Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment

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A Modified Combined Approach Framework of Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for Water Resource Systems Based on Experience Derived from Different Adaptation Studies in the Context of Climate Change

A Modified Combined Approach Framework of Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for Water Resource Systems Based on Experience Derived from Different Adaptation Studies in the Context of Climate Change

Warming of climate system is undisputed as evident from observations of increasing average temperatures of air and ocean, large scale melting of ice and increasing global average sea levels. The effect of climate change directly impacts society through the chain of climate-hydrology-water-water resources systems-society. Adaptation and mitigation are the two ways of society to respond to the changes in climate. Adaptations may be reactive, anticipatory, autonomous, planned, compliment and substitute type. The adaptations are carried out with the help of guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment. The guidelines are subjective or objective. Objective guidelines are step by step procedures to arrive at proper adaptation measures while subjective guidelines are step by step adaptation measures given on the basis of study of area, problem at hand and prerequisites for the adaptation. Many objective guidelines of climate im- pact and adaptation assessment are given. These objective guidelines can be classified into two approaches: hazard based approach and vulnerability based approach. Both approaches have their own pros and cons, so combined ap- proach with more focus on vulnerability was suggested as the best. In this study based on the lessons learned from the adaptation case studies across the world, the combined approach framework is modified to get modified combined ap- proach framework of guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment by adding the components related: 1) explicit mentioning of stakeholders 2) revision, modification and communication of adaptation actions.

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Commission staff working paper  Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council  Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the

Commission staff working paper. Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol) {COM (2012) 626 final}. SWD (2012) 353 final, 24.10.2012

Under the EU's 7th Framework Program for Research / FP7 (2007-2013) climate change remains a key priority including research on climate change adaptation. A number of projects funded under FP 7 will contribute to the improvement of the assessment framework by improvement of the understanding of the climate system and its processes, the quantification of climate change impacts on human and natural systems (including extreme events), and to the identification and assessment of mitigation and adaptation options including their costs. These research projects also serve as a knowledge basis for the development and support of international climate policies as well as policies on e.g. disaster reduction (including hydrometeorological hazards). Most relevant FP7 projects: ClimateCost: Full costs of inaction and adaptation of climate change; CLIMSAVE: Climate change integrated assessment methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability; RESPONSES: European responses to climate change: deep emission reductions and mainstreaming of mitigation and adaptation; MEDIATION: Methodology for effective decision-making on impacts and adaptation; CCTAME: Climate change, Terrestrial adaptation and mitigation; ClimateWater: Bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies; ACQWA: Assessing climatic change and impacts on the quality and quantity of water; IMPRINTS: Improving preparedness and risk management for flash floods and debris flow events; CLIWASEC: Cluster - Climate-Water- Security; IMPACT2C: Quantifying projected impacts under 2°C warming; ArcRisk: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling; CLEAR: Climate change, environmental contaminants and reproductive health Viroclime: Impact of Climate Change on the Transport, Fate and Risk Management of Viral Pathogens in Water; EDENext: Biology and control of vector-borne diseases in Europe; DROUGHT-R&SPI: Fostering European Drought Research and Science-Policy Interfacing; KULTURISK: Knowledge-based approach to develop a culture of risk prevention

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Commission staff working paper  Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council  Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the

Commission staff working paper Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol) {COM (2011) 624 final} SEC (2011) 1151 final, 7 10 2011

Under the EU's 7th Framework Program for Research / FP7 (2007-2013) climate change remains a key priority including research on climate change adaptation. A number of projects funded under FP 7 will contribute to the improvement of the assessment framework by improvement of the understanding of the climate system and its processes, the quantification of climate change impacts on human and natural systems (including extreme events), and to the identification and assessment of mitigation and adaptation options including their costs. These research projects also serve as a knowledge basis for the development and support of international climate policies as well as policies on e.g. disaster reduction (including hydrometeorological hazards). Most relevant FP7 (and still ongoing FP6) projects: ClimateCost: Full costs of inaction and adaptation of climate change; CLIMSAVE: Climate change integrated assessment methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability; RESPONSES: European responses to climate change: deep emission reductions and mainstreaming of mitigation and adaptation; MEDIATION: Methodology for effective decision-making on impacts and adaptation; CCTAME: Climate change, Terrestrial adaptation and mitigation; ClimateWater: Bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies; ACQWA: Assessing climatic change and impacts on the quality and quantity of water; IMPRINTS: Improving preparedness and risk management for flash floods and debris flow events; CLIWASEC: Cluster - Climate-Water-Security; CIRCE: Climate Change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment; WATCH: Water and Global Change ANIMALCHANGE An integration of mitigation and adaptation options for sustainable livestock production under climate change

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Climate change impact and adaptation in agricultural systems of Australia and Brazil

Climate change impact and adaptation in agricultural systems of Australia and Brazil

IPCC, 2014b: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Barros, V.R., C.B. Field, D.J. Dokken, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)].

