Cloud computing - Research

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OVERVIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING, SECURITY AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

OVERVIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING, SECURITY AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

With the rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet, computing resources have become cheaper, more powerful and more ubiquitously available than ever before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing, in which resources (e.g., CPU and storage) are provided as general utilities that can be leased and released by users through the Internet in an on-demand fashion. In this paper we provide a introductory information about the cloud computing and the related technologies such as grid computing, utility computing, Autonomic computing .Classification about the security issues and the importance of the security to the cloud are also highlighted- which include the following section under discussion Traditional security ,Availability ,Third-party data control . Along with this we have focused on the research challenges and provided information about them , which we hope will give the directions for the further research work in the cloud computing
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Modern Research Provocation in Cloud Computing

Modern Research Provocation in Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing, envisioned as the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise is a talk of the town these days. The way cloud has been dominating the IT market, a major shift towards the cloud can be expected in the coming years. Cloud computing offers real benefits to companies seeking a competitive edge in today’s economy. Many more providers are moving into this area, and the competition is driving prices even lower. Attractive pricing, the ability to free up staff for other duties, and the ability to pay for ―as needed‖ services will continue to drive more businesses to consider cloud computing. Mobile cloud computing is expected to emerge as one of the biggest market for cloud service providers and cloud developers. Although Cloud computing can be seen as a new phenomenon which is set to revolutionize the way we use the Internet, there is much to be cautious about. There are many new technologies emerging at a rapid rate, each with technological advancements and with the potential of making human’s lives easier. However, one must be very careful to understand the security risks and challenges posed in utilizing these technologies. Cloud computing is no exception. Cloud service providers need to inform their customers on the level of security that they provide on their cloud. T his research effort presents an overview of Cloud Computing, building blocks of Cloud Computing which includes different models of cloud computing, overview of Cloud Computing architecture and Cloud Computing entities. Furthermore, research challenges which are currently faced in the Cloud computing were also highlighted. Cloud computing has the potential to become a frontrunner in promoting a secure, virtual and economically viable IT solution in the future. As the development of cloud computing technology is still at an early stage, this research effort will provide a better understanding of the design challenges of cloud computing, and pave the way for further research in this area.
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Research Areas in Cloud Computing

Research Areas in Cloud Computing

In cloud computing there are certain distributed resources that requires to be managed across a heterogeneous computing environment. All these resources consumes large amount of energy as they appears to be “always on” to the end users point of view. The techniques by which all the distribution of resources is done are highly inefficient in terms of energy usage. So while studying the Green Cloud computing we analyze the whole energy consumption of the computing resources, this would be based on the types of services and conditions to facilitate green cloud computing to save overall energy consumption in the related information communication systems. Now days when everything is mobile dependent we may explore green mobile communication under Green Cloud Computing. So under green cloud computing we certainly explore and research the use of virtualization in system and network resources in order to minimize energy usage while still fulfilling the service requirements and operational constraints of a cloud. Certain work has been done towards green cloud computing in context of the major causes of energy inefficiency in data centers is the idle power wasted when servers run at low utilization. The study made certainly focus on how to keep servers run at low utilization by workload consolidation. Moreover it is been claimed that the request arrival rate at servers fluctuate with time. So, in regard with these mechanisms has been developed to predict the future arrival rates from history and estimate the optimal number of servers for a class of arrival rates. Various literatures provide the solutions for dimensions such as: energy-efficient hardware, energy-aware scheduling, power-minimization in server cluster and power-minimization in mobile as well as wired networks. Feng- Seng Chu [5] focus greatly on the overall impact on energy consumption brought by cloud computing and find out when it is green.
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Cloud Computing: Current Research & Summary

Cloud Computing: Current Research & Summary

Abstract: Cloud computing is a set of IT services that are provided to a customer over a network on a leased basis and with the ability to scale up or down their service requirements. Usually Cloud Computing services are delivered by a third party provider who owns the infrastructure. Cloud Computing holds the potential to eliminate the requirements for setting up of high-cost computing infrastructure for IT-based solutions and services that the industry uses. It promises to provide a flexible IT architecture, accessible through internet from lightweight portable devices. This would allow multi-fold increase in the capacity and capabilities of the existing and new software. This new economic model for computing has found fertile ground and is attracting massive global investment. Many industries, such as banking, healthcare and education are moving towards the cloud due to the efficiency of services provided by the pay-per-use pattern based on the resources such as processing power used, transactions carried out, bandwidth consumed, data transferred, or storage space occupied etc. In a cloud computing environment, the entire data resides over a set of networked resources, enabling the data to be accessed through virtual machines. Despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing, the organizations are slow in accepting it due to security issues and challenges associated with it. Security is one of the major issues which hamper the growth of cloud. There are various research challenges also there for adopting cloud computing such as well managed service level agreement (SLA), privacy, interoperability and reliability. This research paper presents what cloud computing is, the various cloud models and the overview of the cloud computing architecture. This research paper also analyzes the key research challenges present in cloud computing and offers best practices to service providers as well as enterprises hoping to leverage cloud service to improve their bottom line in this severe economic climate.
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Research, Implementations and Issues on Cloud Computing

