government of Eritrea has stated its intention to build a multipurpose large- scale water development project in Genale–Dawa Basin, while neighbouring Ethiopia is proposing a series of named hydropower projects, as is Säo Tomé and Príncipe with the construction of hydropower stations in Claudino Faro and Bernardo Faro. The majority of NAPAs, however, as Table 1 shows, prefer to state an unspecified commitment to adaptation projects that involve land-use change, and only minimal information is provided on the area of land or the number of people who may be affected by these projects.
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Challenges and opportunities to the adaptation and mitigation of climate change in developing countries: Review

Challenges and opportunities to the adaptation and mitigation of climate change in developing countries: Review

Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change than that of developed ones which caused climate change. This is because of the sensitivity of income source (agriculture, which is seasonal production) and lack of different opportunities to tackle climate change in developing countries. Despite their differences, both mitigation and adaptation efforts are necessary due to their synergic effect in order to decrease climate change risks. Adaptation and mitigation are differ from each other; in spatial and temporal scales on which they are effective, their costs and benefits, and the actors and types of policies involved in their implementation. The challenges to climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries are explained directly or indirectly by different researchers. However, no researcher gave attention to opportunities to adaptation and mitigation of climate change in developing countries. Consequently, this review is needed to provide information on the importance of emphasizing on the opportunities than challenges to adaptation and mitigation of climate change in developing countries. The building designs, agriculture/food insecurity, low income, deforestation, and conventional solid waste management system are major challenges to climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. However, there are opportunities to climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. The major opportunities are financing for forests (carbon trading) in developing countries, organic agriculture, increase of tree cover outside forests, and presence of better forest coverage in developing countries. So, developing countries should emphasis on their opportunity in order to improve their adaptive and mitigation potential to climate change. This is because; once the climate change occurred, it is better if one gives attention to strategies of coping with climate change and ways to minimize the future negative impact on his or her life than telling stories about climate change impacts.
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Prevention and protection : the simultaneous implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies

Prevention and protection : the simultaneous implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies

different interpretations. 2 I use that of chapter two, where climate change adaptation is the set of actions taken to respond to a changing climate mean that: 1) improve welfare, 2) do not change the climate as the goal, and 3) would not have been taken were the climate mean not changing. While mitigation and adaptation are both risk-reducing approaches to climate change, they are distinctly different in the timescales of their policy effectiveness and the characteristics of how their technology works to reduce damages, as well as their behavior under uncertainty. Given these different policy characteristics between the two strategies, using a single policy variable to represent distinctly different adaptation measures for different types of climate damages may not accurately portray the tradeoffs between adaptation and mitigation, particularly under uncertainty. In addressing this issue, I developed a conceptual framework in chapter two where the rational policymaker faces a decision under uncertainty on how much to allocate across a portfolio of four policies to respond to climate change: mitigation, and three types of adaptation – flexible and short- lived ―flow‖ spending, committed and long-lived new stock investments, and the retrofitting of pre-existing capital stock. With this as motivation, this chapter takes a step toward the complete representation of the developed framework in model form by modeling adaptation as both a flow and a stock variable along with mitigation. In so doing it adds to the nascent but growing modeling literature that characterizes adaptation with both flow- and stock-type attributes (Lecocq and Shalizi 2008; Bosello et al. 2010; Yohe et al. 2010).
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Adaptation and mitigation expenditures due to climate change of the general government

Adaptation and mitigation expenditures due to climate change of the general government

Particularly with regard to adaptation applying the primary purpose criterion is problematic. In the Netherlands, most adaptation related expenditures are related to dike construction and maintenance, and the costs for coastal defence (flood protection). In most cases it is impossible to determine if the main purpose is climate change adaptation or “business as usual” protection against floods. For countries that face the risk of flooding due to rising sea levels it may be reasonable to attribute these costs to the consequences of climate change. As half of the Dutch territory is below sea level one could argue that all costs for the defence against water should be seen in the light of climate change. Our initial intention to solve this problem was to determine shares. Which part of the protection measures is flood control and which part is regular maintenance? For the time being it was found that this was too difficult to apply. In this project we decided on the following practical solution:
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Reflections on the uptake of climate change policies by local governments: facing the challenges of mitigation and adaptation