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Climate change and biodiversity: inter-linkages, impact, mitigation and adaptation

Climate change and biodiversity: inter-linkages, impact, mitigation and adaptation

It began with the First World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere in October 1988 at Toronto, where scientists and politicians con- cluded that “humanity is conducting an unin- tended, uncontrolled, globally pervasive experi- ment whose ultimate consequences could be second to a global nuclear war.” The conference recommended, the so called „Toronto target‟, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by the year 2005. In the same year Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) pub- lished its First Assessment Report, which high- lighted the increase in accumulation of human- made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In 1992, Rio Earth Summit documented two inter- national conventions, viz. United Nation Con- vention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) and United Nation Framework Convention on Cli- mate Change (UNFCCC). The UNCBD, infor- mally known as the Biodiversity Convention came out with an internationally binding treaty with three main goals: a) conservation of bio- logical diversity, b) sustainable use of its com- ponents and c) fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources. The Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. UNFCCC also framed a treaty with these objectives: a) To sta- bilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and b) To prevent dangerous anthropogenic interfer- ence with the climate system. This treaty was enforced in 21 st March 1994.

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Commission staff working paper  Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council  Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the

Commission staff working paper. Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol) {COM (2011) 624 final}. SEC (2011) 1151 final, 7.10.2011

The EU has explored with the WHO and EU agencies means of ensuring adequate surveillance and control of the impact of climate change on health, such as epidemiological surveillance, the control of communicable diseases and the effects of extreme events. The Parma Ministerial Declaration brings new priorities in the environment and health process with one pillar dedicated on protecting health and environment from climate change. The Health Programme of the European Union has been the key financing mechanism for projects, setting up networks and initiatives to support the work of the Health Security Committee. Funding of projects to address adaptation to climate change has been foreseen under the work plans for 2009-2011, including: PHASE will provide the public health sector with prevention guidelines to promote resilience and reduce health risk associated to extreme weather events, their environmental consequences and development of tools to select vulnerable subgroups most at risk to specific extreme weather events; CLIMATE TRAP: Impact assessment, surveillance and preparedness guidelines, training, will play a pivotal role in assisting the process of strengthening the implementation of existing warning systems and plans and in strengthening the Health Sector in preparedness in facing the health impact of climate change; HIALINE aims at evaluating the effects of climate diversity and change on airborne allergen exposure, and to implement an outdoor allergen early warning network; EUROSUN aims at monitoring ultra violet exposure in the EU and its effects on incidence of skin cancers and cataracts; EUROMOMO aims at develop and operate a coordinated approach to real-time mortality monitoring across Europe such as pandemic influenza, emerging infections as well as environmental conditions with an impact on public health, i.e. heat waves and cold spells; CEHAPIS: Impact assessment, policy options and indicators on health and climate change aims at providing an evaluation of policy option impacts for successful health adaptation to climate change and monitor trends and policies over time; EDEN (Emerging diseases in a changing European environment) contributed to this effort.

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Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan

Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan

This research has identified many potential adaptation measures to reduce or mitigate the impact of climate change on human health in Vanuatu that consider the current level of development in the country. The possible events that could impact on health have been identified in terms of the estimated level of risk and the estimated current level of capacity response. This assessment should allow sectors to make judgements about risks and appropriate responses that require attention in the short term, those that can be set aside for later attention and those where more information is needed. The results are expected to be used by decision makers to provide direction on planning for the short, medium and long term.