Research, Implementations and Issues on Cloud Computing

be loaded on “bare-metal”, or intoan operating system/application virtual environment of choice. When a user has the right tocreate an image, that user usually starts with a “NoApp” or a base-line image (e.g., Win XP or Linux) without any except most basic applications that come with the operating system, and extends it with his/her applications. Similarly, when an author constructs composite images (aggregates of two or more images we call environments that are loaded synchronously), theuser extends service capabilities of VCL. Anauthor can program an image for sole use onone or more hardware units, if that is desired, or for sharing of the resources with other users.Scalability is achieved through a combination of multi-user service hosting, application virtualization, and both time and CPU multiplexing and load balancing. Authors must be component (base-line image and applications) experts and must have good understanding of the needs of the user categories above them in the Figure2 triangle. Some of the functionalities acloud framework must provide for them are image creation tools, image and service management tools, service brokers, service registration and discovery tools, security tools, provenance collection tools, cloud component aggregations tools, resource mapping tools, license management tools, fault- tolerance and fail-over mechanisms, and so on [44]. It is important to note that the authors, for themost part, will not be cloud framework experts, and thus the authoring tools and interfaces mustbe appliances: easy-to-learn and easy-to-useand they must allow the authors to concentrateon the “image” and service development rather than struggle with the cloud infrastructure intricacies.2.3.3. Service Composition Similarly, services integration and provisioning experts should be able to focus on creationof composite and orchestrated solutions neededfor an end-user. They sample and combine existing services and images, customize them, updateexisting services and images, and developnew composites. They may also be the front for
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Cloud Computing – Issues, Research and Implementations

Cloud Computing – Issues, Research and Implementations

Another research and engineering challenge is security. For end-users to feel comfortable with a “cloud” solution that holds their software, data and processes, there should exist considerable assurances that services are highly reliable and available, as well as secure and safe, and that privacy is protected. This raises the issues of end-to-end service isolation through VPN and SSH tunnels and VLANs, and the guarantees one may have that the data and the images keep their integrity in the “cloud”. Some of the work being done by the NC State Secure Open Sys- tems Initiative [ 37 ] involves watermarking of the images and data to ensure verifiable integrity. While NC State experience with VCL is excel- lent and our security solution has been holding up beautifully over the last four years, security tends to be a moving target and a lot of chal- lenges remain.
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Secure Cloud Computing [2014] pdf

Secure Cloud Computing [2014] pdf

SDN has two main advantages over traditional networks in regards to detection and response to attacks: (1) the (logically) centralized management model of SDN allows administrators to quickly isolate or block attack traffic patterns without the need to access and reconfigure several heterogeneous hardware (switches, routers, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems); (2) detection of attacks can be made a distributed task among switches (SDN controllers can define rules on switches to generate events when flows considered malicious are detected), rather than depending on expensive intrusion detection systems. SDN can also be used to control how traffic is directed to network monitoring devices (e.g., intrusion detection systems) as proposed in [31]. Quick response is particularly important in highly dynamic cloud environments. Traditional intrusion detection systems (IDS) mainly focus on detecting suspicious activities and are limited to simple actions such as disabling a switch port or notifying (sending email) to a system administrator. SDN opens the possibility of taking complex actions such as changing the path of suspicious activities in order to isolate them from known trusted communication. Research will focus on how to recast existing IDS mechanisms and algorithms in SDN contexts, and development of new algorithms to take full advantage of multiple points of action. For example, as each switch can be used to detect and act on attacks, [16] has shown the improvement of different traffic anomaly detection algorithms (Threshold Random Walk with Credit Based rate limiting, Maximum Entropy, network traffic anomaly detection based on packet bytes, and rate limiting) using Openflow and NOX by placing detectors closer to the edge of the network (home or small business networks instead of the ISP) while maintaining the line rate performance.
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Cloud Computing and Digital Media Fundamentals pdf

