CO2 emission reduction

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Complementing CO2 emission reduction by solar radiation management might strongly enhance future welfare

Complementing CO2 emission reduction by solar radiation management might strongly enhance future welfare

The social planner problem aims at finding the policy that maximises the expected cumulative discounted utility. To solve this problem in the stochastic setting, we apply dy- namic programming (Bellman, 1957). This methodology re- lies on the concept of the value function to obtain the optimal policy via backward reduction. As our state space is con- tinuous and no analytic solution is available, we are forced to adopt some approximation scheme to represent the value function at each time step. Following Cai et al. (2016), we use a Chebyshev approximation, which is well suited for par- allelisation. The Chebyshev polynomial is obtained by solv- ing a small optimisation problem at each of a finite number of regularly spaced Chebyshev approximation nodes. We used a fourth-degree Chebyshev polynomial with five approxima- tion nodes per continuous dimension. In combination with the binary state variables for the tipping point and SRM fail- ure, this results in 312 500 approximation nodes per time step. This method is developed and discussed extensively in the work by Cai (2009) and Cai et al. (2012a, 2016). For a complete overview we refer the reader to these papers and the references therein. Here we outline the methodological choices specific to the present application: the boundaries used for the domain of the Chebyshev polynomial and adjust- ments to the value function approximation to accommodate the asymmetry and non-smoothness of the true value func- tion. Additionally, we examine the accuracy of this method- ology when applied in the current setting.
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Alternative Tax Instruments for CO2 Emission Reduction and Effects of Revenue Recycling Schemes

Alternative Tax Instruments for CO2 Emission Reduction and Effects of Revenue Recycling Schemes

This study analyzed the effectiveness of carbon-, sulphur-, energy- and output- taxes for CO, emission reduction under different schemes of recycling the tax revenues in the case of Thai[r]

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THE POSSIBILITIES OF CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE PROCESS OF STEEL CHARGE HEATING THROUGH THE SELECTION OF HEATING RATE

THE POSSIBILITIES OF CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE PROCESS OF STEEL CHARGE HEATING THROUGH THE SELECTION OF HEATING RATE

The reduction of carbon dioxide emission is an important aspect of the economic policy of each country. Institutions promoting environmental protection seek to re- duce the level of greenhouse gas emissions. One of the main emitters of harmful gases to the atmosphere is the steelmaking sector. The heating technology used in metallurgical works contributes to the amount of emitted carbon dioxide that forms as a result of the loss of steel and the combustion of fuel, whose thermal energy is used during the course of the charge heating process in the heating furnace. Achieving the imposed ecological targets by not exceeding the specified emission level is possible by implementing appropriate pollutant emission reducing technologies in the metal- lurgical industry. Based on numerical computation results, the effect of heating rate on the emission of carbon dioxide has been determined in the paper. This study demon- strates that by selecting the appropriate steel charge heating technology the emissions of greenhouse gases can be substantially reduced.
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Calculation of CFP and verification of effect on CO2 emission reduction for the use of certified wood in Kyoto Prefecture

Calculation of CFP and verification of effect on CO2 emission reduction for the use of certified wood in Kyoto Prefecture

in the process of production was small. The CFPs of lumber products from North America and Europe were lower than that of kiln-dried products using ‘‘certified wood in Kyoto Prefecture’’. This means that a ‘‘local production for local consumption’’ approaches alone did not provide ‘‘certified wood in Kyoto Prefecture’’ with a competitive advantage regarding CFP reduction.

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Analysis of effect on CO2 emission reduction and cost estimation for the use of Bio-coke: a case study of Osaka, Japan

Analysis of effect on CO2 emission reduction and cost estimation for the use of Bio-coke: a case study of Osaka, Japan

using the build-up method. Data that were difficult to acquire or measure were set based on previous research. As our main target is the processes involved in BIC produc- tion, other factors such as construction or maintenance of facilities and machines are not included in the evaluation. Energy inputs include fuels such as light oil, kerosene, gasoline, LP gas, mixed oil and multi-diesel oil, as well as electricity, all of which are used for the operation of BIC production in the case study site. The CO 2 emission factors

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Worldwide Development of Wind Energy and CO2 Emission Reduction