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Commission staff working paper  Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council  Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the

Commission staff working paper Accompanying the report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council Progress towards achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol) {COM (2012) 626 final} SWD (2012) 353 final, 24 10 2012

Under the EU's 7th Framework Program for Research / FP7 (2007-2013) climate change remains a key priority including research on climate change adaptation. A number of projects funded under FP 7 will contribute to the improvement of the assessment framework by improvement of the understanding of the climate system and its processes, the quantification of climate change impacts on human and natural systems (including extreme events), and to the identification and assessment of mitigation and adaptation options including their costs. These research projects also serve as a knowledge basis for the development and support of international climate policies as well as policies on e.g. disaster reduction (including hydrometeorological hazards). Most relevant FP7 projects: ClimateCost: Full costs of inaction and adaptation of climate change; CLIMSAVE: Climate change integrated assessment methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability; RESPONSES: European responses to climate change: deep emission reductions and mainstreaming of mitigation and adaptation; MEDIATION: Methodology for effective decision-making on impacts and adaptation; CCTAME: Climate change, Terrestrial adaptation and mitigation; ClimateWater: Bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies; ACQWA: Assessing climatic change and impacts on the quality and quantity of water; IMPRINTS: Improving preparedness and risk management for flash floods and debris flow events; CLIWASEC: Cluster - Climate-Water- Security; IMPACT2C: Quantifying projected impacts under 2°C warming; ArcRisk: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling; CLEAR: Climate change, environmental contaminants and reproductive health Viroclime: Impact of Climate Change on the Transport, Fate and Risk Management of Viral Pathogens in Water; EDENext: Biology and control of vector-borne diseases in Europe; DROUGHT-R&SPI: Fostering European Drought Research and Science-Policy Interfacing; KULTURISK: Knowledge-based approach to develop a culture of risk prevention

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Improving the use of crop models for risk assessment and climate change adaptation

Improving the use of crop models for risk assessment and climate change adaptation

cultural practices (Muller et al., 2014, Vanuytrecht et al., 2011). Particularly sensitive and/or high frequency processes are another area needing improvement, since they can be especially difficult to si- mulate. Sensitivity studies from the AgMIP-wheat and AgMIP-rice pilot showed that uncertainty in simulated yield increased with increasing temperatures (Li et al., 2015, Asseng et al., 2013, Asseng et al., 2014). For both crops the large spread between models could be partly at- tributed to how phenology was simulated, i.e. the choice of cardinal temperatures, the choice of thermal time accumulation function and, for wheat, the inclusion of accelerated leaf senescence with high tem- peratures (Asseng et al., 2011). Similar results have been shown for potato (Fleisher et al., 2016) and for maize (Wang et al., 2015), even though this was not a general finding of the AgMIP-maize model in- tercomparison (Bassu et al., 2014). Furthermore, the increased un- certainty between models was due to how models dealt with an in- creased frequency of high-temperature events around and after anthesis and its simulated impact on crop growth.

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Food systems and climate change: impact and adaptation in cropping and livestock

Food systems and climate change: impact and adaptation in cropping and livestock

Porter, J.R., L. Xie, A.J. Challinor, K. Cochrane, S.M. Howden, M.M. Iqbal, D.B. Lobell, and M.I. Travasso, 2014: Food security and food production systems. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 485-533.

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A regional approach to climate adaptation in the Nile Basin

A regional approach to climate adaptation in the Nile Basin

A regional-scale modelling framework has been developed to address the need for regional scale tools and information that can support and inform decision-making for large trans- boundary river basins like the Nile. The framework incorpo- rates the state of the art Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE) approach for climate change modelling and appropriate hy- drological modelling using MIKE HYDRO. As a result, the framework can provide an assessment of climate change im- pacts, an indication of the uncertainties and can be used for regional scale adaptation. This framework can be readily ap- plied to similar large or transboundary river basins in Africa and in other regions (Asia, South America) or used to at smaller scales to evaluate national or local climate impact assessments for water resources, water resource management and the evaluation of climate adaptation measures.

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Impact of Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change: Case Study of Klang and Kuala Langat Districts

Impact of Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change: Case Study of Klang and Kuala Langat Districts

The coastal population of Peninsular Malaysia has experienced a rapid growth in the past two decades. As rapid population as well as economic growth is projected to persist, especially within the coastal conurbations and urban centres, development pressure is expected to continue to be high in the next decade. Coastal land is a valuable resource that has important economic, social, cultural and ecological values. Poor planning decisions with limited understandings and input on coastal processes and risks can result in the degradation of coastal resources and disruption to natural coastal processes thus greatly altering the shape of the coastline, and consequently resulting in erosion (loss of land), lost development opportunities, decrease in land value, as well as increased exposure of human life and property to coastal hazards. Global climate change is predicted to cause an increase in sea level rise and the frequency and size of storms and storm surge. This will contribute further to the shoreline erosion; flood damage, inundation of land, saltwater intrusion into the freshwater lens aquifer, among others.