Reflections on the uptake of climate change policies by local governments: facing the challenges of mitigation and adaptation

consequences. Climate change adaptation was never really prioritized nor supported with properly financed policy support schemes to build capacity among local governments. In the realm of local climate change pol- icies, adaptation is still considered an ‘add on’ to climate change mitigation policy. When looking at local policy implementation and the actual engagement of local stakeholders, however, both the adaptation and mitiga- tion policies seem to suffer from institutional inertia in Dutch local policy practice, as local action is often only possible if concrete measures fit established policies, in particular in regard to permit granting (e.g., building permits). Furthermore, compliance by local stakeholders with local government climate change policy strategies remains troublesome. For mitigation, it is local stake- holders who seem to be enthusiastic to develop their own autonomous (sustainable energy) initiatives, and expect local government to become less dominant and to take a more passive, but supportive, stance. One might wonder whether such a role for local govern- ments would be desirable in light of increasing extreme weather events and increasing attention to climate change adaptation. Should this be left to the market, considering that local governments in the Netherlands have shown themselves to be hardly bothered by it? Endnotes
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Climate Clever Beef : On-farm demonstration of adaptation and mitigation options for climate change in northern Australia

Climate Clever Beef : On-farm demonstration of adaptation and mitigation options for climate change in northern Australia

Adaptation measures are likely to have largely neutral implications for greenhouse gas emissions, and tend to reinforce many existing best practice recommendations, aimed at improving productivity and sustainability. This reflects the fact that climate adaptation has only recently emerged as a management consideration, so adaptation options have been developed (and filtered) from the start with consideration of potential negative consequences for mitigation and best management practice (e.g. Projects B.NBP.0616 (Phelps et al. 2012) and B.NBP.0617, Howden et al. 2008; McKeon et al. 2009; Stokes et al. 2010a). In contrast, mitigation measures are more likely to create conflicts that leave enterprises more vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation measures with potential negative greenhouse gas outcomes include greater use of fire to control woody vegetation and forage quality (and, to a lesser extent, greater energy consumption for cooling or inputs, such as feed supplements). Negative consequences of mitigation measures for adaptation include loss of pasture production associated with carbon sequestration in trees, increased operating costs associated with pricing emissions (if these are not offset with carbon credits), and potential liabilities in having to maintain sequestered carbon stores at their enhanced levels in perpetuity (in the face of threats from changing climate or fire regimes). The greatest areas of synergy include improving land condition, measures to improve resource use efficiency (particularly herd management and use of supplements), improving capacity of pastoralists in business management skills, and options that overlap strongly with existing best practice recommendations.
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Climate change mitigation with technology spillovers

Climate change mitigation with technology spillovers

The finding that monetary transfers resulting from a bargaining over the additional joint surplus from cooperation could go in both directions is in line with Buob and Stephan (2013). They find that developed countries should finance adaptation in poor countries to the extent that they benefit from it. Both papers point that developed countries have weak incentives to provide funding in a non-cooperative framework, which highlights the importance of a compelling international agreement. As of today, it is still not clear what provisions of the Paris agreement are legally binding and the latter might fail to provide incentives strong enough for countries to deliver on their promises.
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Adaptation to Climate Change and Mitigation of its Effects in the Arid Region of Pakistan (1961-2015)

Adaptation to Climate Change and Mitigation of its Effects in the Arid Region of Pakistan (1961-2015)

The exterior water provisions from the contiguous catchments shall manage for distraction to cultivated lands, if the river flows are permanent. In case, the river flows are seasonal (non-perennial), the overspill shall be logged in dams and reservoirs and afterward normalized to supply water for agriculture during dry seasons or shortage. There is an immense potential of logging overflow sites within or outside the Indus basin in lower Punjab, nearby dry torrents of Baluchistan, and Sindh, which will also diminish the flood disaster in the area. The procedure of waterlogging used by the Indus valley Civilization (2600 to 1900BC) in dockyard Lothal was unique and is presently suitable for the waterlogging of extra flow and power generation in the entire southern latitudes of Pakistan (Fig. 2). The demand in agricultural water needs due to climate and weather fluctuation shall compel the cultivators to initiate the use of mediocre water in delicate atmospheres in the arid region of the country.
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Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of Issues relevant to developing countries

Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of Issues relevant to developing countries

