climateregulation by sequestering carbon. The produc- tive EFA options (cover crops and nitrogen fixing crops) were included because of their high implementation rates (> 70% of the EFA area for 2015) and the expecta- tion that they have relatively low benefits for biodiversity, the primary goal of the EFA greening measure [20, 23, 25]. Fallow land is also very widely implemented (almost 26% of the EFA area; ). Pollination impacts were only included for one EFA option, nitrogen fixing crops. This EFA option is likely to be closely scrutinised and chal- lenged in the post-2020 CAP reform process, as it is the most popular with farmers, but considered unlikely to have large biodiversity benefits [23, 33]. It may, however, have benefits for soil carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions or pollinators. Evidence for these benefits has not yet been rigorously synthesized.
June 19, 2018 ∗
When do firms oppose international climate policy? Existing work often assumes that firms disapprove of climateregulation due to the immediate costs of compliance. We claim that if policy is implemented gradually, private preferences for climate policy vary as a function of its progressive stringency. That is, supportive views may rise in the initial phase of the policy, while opposing views may emerge as the policy be- comes more stringent. We also argue that emissions of individual companies, as well as emissions levels in their respective sectors, influence corporate positions on these two dimensions. We test our argument with new corporate survey data on the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). We find that firms’ views on the perfor- mance of the EU ETS vary based on whether they concentrate on the policy’s current state or its future, more stringent development. Moreover, we find that individual firm and sectoral emissions correlate with support for the early-stage, more lenient version of the ETS, but that high-emission firms are more interested in disinvesting and re- locating if the ETS becomes stricter. Our findings imply that both firm and sectoral organization can constrain environmental regulation, and that domestic compensation, especially at early stages, can have important effects on the success of climate policy.
Coastal regions, at the interface between terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems, play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. This chapter reviews the climateregulation services of estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) including tidal salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass beds, macroalgal forests, coral reefs, and coastal shelf ecosystems. ECEs regulate global and regional climates by sequestering or releasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). ECEs are extremely productive biologically, with net primary production rates per unit area among the highest of any ecosystem. Consequently, ECEs play a globally significant role as carbon sinks, with carbon storage rates per unit area of many habitats far exceeding that of land habitats at the rate of about 10 times that of temperate terrestrial forests and 50 times that of tropical forests. Furthermore, sedimentation does not reach an equilibrium carbon balance as occurs in terrestrial systems, whose sequestration capacity is forecasted to decrease this century. Conversely, they are large potential sources of GHG's if disturbed or misman stored over long time frames (thousands of years) as a consequence of the large belowground biomass and the absence of fire and nitrous oxide are negligible. A review of literature provided sequestration rates for various coastal habitats. Using these in combination with global extent of selected habitats, this chapter finds that GHGs worldwide, mangroves, seagrass beds, and salt marshes combine to sequester a minimum of 136 000 tonnes C annually into long-term carbon storage. Assuming prices of CO 2 e from $10 to $90 per tonne, the value of the annual sequestration is $5 – 45 billion. This is an underestimate due to
This chapter examines these two aspects of effective policy design. First, it estimates the costs that each respondent associates per tonne of carbon emissions avoided from the enrolled land. Although MACC have been calculated by various studies for individual measures (see Moran et al., 2008), research for carbon costs for complete policy programme has been limited mostly to programmes for carbon sequestration by forestry and afforestation (see Richards and Stokes, 2004). This study attempts a more holistic approach to provide carbon abatement costs for whole policy alternatives for both carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation by changes in agricultural land use activities and management. The CE study in the preceding chapters provided the WTA estimates for farmers to contribute towards enhancing climateregulation. These monetary estimates can be used to calculate the carbon abatement cost per tonne of CO 2 equivalents for each individual farm. Furthermore, it investigates interdependence between carbon costs and the farm and landscape characteristics. Since it was revealed from the CE study that, farmers’ preferences are heterogeneous and are dependent on various factors such as scheme design, farm, and farmer characteristics;