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Marine reptiles

Marine reptiles

Egg-laying marine reptiles (sea turtles and crocodiles) are strongly influenced by temperature during egg incubation (Spotila and Standora 1985). Successful egg incubation only occurs within a small thermal range; incubating temperatures above the upper thermal threshold (~34 ◦ C for sea turtles) will result in hatchlings with higher morphological abnormalities as well as lower hatching success (Miller 1985, Lang and Andrews 1994). In addition to this, sea turtles and crocodiles have temperature-dependent sex ratios, where sex ratio of hatchlings is determined by nest temperature during incubation (Spotila and Standora 1985, Lang and Andrews 1994). For sea turtles, warmer temperatures yield more females while temperatures below the pivotal temperature yield more males (Yntema and Mrosovsky 1980, Davenport 1997). The pivotal temperature differs slightly within and between sea turtle species and is generally around ~29°C. Crocodiles have a female/male/female pattern, where no males are produced below 29°C and above 34°C (Webb et al. 1987, Lang and Andrews 1994). Higher sand temperatures also decrease the incubation period of sea turtle eggs (Davenport 1997) thus decreasing hatchling body size (Booth and Astil 2001, Burgess et al. 2006). Hatchlings with smaller body size may reduce hatchling survival chances since smaller hatchlings have reduced swimming abilities and are more susceptible to predation as they cross the reef (Gyuris 1994, Booth and Evans 2011). Clearly, even small increases in temperature can have a profound impact on hatchling phenotype, performance and success (Mrosovsky 1980; Booth and Evans 2011). Indeed, the impacts of warmer temperatures are evident in Mon Repos, SE Qld, an important loggerhead turtle rookery, where sand temperatures at nest depth are regularly reaching as high as 36 o C for weeks at a time during hatching season, causing increased debilitation and even death of eggs and hatchlings (Col Limpus pers comm.). Nevertheless, the 2010/2011 was one of the coolest years on record due to the above average rainfall that fell along the Bundaberg coastline throughout the summer (Col Limpus pers comm.).

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Coastal Louisiana: Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change

Coastal Louisiana: Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change

This study has limitations related to qualitative design. First, this study is a single instrumental case study. Since this study is one case study, there are no other cases to compare the community to within the study. Nonetheless, according to Creswell, single instrumental case studies are effective if they use comprehensive data collection with multiple sources (2012, Loc 2124). This study utilized interviews, focus groups, and participant observation in order to comprehensively analyze the data. Interviews and focus groups rely on data that is skewed by participant experience, and participants may alter their answers because of the presence of the researcher (Creswell, 2009). Further, the researcher may skew the participant observations, or the participants may view the observations as an invasion of privacy (Creswell, 2009). Gaining entrée with the participants through other community members and being explicit about the research helped lessen the impact of these limitations. Additionally, conducting member checks throughout the research process helped ensure the data collected was accurate and representative of the experiences relayed by the study participants. The team revealed the data collected to the study participants at stages throughout the research project, and finalized and presented the results to the community for final feedback and analysis.

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Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

Catchment hydrology and water resources are driven by cli- mate and strongly modulated by human activities. Climate variability affects catchment streamflow, chiefly through pre- cipitation and the variability of potential evaporation (Scan- lon et al., 2007; Chien et al., 2013; Ward et al., 2009; Chang et al., 2010). Human activities include land use/cover change, reservoir operations, and direct water extraction from surface water and groundwater, all of which can alter river stream- flow. It is important to separate and quantify the effects of climate variability and human activities so that they can be used for land use planning, water extraction and water re- source management. With the increasing scarcity of water resources, hydrologists, decision makers, and policy mak- ers have paid considerable attention to how much of the ob- served change in annual streamflow can be attributed to cli- mate variability and human activities (Zhang et al., 2008; Tomer and Schilling, 2009; Roderick and Farquhar, 2011; Destouni et al., 2013).