This paper notes that the total climate bill consists of four different components: mitigation, anticipative or proactive adaptation, coping or reactive adaptation, and ultimate damages. In the presence of climate change, a laisser-faire no action policy will result in high ultimate damages. These can adversely affect growth and development strategies (Lecocq and Shalizi, 2007). Policy actions associated with mitigation, proactive adaptation and reactive adaptation can reduce ultimate damages and the total climate bill—the first two being incurred before damages materialize and the third after climate change events occur. However, there may still be some ultimate damages that cannot be removed (‘remaining ultimate damages’) because they are technically or economically irreversible. The paper notes that adaptation policies are not limited to agriculture, but concern a wide range of sectors such as energy, transportation or housing.
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Transformational responses to climate change: beyond a systems perspective of social change in mitigation and adaptation

Transformational responses to climate change: beyond a systems perspective of social change in mitigation and adaptation

There is a growing imperative for responses to climate change to go beyond incremental adjustments, aiming instead for society-wide transformation. In this context, sociotechnical (ST) transitions and social – ecological (SE) resilience are two prominent normative agendas. Reviewing these literatures reveals how both share a complex-systems epistemology with inherent limitations, often produ- cing managerial governance recommendations and foregrounding material over social drivers of change. Further interdisciplinary dialogue with social theory is essential if these frameworks are to become more theoretically robust and capa- ble of informing effective, let alone transformational, climate change governance. To illustrate this potential, ideas from Deleuze and Guattari ’ s political writing as well as other approaches that utilize the notion social fi elds (as opposed to socio- systems) are combined to more fully theorize the origins and enactment of social change. First, the logic of systems is replaced with the contingency of assem- blages to reveal how pluralism, not elitism, can produce more ambitious and politicized visions of the future. In particular, this view encourages us to see social and ecological tensions as opportunities for thinking and acting differently rather than as mere technical problems to be solved. Secondly, the setting of social fi elds is introduced to situate and explain the power of ideas and the role of agency in times of uncertainty. The potential of such insights is already visible in some strands of climate change mitigation and adaptation research, but more needs to be done to advance this fi eld and to bring it into dialogue with the mainstream systems based literature. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs Climate Change published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies of Climate Change Impact in Freshwater Aquaculture in some states of India

Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies of Climate Change Impact in Freshwater Aquaculture in some states of India

Aquaculture is shaping up into a global venture and it is considered as the fastest growing food producing sector in the world to feed the ever-growing population. Freshwater aquaculture is the principal component for catering the increasing demand for fish particularly in India. Fish is considered as a cheap and safe source of protein which provides essential nutrition for 3 billion people and at least 50% of animal protein and minerals to 400 million people from the developing and under-developed countries in the world. Also, it gives livelihood option to about 520 million people in the globe. With a total fish production of 9.33 million metric tones (mmt) in 2010, India has become the third largest fish producer in the world. Of the total, about 49.72% (4.64 mmt) is contributed by freshwater aquaculture and India is second to China in freshwater aquaculture production. This much important food producing sector is really in the threat of global warming and climate change. Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It is now widely accepted that climate change is no longer simply a potential threat, it is unavoidable; a consequence of 200 years of excessive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in energy generation, transport and industry, deforestation and intensive agriculture is realized. Climate change is an additional pressure on the freshwater aquaculture and the impacts of climate change on freshwater aquaculture are more complex than those on terrestrial agriculture because it holds poikilothermic animals, which is highly sensitive to various kind of biotic and abiotic stress that directly affect the growth, reproduction, physiology and behavior of fishes. Climate changes affect the aquaculture directly by influencing fish stocks or indirectly alter the primary and secondary productivity, structure, and composition of the ecosystems, or by influencing fish prices or the cost of fish meal, fish oil and other goods and services required by fishers and fish farmers. In the present study, we conducted survey among fish farmers in different states of India about their views on adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change impact in freshwater aquaculture.
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Mitigation vs  adaptation: a critical overview of EU climate change policies and their impact on agriculture

Mitigation vs adaptation: a critical overview of EU climate change policies and their impact on agriculture

One of the action lines envisaged by the strategy is the facilitation of climate-proofing of the Common Agricultural Policy, by providing guidance on how to integrate adaptation into the CAP. This guidance aims to to help managing authorities and other stakeholders involved in programme design, development and implementation during the 2014-2020 budget period (through the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, with an annual budget of approximately €59 billion).

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