Although grass species commonly store soluble sugars, amongst the plant kingdom the major resource storage carbo- hydrate is starch . In soluble sugar-accumulating plants such as sugarcane, starch is also present in the green tissues but in very low quantities of <0.5 mg g −1 FW, whereas switchgrass stores a greater abundance of starch in its stems than soluble sugars [14–16]. Miscanthus is more closely re- lated to sugarcane than switchgrass and correspondingly Miscanthus × giganteus accumulates a greater concentration of sugars, rather than starch in its stems [6, 17, 18]. How reproductive development and climate impact on carbohy- drate abundance and form has not been previously described. A further plant process that has a major impact on carbo- hydrate dynamics is senescence. Senescence is the process by which the chloroplast is dissembled and stored nutrients are remobilized to developing seeds and/or storage organs . For crop species, the timing of senescence is of importance because it has direct implications for canopy duration and quality . In a biomass crop like Miscanthus, the longer the plant delays senescence, the longer it has to accumulate bio- mass. However, the process should take place before winter frosts kill off green leaves preventing nutrient remobilization as this phenomenon is thought to explain the poor perfor- mance of late senescing “stay-green” Miscanthus genotypes in Northern European locations . As senescence marks the end of biomass accumulation and the translocation of soluble sugars from the stems to the rhizome, the timing of this process is important for both yield and composition of Miscanthus. It may also be reasonable to consider that differ- ent climates may be suited for producing Miscanthus for different end uses. For example, areas with colder winters
tral role in driving the course of climateregulation . . . , primarily stemming from the landmark 2007 decision of the Supreme Court in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency[,]” 117 litiga-
tion is certainly a driver of US-American climate change policy. Similar to the EPA and USDA in the U.S., the European Food Safety Authority (“EFSA”) must also comply with the EU’s environmental statutes in considering the approval of GMOs. Specifically, in a counterpart to EIS analysis, in the EU, “Envi- ronmental Risk Assessment (“ERA”) considers the impact on the environment caused by, for example, the introduction of GM plants, the use of certain substances in food, feed and plant pro- tection products, or the introduction and spread of plant pests.” 118
were >30˚C. Continuous SSTs measurements at the Magnetic Island reef re- vealed various heating and cooling periods, interspersed with stable SSTs. Cooling periods (negative climate feedback) ranged from −1˚C to −3˚C (7 day mean −1.6˚C), and often seemed to occur during low tides, periodic pulses of DMS flux and LLC, keeping SSTs < 30˚C. In contrast warming periods of +1˚C to +3˚C (positive climate feedback, 7 day mean +1.52˚C), seemed to occur during increasing tides, decreasing DMS flux and low to medium levels of LLC which increased solar radiation and caused SSTs over 30˚C and corals to bleach. Alternation between these two states or types of feedback is indi- cated in this research and may be a function of enhanced scattering of solar How to cite this paper: Jones, G., Curran,
The third possible link between climate strength and outcomes that has been hypothesized is that of a direct but curvilinear relationship. Speciﬁcally, climate strength is predicted to have a positive eﬀect on aﬀective and performance outcomes until it reaches a certain (optimal) level—after which it has a negative eﬀect (an ‘‘inverted-U’’ relationship). This perspective is rooted in diversity theory: climate strength, being a measure of dispersion within a unit, can be characterized as a deep-level diversity construct. Harrison and his colleagues (Harrison, Price, & Bell, 1998; Harrison, Price, Gavin, & Florey, 2002) have distinguished between surface-level diversity (based on demographic and work-based character- istics that are easily observed, e.g., sex, age, race, job function) and deep- level diversity (based on characteristics such as psychological features that are not easily observed, e.g., personality traits, values, attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and perceptions). Clearly climate strength ﬁts into this deﬁnition of deep-level diversity. However, as reviews of the diversity literature (e.g., van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007; Williams & O’Reilly, 1998) have shown, there is little consensus about the eﬀects that diversity has on outcomes. Many researchers (e.g., Chatman, Polzer, Barsade, & Neale, 1998; Jackson et al., 1991; Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999) have shown direct eﬀects of various diversity constructs on particular outcomes—either positive or negative, even for the same outcome; others (e.g., Harrison et al., 1998, 2002; Pelled, Ledford, & Mohrman, 1999) have shown interactive (i.e., moderated) eﬀects of diversity (these two approaches corresponding to the ﬁrst two perspectives on the role of climate strength in predicting outcomes). 92 DAWSON ET AL.