Worldwide Development of Wind Energy and CO2 Emission Reduction

Utilization of wind energy sources can lead to a reduction in energy generation costs through two main ways; fossil fuel consumption and carbon cost reduction. According to the explanations and calculations made in this section, it was found that, there is a 44 up to 164 billion dollars potential of reducing carbon emission cost in the world. Also, there is a possibility to reduce fossil fuel consumption costs at least 87 and up to 152 billion dollars in the year 2030. Therefore, it can be expected that by the end of 2030, with the current trend of wind energy development, in addition to maintaining more than 450 billion cubic meters of natural gas equivalent, up to 316 billion dollars in global energy costs will be reduced.
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The Experimental Investigation On Performance And Emission Characteristic Of VCR Engine Fuelled By Waste Plastic Oil Blends With And Without Additive

The Experimental Investigation On Performance And Emission Characteristic Of VCR Engine Fuelled By Waste Plastic Oil Blends With And Without Additive

A toxic gas Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from the engine, measured at tail pipe corresponding to variation of load, and at compression ratio of 18 are shown in the figures 5.13and 5.14 respectively. The CO produced during the combustion due to lack of oxygen, poor air entrapped, mixture preparation and incomplete combustion. It observed that Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases with increase in load, but at maximum load waste plastic oil blends with and without additive values of CO emissions are higher than diesel. CO emissions decreases continuously for all blendes at lower loads, and the value of emission in volume percentage for B30 and pure diesel(without additive) at maximum load are0.01 and 0.03, and with additive at full load the values are 0.01 and 0.02 at compression ratio 18 respectively. The reason behind decreased CO emission may be due to increase in combustion efficiency and better mixing. It can be noticed that the decreased in the value of CO emission with increase in load, blending ratio, and compression ratio.
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Ventilation in Namib Desert Tenebrionid Beetles: Mass Scaling and Evidence of a Novel Quantized Flutter Phase

Ventilation in Namib Desert Tenebrionid Beetles: Mass Scaling and Evidence of a Novel Quantized Flutter Phase

For dune-sea and river-bed habitat species, all DV characteristics except DV frequency V phase CO2 emission volume and rate, total and per-burst ISP phase CO2 emission volume, and total [r]

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Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage

Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage

Substitution of fossil fuels by biomass is considered on an en- ergy basis. Fig. 4 demonstrates the bioenergy integration possibil- ities in a typical integrated steel plant for different coal-based fuels. It is important to note, that due to differences between fossil fuels and bio-products in terms of mechanical strength, reactivity, chemical composition, heating value, etc., only partial substitution opportunities are provided (Fick et al., 2014). Table 7 in the sup- plementary material provides further details on the maximum substitution possibilities of each coal-based fuel by the speci fi c bio- product considered in this work. In the BeWhere-EU iron & steel module then, bioenergy is fi rst integrated into the iron and steel plants based on the supply cost in comparison to that of conven- tional fossil fuels. Generally, the bio-products are not economically competitive with fossil fuel prices (ranging from V 3.52 to V 5.94 GJ 1 (IEAGHG, 2013)) and so, no fossil fuel substitution is experienced in the model. Therefore, the bio-products are also introduced based on the amount of emissions they could poten- tially offset, in order to meet the imposed emission reduction tar- gets, while keeping a record of the additional costs incurred by each individual integrated steel plant. These aspects are at the core of the BeWhere-EU iron & steel module and follow the model develop- ment process presented in our previous work (Mandova et al., 2018).
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What have we learnt about CO2 leakage in the context of commercial-scale CCS?

What have we learnt about CO2 leakage in the context of commercial-scale CCS?

social risks (health hazards, water quality) other environmental risks (e.g. risks to groundwater quality or plant health). Further, as well as greenhouse gas emission accounting, risk of leakage to surface also affects market risks [10] and public perception risks [11]. Leakage therefore has implications for policy design, public perception, impact mitigation and regulatory compliance [12, 13]. It may therefore be more appropriate to instead consider what leakage is reasonably monitorable, i.e. what leakage can be reliably detected, and whether the risk posed by such leakage is acceptable in terms of the potential impact on different receptors (e.g. water resources, the shallow subsurface or animals and plants surface in rural or urban locations). Monitorability will be governed by a range of factors, including the geological characteristics of the CO 2 migration pathway and overburden, and so the leakage rate (from the storage
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A graphical cost-screen technique for carbon management

A graphical cost-screen technique for carbon management

planning and minimisation using the mathematical programming approach have emerged. The mathematical techniques are however typically rigorous, and the mathematical equations are not easy to set up. This makes them less popular especially among the industrial practitioners. In this work the SHARPS technique has been extended as a costing tool to design a system to achieve the cost effective minimum CO 2 emission. The total payback period will be obtained by plotting net

