Climate Change in Georgia

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Glaciers Reduction and Climate Change  Impact over the Last One Century in  the Mulkhura River Basin, Caucasus  Mountains, Georgia

Glaciers Reduction and Climate Change Impact over the Last One Century in the Mulkhura River Basin, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

Mountain glaciers are a relatively reliable indicator of climate change, and their recent decline across the world has been linked to global warming [1]. Retreat of mountain glaciers has more localized consequences, af- fecting the geomorphology and hydrology of the glacial valleys which they occupy [2] [3]. The most serious impact of vanishing mountain glaciers undoubtedly concerns the water cycle from regional to global scales. Glacier melting will probably dominate sea level rise during our century [4]. Changes in the dynamic parameters even of relatively small glaciers may have a disproportionately large impact on climate [5].

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Effect of Dust Aerosols in Forming the Regional Climate of Georgia

Effect of Dust Aerosols in Forming the Regional Climate of Georgia

1. Introduction. Dust aerosols in the form of fine particles are scatter and absorb solar and terrestrial radiation and therefore are affect climate [1]. Besides, lifted up from the soils, rocks, plants, volcanic eruptions and anthropogenic pollutants into the atmosphere, dust aerosols can reduce evaporation and as a consequence precipitation processes by reducing the earth surface temperature [2]. Investigations have shown that anthro- pogenic activities on the average lead to 30 percent of the dust load whereas the storms are the major sources of mineral loading in the environment [3]. The world’s biggest desert (Sahara and Sahel in Africa, the Gobi, Kyzylkum, Karakum, Taklamakan in central Asia) storms usually represent the primary sources for the mineral dust aerosols transfer in the atmosphere, its sediment on the earth surface and spreading across the Europe, Asia and Africa continents [1,4]. For instance, desert dust is the principal aerosol component over the Mediterranean basin and they strongly influence the Mediterranean climate [3]. For short or long time periods the dust storms are significantly affecting the earth’s atmosphere quality, modifying the clouds microphysics, their optical prop- erties and have a strong influence on both regional and global climate systems. Indeed, dust storms influence the atmospheric radiation budget, the ground surface albedo, the air quality and consequently the human health and the entire biota [5-7]. Numerical modeling of the past, present and future climate processes represents a good means to study the main factors affecting the modern climate change. Several attempts were made to examine the global or regional climate models ability and to clarify the dynamical and physical mechanisms responsible for climate change over the particular regions [3-11]. For instance, for the purpose of assessing the ability of regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe the RegCM4.4 model was used [11]. The results of calculations from 2000 to 2009 and their comparisons against the satellite-based observations have shown that the model slightly has overestimated surface solar radiation patterns in Europe.

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Glaciers Fluctuation over the Last Half  Century in the Headwaters of the Enguri River, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

Glaciers Fluctuation over the Last Half Century in the Headwaters of the Enguri River, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

In order to make an accurate assessment of the contribution of glaciers to the global water balance, it is ne- cessary to monitor changes in the areal extent of glaciers, as well as other parameters such as their volume and mass balance [15]. Additionally, very small glaciers are often under-represented in glacier inventories. Although these glaciers only represent a small fraction of the cryosphere, they are very important water resources to local communities, and play a significant role in the water budget of many regions of the world, where their summer melt strongly determines the seasonal runoff regime. Regular monitoring of their behavior assumes added im- portance given that smaller glaciers are known to respond more rapidly to climate change [16]. Glacial melt wa- ters are one of the main factors in river runoff formation in the mountainous areas of Georgia. Their erosive ac- tion is determined by the ablation intensity during the day [17].

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Climate change and epilepsy: time to take action

Climate change and epilepsy: time to take action

emission reductions necessary to stabilize the climate will require us to modify some current practices and find new ways to achieve the same outcomes. Targeted distribution of mitigation measures (eg, carbon offsetting) for conference attendance to those nations most at risk from climate change may suit some conference attendees. Higher levels of sus- tainability at conferences should be considered: hotel usage, maintenance of ambient temperatures in conference halls and hotels (and personal offices at work), and food and drink pro- vision at meetings are all areas to be considered. Many or- ganizations will consider these difficult changes to make for meetings that often represent sources of income, but as with many aspects of climate change, there is a bigger picture to consider. Climate scientists themselves have considered and addressed the issue of conference travel (https ://nofly clima tesci.org/), even with a model for a “nearly carbon‐neutral conference.” 74 More flying does not necessarily equate with

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How and Why to Invest in a Climate Change Strategy

How and Why to Invest in a Climate Change Strategy

To this point in the paper, we’ve focused on the features of generic climate change strategies (to the extent that there are any), but our strategy, more specifically, is to attempt to identify companies that trade at a discount but still benefit from the secular growth tailwinds we’ve been discussing. Typically, value strategies under-grow the market; after all, the companies are cheap for a reason. What a value investor hopes for is multiple expansion that more than offsets the under-growth. When investing in a high growth sector of the market like climate change, however, you may be able to buy companies at a discount that are able to grow with, or potentially outgrow, the market.