The sector-specific policy options to address market power in access networks apply to other network industries as well: access and price (de)regulation and structural measures such as different degrees of operational separation (CAVE, 2006). These options affect downstream competition but also the level of innovation or investment in the regulated market. Regulation aims to increase allocative market efficiency and addresses the distribution of rents, while structural measures target the problem of price and non-price discrimination between an integrated monopolist and its competitors. However, strict regulation (or fierce competition) but also a permanent monopoly, reduce investment incentives. Along with the introduction of NGNs, operators plan or undertake large asset-specific investments in high-speed infrastructure, which we argued to exhibit market power. Thus, regulatory policy has to balance static efficiency on the basis of existing competition and overall industry investment as new networks are built in the transition phase to full NGNs. Theoretical discussion of this relationship is provided by GURTHRIE (2006) and BAAKE et al.(2007). In the following, we discuss the impacts of access (de)regulation and structural measures on access networks in NGNs.
Ans. The tropical region has generally a hot climate because of its location around the equator. Even in the coldest month, the temperature is generally higher than about 15°C. During hot summers, the temperature may cross 40°C. These regions get plenty, rainfall. Thus, the climatic conditions in rainforests are highly suitable for supporting an enormous number and variety of animals.
While we have some confidence in our capacity to sim- ulate the impact of rising greenhouse gases on the THC, there is little confidence in our capacity to model the im- pact of warming on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Building a reliable parameterization of terrestrial processes, including above and below ground carbon and vegetation dynamics and vegetation succession is at the cutting edge of existing scien- tific capacity. Those models that now exist, developed and implemented by several groups (see Sitch et al., 2003), con- tain a series of significant components that are highly uncer- tain (interactions of soil respiration with increasing tempera- ture and changing soil moisture) or do not contain processes that might significantly influence the response of vegetation to climate change (nutrient limitation, orography, predators and pests and human-interference via land clearance, crop- ping, etc.). The climate models run for the fourth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change do not include terrestrial carbon or dynamic vegetation and so it is difficult to evaluate the contribution made by these processes to climate projections. However, efforts are on-
In contrast to the situation with energy-intensive industries, subsidies for transport industries were the subject of a number of claims under the WTO disputes procedure. In 2003 Korea claimed that the EU was subsidizing shipbuilding by means such as grants, export credits, guarantees, tax breaks, restruc- turing aid, regional or other investment aid, research and de- velopment aid, environmental protection aid, and insolvency and closure aid (WTO, 2013b: DS301, DS307). In 2004 and 2006 the US claimed that the EU was subsidizing Airbus by means such as financing for design and development, grants, provision of goods and services, loans on preferential terms, forgiveness of debt, and equity infusions and grants (WTO, 2013b: DS316, DS347). At the same time the EU claimed that the US was subsidizing Boeing and other aerospace companies by means such as state and local subsidies, research and devel- opment subsidies, tax credits, and procurement contracts (WTO, 2013b: DS317, DS353). In 2013 the US claimed that China was providing its automobile industry with subsidies in the form of grants, loans, foregone government revenue, and provision of goods and services (WTO, 2013b: DS450). While WTO find- ings on these claims were mixed, rejections were generally on the grounds that the subsidies were compatible with WTO rules rather than because they didn’t exist. We conclude that anti- climate policies in the form of major new subsidies for trans- port industries were implemented in China, the US and EU between 2000 and 2010. The extent of more minor subsidies remains unclear due to lack of good data.
This Regulation is issued by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) of the Kingdom of Bahrain under section 3(c)(1) and section 53 of Legislative Decree No. 48 of 2002 promulgating the Telecommunications Law. International standards, being introduced around the world and in particular those developed within the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), have been taken into account in developing this Regulation.