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Carbon Footprint Analyses of Wastewater Treatment Systems in Puducherry

Carbon Footprint Analyses of Wastewater Treatment Systems in Puducherry

3.5.5. Systematic Strategies for the Future Wastewater Treatment The cost-effective and energy-saving technology with low solid waste and GHGs emission shall be preferred. The excess sludge is rich in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and micronutrients which could be used as raw material for industrial production. The excess sludge could be reduced for further treatment by recycling, for reducing the emission of GHG and for cost reduction. The goal intended to reduce the GHGs emissions from wastewater and excess sludge disposal could be achieved through the proper treatment of wastewater, choices for rational wastewater treatment process and recycling of treated wastewater and excess sludge.
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Performance evaluation of non thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

Performance evaluation of non thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

similar[16]. In the NTP application for exhaust emission reduction, the input electrical energy is transferred to the electrons which generates free radicals through collisions of electrons and promotes the desired chemical changes in the exhaust gas. While the applied electric energy in NTP reactors will be consumed for the purpose of breaking the bonds in the parent molecules, there is no sensible heating of the gas, and discharged energy is not lost either in heating up the gas or to the surroundings [17].

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Applying Convex Optimal Power Flow to Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch

Applying Convex Optimal Power Flow to Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch

sion dispatch problem and combined with power system economic dispatch (ED). Because the tra- ditional optimal power flow (OPF) model used by the economic dispatch is nonlinear and non- convex, current nonlinear solvers are not able to find the global optimal solutions. In this paper, we use the convex optimal power flow model to formulate the combined economic and emission dispatch problem. The advantage of using convex power flow model is that global optimal solu- tions can be obtained by using mature industrial strength nonlinear solvers such as MOSEK. Nu- merical results of various IEEE power network test cases confirm the feasibility and advantage of convex combined economic and emission dispatch (CCEED).
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The Impact of Economic Activities on Co2 Emission

The Impact of Economic Activities on Co2 Emission

emission and per capita energy consumption are detected. Moreover, this study on South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka indicates that energy consumption acts as an important driver to increase environmental (Muhammad and Drake, 2012). Energy consumption per capita, both being unidirectional also causes environmental pollution through CO 2 emission in

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Energy and CO2 emission evaluation of concrete waste

Energy and CO2 emission evaluation of concrete waste

CO2 release during the production of Portland cement. While the resources for aggregate and cement are considered abundant, they are limited in some areas, and more importantly, mining and extraction of the raw materials results in habitat destruction, and air and water pollution. (Mehta 1998).

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CO2 trapping in amorphous H2O ice: Relevance to polar mesospheric cloud particles

CO2 trapping in amorphous H2O ice: Relevance to polar mesospheric cloud particles

As the CO2 flux increases with increasing CO2:H2O ratio, CO2 trapping is limited by the reduction in the H2O flux until no CO2 desorption features from the water ice matrix were observed[r]

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Exploring transport carbon futures using population microsimulation and travel diaries: Beijing to 2030

Exploring transport carbon futures using population microsimulation and travel diaries: Beijing to 2030

Having developed individual level emission estimates, these were applied to all people in the city, according to the corresponding demographic attributes. As the short form census lacks the required functional resolution of census data to achieve this, and the long form census, which does not, is only a 10% population sample, a spatial microsimulation model was developed in which the population was synthesised with all the characteristics of the 10% sample. The Flexible Modelling Framework (FMF), a generic software framework that facilitates the construction of population microdata was used to build a realistic
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The Electricity Market Structure in Greece and the Paradox of Renewable Energy Sources

The Electricity Market Structure in Greece and the Paradox of Renewable Energy Sources

The weighted average emission factor per air pollutant (W.Av.E.F.z) was cal- culated as the ratio of the total amount of the released emissions to the total en- ergy generated from thermal units. Finally, in order to assess the environmental benefits for renewable technologies (wind, photovoltaics, small hydro) arising from the substitution of the energy produced from conventional fuels, the results of the NEEDS project funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme have been taken into account. The air pollutants’ (NO x ,

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Pattern of Distribution of Global CO2 Emission by Countries

Pattern of Distribution of Global CO2 Emission by Countries

or less developed economies suffers more. The under developed economies loose the economic activities and thereby income due to international shocks (Unruh and Moomaw (1998), Roberts and Grimes (1997), Schmalensee et al. (1998)). The worldwide industrial recession in late 1960s has also adverse effect on the emission share of bottom 10 (Table 1).

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