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2. Impact of climate change on crop adaptation: current challenges and future perspectives

2. Impact of climate change on crop adaptation: current challenges and future perspectives

adversely affects the physiology, morphology and biology of plants [9]. Although in some areas of the world located within the northern widths above 55 ºC climate changes will have positive effects on agricultural production but many plants especially native to warm habitat suffer from negative impacts of these changes. Extreme events takes place during the summer season are serious threats for crop adaptation and production for instance wheat plant reduces its period of planting to flowering and emergence to flowering due to rise in temperature, evaporation and transpiration. Rise in 1 ºC of temperature leads to a reduction of 5 days flowering. Period of grain filling is also effected due to rise in temperature eventually leads to biomass reduction [7].

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Climate change

Climate change

pathway is more complex, include those that will result from increases in air pollution, increases in allergens, and changes to patterns of water-borne, food-borne, and vector-borne infectious diseases. In developing countries, increased threats to food and water security, as well as the profound effects of sea-level rise, will lead to the displacement of populations, creating climate-change refugees and the potential for resulting international conflicts. 7,14-16 In Canada, the approximately 150 000

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Adapting wheat ideotypes for climate change: accounting for uncertainties in CMIP5 climate projections

Adapting wheat ideotypes for climate change: accounting for uncertainties in CMIP5 climate projections

aerosols, solar activity, volcanoes and so on. These physical models are run over a grid, , with individual grid-cell size varying from 75 to 300 km (see Table 1). For a grid cell g and a period t (baseline or future), the climate model simulates time-series of climatic variables . Statistical prop - erties of the climate model output could be very different from properties of observed weather at a site s located inside a grid cell g. Despite extensive efforts to improve GCMs’ performance in the simula- tion of various aspects of the climate system in the CMIP5 project, there are still substantial temperature biases and deficiencies in the GCMs’ outputs (Knutti & Sedlacek 2013). One recent study shows that even the CMIP5 ensemble mean (averaged over 22 GCMs, which typically performs better than any individual GCM from the ensemble) of the annual mean sea surface temperature has biases up to −3°C in the Northern Hemisphere and up to + 3°C in the South- ern Hemisphere (Wang et al. 2014). These biases and errors in some regions can be linked with biases and errors at faraway locations, which implies that im - proving modelling of regional processes may not re - sult in overall better model performance, because the effects of remote biases may outweigh them. Climate projections from GCMs need to be downscaled to local-scale climate scenarios. One of the commonly used downscaling techniques is based on WGs and climatic change factors derived from GCMs (Wilks 1992, Barrow & Semenov 1995, Wilby et al. 1998, Semenov 2007).

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A climate for change

A climate for change

All of the participating students stated that they had experienced effective team working within their groups and that they had learned to discuss emerging issues and listen to views of their colleagues in a constructive and thoughtful way as one student explained, ‗we didn’t arg ue at all. When we disagreed about something we all talked about it together and found a different way to do it, like when we changed one of the questions ‘. It was clear that close collaboration within the different student groups began to develop initially during the first discussion group during a brainstorming session about issues of climate change. All of the groups developed their ideas

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Climate Change and Variability in Southeast Zimbabwe: Scenarios and Societal Opportunities

Climate Change and Variability in Southeast Zimbabwe: Scenarios and Societal Opportunities

Climate change as shown in the results section pro- vides an opportunity for diversification from dryland agriculture in the region. Diversification includes cattle and wildlife ranching, fish and crocodile farming [20-23]. Researchers have indicated that crop production in the region will diminish and wild stock production will in- crease [22,23]. However, crop production in southeastern Zimbabwe remains a possibility as rainfall amount hov- ers around 600 mm mark annually. Small grains thrive in regions of low rainfall and high temperatures. Other crops with much resilience include cassava, yams, and sweet potatoes among others can be adopted at a large scale.