Cloud Computing and Digital Media Fundamentals pdf

The resource allocation in cloud environment is an important and challenging research topic. Verma et  al.  [12] formulate the problem of dynamic placement of applications in virtualized heterogeneous systems as a continuous optimization: The placement of VMs at each time frame is optimized to minimize resource consumption under certain perfor- mance requirements. Chaisiri et al. [13] study the trade-off between the advance reservation and the on-demand resource allocation, and propose a VM placement algorithm based on stochastic integer programming. The proposed algorithm minimizes the total cost of resource provision in infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud. Wang et al. [14] present a virtual appliance-based automatic resource provisioning framework for large vir- tualized data centers. Their framework can dynamically allocate resources to applications by adding or removing VMs on physical servers. Verma et al. [12], Chaisiri et al. [13], and Wang et al. [14] study cloud resource allocation from VM placement perspective. Bacigalupo et al. [15] quanti- tatively compare the effectiveness of different techniques on response time prediction. They study different cloud services with different priorities, including urgent cloud services that demand cloud resource at short notice and dynamic enterprise systems that need to adapt to frequent changes in the workload. Based on these cloud services, the layered queuing network and historical performance model are quantitatively compared in terms of prediction accuracy. Song et al. [16] present a resource allocation approach according to application priorities in multiapplication virtualized cluster. This approach requires machine learning to obtain the utility functions for applications and defines the application priorities in advance. Lin and Qi [17] develop a self-organizing model to manage cloud resources in the absence of centralized management control. Nan et al. [18] present opti- mal cloud resource allocation in priority service scheme to minimize the resource cost. Appleby et  al.  [19] present a prototype of infrastructure, which can dynamically allocate cloud resources for an e-business comput- ing utility. Xu et al. [20] propose a two-level resource management system with local controllers at the VM level and a global controller at the server level. However, they focus only on resource allocation among VMs within a cloud server [19,20].
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PC Today   Cloud Computing Options pdf

PC Today Cloud Computing Options pdf

The research team synthesized liquid-like pastes of the thermoelectric par- ticles needed to transform body heat into energy, and then screen printed the paste onto a glass fabric with a mesh pattern. This process allowed them to arrange hundreds of these thermoelectric particles onto one area of the band. Although thermoelectric generators are not new technologies, this par- ticular solution opens up possibilities for wearable devices. Although the research is in its early stages, KAIST scientists see the potential for a fu- ture where wearable devices will only need a small battery, or no battery at all, and depend almost entirely on a thermoelectric generator. If tech companies can eventually use this technology to manufacture wearable devices that don’t need to be charged often or at all, such devices will likely be more appealing to consumers.
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Essentials of cloud computing (2015) pdf

Essentials of cloud computing (2015) pdf

The past decades have witnessed the success of centralized comput- ing infrastructures in many application domains. Then, the emergence of the Internet brought numerous users of remote applications based on the technologies of distributed computing. Research in distributed computing gave birth to the development of grid computing. Though grid is based on distributed computing, the conceptual basis for grid is somewhat different. Computing with grid enabled researchers to do computationally intensive tasks by using limited infrastructure that was available with them and with the support of high processing power that could be provided by any third party, and thus allowing the researchers to use grid computing, which was one of the first attempts to provide computing resources to users on payment basis. This technology indeed became popular and is being used even now. An associated problem with grid technology was that it could only be used by a certain group of people and it was not open to the public. Cloud com- puting in simple terms is further extension and variation of grid computing, in which a market-oriented aspect is added. Though there are several other important technical differences, this is one of the major differences between grid and cloud. Thus came cloud computing, which is now being used as a public utility computing software and is accessible by almost every person through the Internet. Apart from this, there are several other properties that make cloud popular and unique. In cloud, the resources are metered, and a user pays according to the usage. Cloud can also support a continuously varying user demands without affecting the performance, and it is always available for use without any restrictions. The users can access cloud from any device, thus reaching a wider range of people.
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Handbook of Cloud Computing pdf