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Local Community Resilience in the Context of Global Climate Change: A Case from Maluku Indonesia

Local Community Resilience in the Context of Global Climate Change: A Case from Maluku Indonesia

Abstract This study is a vulnerability and at the same time resilience study using qualitative method. The study aims to identify the locality of the climate change phenomenon, analyze vulnerability and appraise community resilience. The method used is the ‘historical case method’, a study method combining the historical-sociological method (structural history) and sociological history (process history), a qualitative method under the umbrella of the constructivism paradigm. The study results in several findings. Climate change significantly has caused resilience in communities that depend on natural resources. Vulnerability triggered by the negative impact of climate change can be reduced by adaptation so the community will be resilient even with limited resilience due to the high dependency on natural resources. The most important factor in creating community resilience is local institutions' role that facilitates the adaptation. The success of climate change adaptation is determined by the existence and functionality of these local institutions. The stronger and rooted the local institutions the bigger the opportunity for success for the community in adapting to climate change. On a contrary, the weaker and “isolated” the local institutions, the less opportunity for success.

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CHASE-PL Climate Projection dataset over Poland – bias adjustment of EURO-CORDEX simulations

CHASE-PL Climate Projection dataset over Poland – bias adjustment of EURO-CORDEX simulations

Acknowledgements. We acknowledge the Polish–Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR) under the Norwegian Financial Mech- anism 2009–2014 for financial support of the project CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) in the framework of project contract no. Pol-Nor/200799/90/2014 and the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Regional Climate, and the Working Group on Coupled Modelling, former coordinating body of CORDEX and responsible panel for CMIP5. We also thank the climate modelling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. We also acknowledge the Earth System Grid Federation infrastructure – an international effort led by the US Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, the European Network for Earth System Modelling, and other partners in the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals (GO-ESSP). Co-author M. Piniewski is additionally grateful for support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland. Finally, we would like to thank the two reviewers, Joanna Wibig and Mirosław Mie¸tus, for their respective positive and constructive comments that helped to improve the paper.

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A High Resolution Modeling Strategy to Assess Impacts of Climate Change for Mesoamerica and the Caribbean

A High Resolution Modeling Strategy to Assess Impacts of Climate Change for Mesoamerica and the Caribbean

The next steps include: 1) Global warming due to increased greenhouse gas emissions is not the only potential agent of climate change. Studies suggest that temperature changes due to land use alterations may be as large, at least locally [30]. Atmospheric aerosols, even if generated from afar, may also play a role. A key goal remains quantifying the relative impacts of competing processes, particularly the effects of deforestation; 2) Further evaluating the degree of topographic complexity required—is 4 km resolution sufficient? What benefits, if any, are provided by increasingly higher resolution? What is the relationship between explicit resolution of convec- tion and microphysics parameterization schemes at higher resolutions? 3) Can our modeling strategy be fine- tuned, or adapted to the changing software and hardware configurations prevalent in climate modeling? 4) How best to use these results to provide robust input into regional and national climate assessments? Such usage ulti- mately is the primary purpose of this research.

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EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

Significant changes in climate and their impacts are already visible globally, and are expected to become more pronounced in the next decades. it is widely accepted that our planet will face the impacts of climate change even if the greenhouse gas emissions will be significantly reduced in the coming decades through the implementation of mitigation policies worldwide. In this context, urban areas are the most likely to pay the higher social costs of global warming and, for this reason, is becoming increasingly urgent to adopt adaptation strategies at local scale to deal with the climate change effects. Due to the complexity of the urban system, climate change adaption and mitigation strategies require a vision able to hold together the different political choices in a dynamic framework of analysis and scenarios, to be introduced in the territorial planning and building transformations, in order to change the forms and uses of space in both the city structure and architecture (De Gregorio Hurtado, 2015); the concept of adaptation doesn't means just protection against the weather extremes, but also a greater flexibility of the cities for change by taking advantage of its possible benefits. In order to guarantee the protection of citizens, infrastructure, services and residences from the impacts of catastrophic events these strategies have to deal with a number of challenges which should be addressed to make progress on climate change adaptation. These include:

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Perception and Response to Climate Change by Small Farmers: The Case of Mareko District, Southern Ethiopia

Perception and Response to Climate Change by Small Farmers: The Case of Mareko District, Southern Ethiopia

Small farmers in the study area perceived that loss of plant species like Mareko fana hot pepper, change in timing of rain, decline of agricultural yield, decreased water availability, prevalence of new human and animal diseases, introduction of new plant species and dry up of water resources are some of the indicators of climate change. The result of the study indicates that drought is one of the main climatic hazards affecting the communities in the study area. Whiles, flood, extreme heat, and livestock diseases are other significant hazards affecting the community livelihood. The prevalence of drought contributes for crop failure, food insecurity, increased conflict over scarce resources, migration of people in search of labor work and increased school dropout in the study area. Most of the respondents, about (55%) argued that the impact of

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