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Rice Farmer Adaptation to Climate Change in South Sulawesi Province

Rice Farmer Adaptation to Climate Change in South Sulawesi Province

People need staple food needs, which in every country has different staple foods. But the staple food is quite famous is rice or rice. And the vast majority of Indonesians food is rice. Where originally rice or rice was derived a rice plant such as herbaceous, which is widely planted and cultivated in our beloved country namely the country of Indonesia. Before people get to know the rice, especially in Indonesia, the food is corn, cassava, and sago. For the Sago is the most widely cultivated in Papua, because it is the staple food of the Papuans until today. Rice is a staple food that is easy to enjoy by anyone, not just delicious, but rice contains a variety of food substances that are embraced by our bodies, namely carbohydrates, proteins, fats, crude fiber, ash, and vitamins. So it can make our body or body healthy. And if you want more favours, rice can be mixed with side dishes such as fish, meat, tempeh, and vegetables such as spinach, carrots, and others. Climate change (Climatechange) is a condition of some climate elements that are magnitude and or the intensity tends to change or deviate from the average dynamic of the condition. The main cause of climate change is the human activity (anthropogenic) associated with increasing GHG emissions. Climate change due to emissions or greenhouse gas release is increasingly threatening the lives of humanity and biodiversity on the

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Climate Change and the Great Plague Pandemics of History: Causal Link between Global Climate Fluctuations and Yersinia Pestis Contagion?

Climate Change and the Great Plague Pandemics of History: Causal Link between Global Climate Fluctuations and Yersinia Pestis Contagion?

climatic driver that has had tremendous effects on human history, the scientific technology to verify such claims was not available in his era. The most compelling scientific evidence for an eruption event involves the discovery of sulfuric acid of volcanic origin in ice cores from both the north and south poles within the strata associated with the ten year period from 535 to 545. This is important because for the ash fallout, or “dry fog” to be found on both poles, is indicative of an eruption in the tropics which further narrows the possible culprits. 24 The fact that sulphuric acid/snow deposition took place at least twice as long in Antarctica as in Greenland suggests that the eruption in question occurred in the southern rather than the northern tropics. 25 Dry fogs spawned by large volcanic eruptions cool the climate by partially blocking incident sunlight and perturbing atmospheric circulation patterns. 26 Although the effects of volcanic winter are well- known, did volcanically-induced climatic cooling cause the widespread crop failures that preceded the pandemic and ultimately create conditions ideal for Justinian’s Plague a full five years later? It is clear from the dendrochronological record and from contemporary sources that the temperature dropped, and without the full strength of the sun to heat and evaporate the oceans' surfaces, there would have been less moisture released into the atmosphere. As a result there would have been colder temperatures and progressively less rainfall worldwide resulting in drought and shortly thereafter, famine.

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Fast tracking climate change mitigation strategies

Fast tracking climate change mitigation strategies

Mitigation and adaptation are said to be the two primary instruments of the international climate convention for minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on humans and ecosystems (Duguma et al. 2014, p. 420). However, a growing intensity of calls for more decision-oriented research has been evident in recent years, as priorities have moved from estimating impacts and vulnerabilities, so as to make the case for mitigation (Wise et al. 2014, p. 326). In most parts of Africa (most especially Yobe State, located in north-eastern Nigeria), climate change mitigation focusses on reforestation and forest protection (Mbow et al. 2014, p. 8). Whereas; tested strategies for promoting individual actions to mitigate climate change have been explored extensively, such as showing students how to make use of public transit, rather than simply encouraging it (Cornelius et al. 2014). But before these strategies can be widely implemented in classrooms as

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Evaluating effect of downscaling methods; change-factor and LARS-WG on surface runoff (A case study of Azam-Harat River basin, Iran)

Evaluating effect of downscaling methods; change-factor and LARS-WG on surface runoff (A case study of Azam-Harat River basin, Iran)

Despite the considerable increase in the accuracy of AOGCMs, none of these models are able to predict at a fine resolution at the scale of weather stations. Therefore, various statistical and dynamic models have been developed that enable GCM output to be downscaled to the resolution of a station. In order to assess the effect of different downscaling methods on the runoff of the basin, in this study two downscaling methods, CF and a statistical downscaling method, have been used. In the CF method, typically monthly ratios are constructed for the historical series, and climate change scenarios for temperature and precipitation are produced. For constructing the climate change scenario of each GCM, the ‘difference’ and ‘ratio’ for the temperature and precipitation (equations 1 and 2), respectively, are calculated based on the long-term monthly average of the future period (here, 2010-2039 period) and baseline period (here, 1982-2008) simulated by the same GCM

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Climate Change and Future Pollen Allergy in Europe

Climate Change and Future Pollen Allergy in Europe

Here, we quantify the potential conse- quences of climate change on pollen allergy, focusing upon the annual herbaceous plant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Europe (henceforth referred to as ragweed). In Europe, ragweed is an introduced species in the middle of an ongoing invasion event (Storkey et al. 2014) and, therefore, represents a case of a human population being progres- sively exposed to a novel allergen. Ragweed is highly invasive; it thrives on disturbed land, with each plant producing ≤ 62,000 seeds per year. Ragweed is particularly harmful for public health because each plant produces a large amount of pollen (≤ 1 billion grains a year; Fumanal et al. 2007), and its allergenic potential is high (Taramarcaz et al. 2005). Unlike other types of pollen, ragweed pollen peaks in the late summer (Essl et al. 2015). In some parts of Europe, ragweed generates ~50% of the total pollen production. In the United States, where ragweed is native, > 26%

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Alien Futures: : What is on the horizon for biological invasions?