Handbook of Cloud Computing pdf

The evolution of networking technology to support large-scale data centers is most evident at the access layer due to rapid increase of number of servers in a data center. Some research work (Greenberg, Hamilton, Maltz, & Patel, 2009; Kim, Caesar, & Rexford, 2008) calls for a large Layer-2 domain with a flatter data center network architecture (2 layers vs. 3 layers). While this approach may fit a homoge- nous, single purpose data center environment, a more prevalent approach is based on the concept of switch virtualization which allows the function of the logical Layer-2 access layer to span across multiple physical devices. There are several architectural variations in implementing switch virtualization at the access layer. They include Virtual Blade Switch (VBS), Fabric Extender, and Virtual Ethernet Switch technologies. The VBS approach allows multiple physical blade switches to share a common management and control plane by appearing as a single switching node (Cisco Systems, 2009d). The Fabric Extender approach allows a high-density, high-throughput, multi-interface access switch to work in conjunction with a set of fabric extenders serving as “remote I/O modules” extending the internal fabric of the access switches to a larger number of low-throughput server access ports (Cisco Systems, 2008). The Virtual Ethernet Switch is typically software based access switch integrated inside a hypervisor at the server side. These switch vir- tualization technologies allow the data center to support multi-tenant cloud services and provide flexible configurations to scale up and down the deployment capacities according to the level of workloads (Cisco Systems, 2009a, 2009c).
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Mobile Cloud Computing pdf

Mobile Cloud Computing pdf

This book comprehensively debates on the emergence of mobile cloud computing from cloud computing models. Various technological and architectural advancements in mobile and cloud computing have been reported. It has meticulously explored the design and architecture of computational offloading solutions in cloud and mobile cloud computing domains to enrich mobile user experience. Furthermore, to optimize mobile power consumption, existing solutions and policies toward green mobile computing, green cloud computing, green mobile networking, and green mobile cloud computing are briefly discussed. The book also presents numerous cloud and mobile resource allo- cation and management schemes to efficiently manage existing resources (hardware and software). Recently, integrated networks (e.g., WSN, VANET, MANET) have sig- nificantly helped mobile users to enjoy a suite of services. The book discusses existing architecture, opportunities, and challenges, while integrating mobile cloud comput- ing with existing network technologies such as sensor and vehicular networks. It also briefly expounds on various security and privacy concerns, such as application security, authentication security, data security, and intrusion detection, in the mobile cloud com- puting domain. The business aspects of mobile cloud computing models in terms of resource pricing models, cooperation models, and revenue sharing among cloud pro- viders are also presented in the book. To highlight the standings of mobile cloud comput- ing, various well-known, real-world applications supported by mobile cloud computing models are discussed. For example, the demands and issues while deploying resource- intensive applications, including face recognition, route tracking, traffic management, and mobile learning, are discussed. This book concludes with various future research directions in the mobile cloud computing domain to improve the strength of mobile cloud computing and to enrich mobile user experience.
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A Review Paper on Cloud Computing

A Review Paper on Cloud Computing

Abstract: On demand or on pay per use of resource such as: network, storage and server these all facilities are provided by cloud computing through internet is called cloud computing. Although, cloud computing is facilitating the Information Technology industry, the research and development in this arena is yet to be satisfactory. Our contribution in this paper is an advanced survey focusing on cloud computing concept and most advanced research issues. This paper provides a better understanding of the cloud computing and identifies important research issues in this burgeoning area of computer science. Section 1 contains the introduction, in the section 2, we provide an overview of cloud computing, section 3 contains the security architecture and section 4 will focus on the research issues and security issue. We conclude the paper on section 5 along with references.
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Cloud Computing and its Security Concerns- A Survey

Cloud Computing and its Security Concerns- A Survey

As cloud computing is comprised of various hardcore technologies like networking, virtualization, software development, it has a vivid scope of research in different directions. Image (OS kernel/Virtual Appliance) Optimization [9], Fault tolerance [10], Multitenancy [11], Cloud Migration [11], Virtualization [12], Security etc. But security concerns are the most prioritized one for end user to feel comfortable with cloud for software, data and processes, he uses in terms of its privacy, integrity etc [9].
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Using Computing Containers and Continuous Integration to Improve Numerical Research Reproducibility

Using Computing Containers and Continuous Integration to Improve Numerical Research Reproducibility

Cloud computing has opened new options of collaboration between research teams in the field of high performance computing and numerical research. Running computational workloads in virtual machines became common in recent years. However, the use of computing containers provides many additional advantages besides just proving new possible runtime choice. One of the most important (and often underappreciated) is an option to improve the reproducibility of research results based on complex mathematical modeling. This paper provides an overview of architecture based on computing containers and continuous integration tools we used to achieve reproducible numerical results.
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Investigation into Interoperability in Cloud Computing: An Architectural Model