Pursuant to authority given the Commissioner of Revenues by subsection (b) of section 20 of Act 142 of 1949 (Ark. Code Ann. §27-14-403 (b)), after the effective date of this regulation, corporate surety bonds, certificates of deposit with assignment and irrevocable letters of credit which meet the requirements of this regulation may be accepted under those circumstances where a bond is authorized under the provisions of subsection (c) of section 1 of Act 1013 of 1993 [Ark. Code Ann. §§27-14-409 (c)].
Given the inherent uncertainty in ways that climate change will affect physical resources, habitats, species interactions, and ecosystem functions, adaptively monitoring the effectiveness of identified refugia and realigning locations and management practices accordingly are critical to the climate change refugia conservation cycle ( Table 1 , step 7). Millar and colleagues [ 72 ] recommended flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps and encour- aged ongoing learning and modification. For example, because species vary in their habitat needs, their sensitivity to climate change, and their ability to adapt, climate change refugia will not benefit all species. Decisions might need to be revisited if changes in physical and ecological processes degrade refugium properties, or as management goals change and the protection of other resources becomes more urgent. Depending on the situation, management actions could focus on improving resistance of refugia (e.g., habitat restoration; [ 30 ]) or strategies for assisted migration of prioritized species. Monitoring could also ensure that actions taken, such as pre- scribed burns and increased connectivity, are not increasing the presence of invasive species. Formal decision analysis approaches can aid this process [ 74 ].
A new homogeneous climate division monthly precipitation dataset [based on full network estimated precipitation (FNEP)] was created as an alternative to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) climate division dataset. These alternative climate division monthly precipitation values were estimated using an equal-weighted average of Cooperative Observer Program stations that contained serially complete time series. Missing station observations were estimated by a procedure that was optimized through testing on U.S. Historical Climate Network stations. Inhomogeneities in the NCDC dataset arise from two principal causes. The pre-1931 estimation of NCDC climate division monthly precipitation from statewide averages led to a significant time series discontinuity in several climate divisions. From 1931 to the present, NCDC climate division averages have been calculated from a subset of available station data within each climate division, and temporal changes in the location of available stations have caused artificial changes in the time series. The FNEP climate division dataset is recommended over the NCDC dataset for studies involving climate trends or long-term climate variability. According to the FNEP data, the 1895–2009 linear precipitation trend is positive across most of the United States, and trends exceed 10% per century across the southern plains and the Corn Belt. Remaining inhomogeneities from changes in gauge technology and station location may be responsible for an artificial trend of 1%–3% per century.
Abstract. To date, the transitivity of the global system has been analysed for late Quaternary (glacial, interglacial, and present-day) climate. Here, we extend this analysis to a warm, almost ice-free climate with a different configuration of continents. We use the Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to analyse the stability of the climate system under early Eocene and pre-industrial conditions. We initialize the simulations by prescribing either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in central Asia in the early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest cover- age, the Asian desert is much smaller, while coastal deserts develop in the Americas which appear to be larger than in the simulations with initially bare continents. These differences can be attributed to differences in the large-scale tropical cir- culation. With initially forested continents, a stronger dipole in the 200 hPa velocity potential develops than in the simu- lation with initially bare continents. This difference prevails when vegetation is allowed to adjust to and interact with cli- mate. Further simulations with initial surface conditions that differ in the region of the Asian desert only indicate that lo- cal feedback processes are less important in the development of multiple states. In the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, multiple states develop only in the Sahel region. There, local climate–vegetation interaction seems to dominate.
5.7 Thirty one of the 33 companies considered the benefit of the Levy rebate outweighs the costs; two stated it did not. Evidence gathered from our survey suggests that the value added by the Agreements does vary considerably from business to business: from £1 to £80 of benefit per pound spent on administration. Significant costs tended to be incurred at the outset in the form of capital equipment, time or consultancy fees; now in general only small costs associated with day-to-day management are incurred. 5.8 Businesses in general have appreciated the role given to sector associations within the Agreements. One benefit is that sector associations are perceived as being better able to interpret government guidance or regulation; they can relay this to businesses in simpler terms. Two businesses commented that having to deal directly with government is more difficult (as happens in the case of the EU ETS). 5.9 Benefits would not necessarily outweigh the cost for less energy-intensive businesses. Three of the Levy- only companies perceived that the administrative burden would be greater than the benefits of joining Agreements.