Alien Futures: : What is on the horizon for biological invasions?

biodiversity and ecosystem changes or international trade, the survey makes clear that these will persist in the future. Climate change is, perhaps unsurprisingly, the topic which the highest number of respondents considered would have substantial future impacts. Our diverse panel of specialists acknowledge that little can be done without the support of the general public and commercial and administrative sectors to raise awareness and improve legislation. International trade ranked highly and is also one of the issues that policy makers have most direct control over, but the concerns of our respondents are consistent with increasing evidence that past efforts to mitigate invasions have been unable to deal successfully with increasing globalisation (Seebens et al., 2017). While our sampling approach was successful in getting responses at a global scale, the number of European responses far outweighed responses from other continents. Similar horizon scanning projects conducted at continental scales could therefore be useful to involve more

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The Impact of Forests in Climate Change

The Impact of Forests in Climate Change

According to some scientists, in the past 250 thousand years, the world was warming 1 degree. According to recent researches, the climate of the world, which should be in the cooling period nowadays, is not a cold turn; on the contrary, it shows that it has entered a hot round to the extent of danger. According to some researches, the world has warmed up to 1 degree from 1850 to 2000, while some other studies have shown that mean global temperature increases from 0.5 to 0.8 ° C from 1860 to sun. It is stated that the Industrial Revolution, which started in the year 1790, had a great effect. Dangerous aspect of this situation is that the speed of heating is doubled. Since 1979, the temperature has increased by 0.12 degrees every 10 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established by the UN, with over 150 countries, shows some evidence that climate change is alive now (Godrej, 2003).

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The Road to Copenhagen 2009   The European Union and Climate Change Action  EU Centre, Singapore Background Brief No  1, 10 November 2009

The Road to Copenhagen 2009 - The European Union and Climate Change Action. EU Centre, Singapore Background Brief No. 1, 10 November 2009

The internal dimension involves the distribution of the global commitment among the EU's Member States. The division is over what criteria to use for sharing the financial burden, the wealth of a nation (GNI) or how much it pollutes. Nine Central and East European member states favour calculating the sums on how wealthy a country is, thus placing a lesser burden on them. Western states favour basing the sums on the emissions produced by each country. Yet another reason why the western European states want “an EU-agreed schema based on emissions rather than a country's wealth is that if internally a schema is based on a country's wealth, the EU will then have to accept similar arguments at the global level from developing countries, undermining their position and that of the US that even developing countries must contribute to the global climate fund.” 43 The leaders were not able to reach a compromise, therefore it was agreed to set up a working group to take account of each country's financing capabilities. In another concession to eastern European states, contribution to fast-track projects will only be on a voluntary basis.

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Climate change and economic growth: issues challenges and mitigation

Climate change and economic growth: issues challenges and mitigation

Mendelsohn et al. (2000), Nordhaus and Boyer (2000) and Tol (2002) bring to attention that the total economic effects of climate harnesses micro-evidence, quantifying various climatic effects and then aggregating these to produce a net effect on national income. This approach is favoured in the climate change literature and forms the basis of many current policy recommendations regarding greenhouse gas emissions. However, this approach, while useful, also faces difficult challenges. The set of mechanisms through which climate may influence economic outcomes is potentially enormous and, even if each mechanism could be enumerated and its operation understood, specifying how the micro-level effects interact and aggregate to shape macroeconomic outcomes poses additional difficulties. Indeed, the climate change research, at the micro level, suggests a wide array of potential climatic effects, including influences on agricultural productivity, mortality, cognitive performance, crime, and social unrest, among other outcomes, most of which do not feature in current implementations of these models.

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Agricultural Adaptation Options against Adverse Effect of Climate Change in Shyamnagar Upazila in the Satkhira District, Bangladesh

Agricultural Adaptation Options against Adverse Effect of Climate Change in Shyamnagar Upazila in the Satkhira District, Bangladesh

have been the viable adaptation option for such climate stressors. Moved to non-farm activities, Integrated farming system, increased use of irrigation, Agroforestry, Soil conservation techniques were ranked 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th respectively (Table 4). Crop insurance (ASI- 79) was ranked as the least important adaptation strategy. This is most likely due to (1) a significant lack of good management of finance institutions in the country underwriting agriculture and offering farm-based insurance products (2) Poor deployment of technical assistance and low-levels of farmer awareness about the use of agricultural insurance (3) Only a very recent abatement of governmental regulations and policies which placed prohibitive restrictions on insurances provision entities and (4) an overall lack of capacity (financial, infrastructure and human) among in-country financial institutions to float insurance programs.

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