Investigation into Interoperability in Cloud Computing: An Architectural Model

Susan Sutherland has post graduate qualifications in IS., business administration and education. She has worked in large and complex enterprises both public and private. Her experience includes operational and at strategic levels and has worked on the mainframe, midrange and desktop applications systems; and infrastructure and networks. Her infrastructure and network experience includes implementations of X.500, X400 and X435 standards. She has also consulted in migrating applications to Web 2.0. She was part of a team that implemented an internet security gateway service for a large government department. She had pioneered the deployment of the internet in the Australian government. She is interested in the deployment of bleeding edge technologies and their migration and integration into mainstream computing. Hence her motivation to undertake this research study in cloud computing interoperability is a natural progression of her previous work.
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A REVIEW PAPER ON CLOUD COMPUTING

A REVIEW PAPER ON CLOUD COMPUTING

Cloud computing is the development of distributedcomputing, parallel computing, grid computing and virtualization technologies which define the scenario of a new era.Cloud computing is the latest effort in delivering computing resources as a service. It represents a shift away from computing as a product that is purchased, to computing as a service that is delivered to consumers over the internet from large-scale data centres – or “clouds”. Whilst cloud computing is gaining growing popularity in the IT industry, academia appeared to be lagging behind the rapid developments in this field. Cloud computing is an emerging model of business computing. In this paper, we explore the concept of cloud architecture and aims to provide an overview of the swiftly developing advances in the technical foundations of cloud computing and their research efforts. Structured along the technical aspects on the cloud agenda and also compares cloud computing with grid computing. We also address the characteristics and applications of several popular cloud computing platforms. In this paper, we aim to pinpoint the challenges and issues of cloud computing. We identified several challenges from the cloud computing adoption perspective and we also highlighted the cloud interoperability issue that deserves substantial further research and development. However, security and privacy issues present a strong barrier for users to adapt into cloud computing systems.
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Vol 15, No 4 (2015)

Vol 15, No 4 (2015)

Mobile cloud computing aims to augment the resource-constraint mobile devices, but currently it is like a baby that requires attention. The ABI research believes more than 240 million business will use services provided by cloud service providers through mobile devices by 2015. Mobile cloud computing is a growing technology that includes both cloud computing and mobile computing benefits. Also it is highly applicable for mobile devices. This paper has given an extensive and survey of mobile cloud computing technology including its definitions, architecture, motivation for developing, advantages, challenges and future research directions. For better understanding of mobile cloud computing before describing it, cloud computing is described.
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Comparable Study of Grid Computing and Cloud Computing

Comparable Study of Grid Computing and Cloud Computing

The main aim of this work is to present a difference between Grid Computing and Cloud Computing. Cloud computing has many advantages over Grid Computing, clouds will not replace grids, as grids have not replaced capability HPC, over the last 10 years as some have predicated. All three technologies have their place, what we will see over the next couple of years is that these different computing nodes will more and more grow together with the WWW and the Internet, until all these resources become one global infrastructure for information, Knowledge, computation and communication, the WWW. We think it is more likely that grids will be re-branded or merge into cloud computing, Grid Computing helped create a certain technology reality which made clouds possible. And when it comes to IaaS (infrastructure as s service), We think in five years something like 80 to 90 percent of the computation are doing could be cloud-based. In a word, the concept of Cloud Computing is becoming more and more popular. Now, Cloud Computing is in the beginning stage. All kinds of companies are providing all kinds of Cloud computing service, from software application to net storage and mail filter. We believe cloud computing will become main technology in our information life. Cloud has owned all conditions. Now the dream of Grid Computing will be realized by Cloud Computing. It will be a great event in the IT history [11].
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Report  4th Annual Trends in Cloud Computing  Full Report pdf

Report 4th Annual Trends in Cloud Computing Full Report pdf

Nearly  equal  in  significance  level  are  the  rest  of  the  challenges  cited  by  channel  firms  making  the  move   to  cloud,  with  most  of  those  hurdles  centered  on  financial  decisions.  Initial  start  up  costs,  for  example,   can  be  minimal  or  quite  large,  depending  on  whether  or  not  they  involved  building  a  data  center  to   provide  cloud  services.  Interestingly,  the  largest  channel  firms  cited  this  as  a  major  challenge,  though   they  are  most  likely  to  have  the  deeper  pockets  needed  to  outfit  a  new  data  center  if  they  don’t  already   have  one  in  existence.  Meantime,  cash  flow  and  other  financial  considerations  ranked  highest  among   channel  firms  (63%)  involved  in  all  four  types  of  cloud  business  models  outlined  in  this  study.  This   suggests  that  the  level  of  commitment  they  have  made  to  cloud  has  complicated  financial  fundamentals;   one  example  would  be  the  effects  of  a  decreased  reliance  on  legacy  streams  of  revenue,  which  in  the   short-­‐term  could  create  cash  flow  concerns  as  they  ramp  cloud  sales.  
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