The overall goal of our study is to develop a method to integrate models of land-use change, pollutant loads from catchments, and river plumes for applications of land-sea conservation planning. The proposed method can help answer our research questions by identifying areas within catchments that need to be protected/managed to maintain or improve coastal-marine water quality (downstream objective) and to conserve terrestrial biodiversity (local objective). Actions within catchments apply to two types of areas: those with native vegetation that could be protected against clearing to minimise further increases in sediment loads and/or to con- serve habitat of terrestrial species; and those with anthropic land uses that require management to reduce current loads of pollutants delivered to the sea, for example through the implementa- tion of best-practice management in agriculture. The outputs of our method can also be used to assess the spatial congruence between priority management for water quality and areas that are important for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity, thus helping planners to identify potential co-benefits/trade-offs associated with different management alternatives. Previous studies have found variable congruence between priority areas to achieve downstream (e.g., maintaining water quality/quantity) and local management objectives (e.g., protecting terres- trial ecosystems) [26, 34, 44, 49, 50]; consequently, we expect to find some congruence between priority areas for maintaining water quality and for conserving terrestrial species, but also areas of divergence which can require trade-offs in management decisions.
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Marine water quality has become a matter of serious problems because of its effects on human health and environment including rich array of marine life. The rapid population growth and enormous urban and coastal development in coastal regions have caused considerable concern that anthropogenic pollution may reduce biodiversity and productivity of marine ecosystems, resulting in reduction and depletion of human marine food resources. In addition, pollution reduces the aesthetic value and also the intrinsic value of the marine environment. Globalization has brought in its wake increased demand on scarce resources leading to rapid depletion of a wide range of non-degradable products viz., metals, plastics, rubber products, which in turn generate huge amounts of solid wastes causing pollution at the entry of marine waters. Besides,the coastal Mumbai is characterized by slums with poor sanitation facilities aggravating the problem. Hence, itisessentialtomonitorcoastalwaterquality.Theaimofstudyistoassessthecoastal water quality in Mumbai.The study suggeststhat designated water quality can be achieved by restricting non-point sources through improvement incollection systemandits online treatment.
The parametric approaches treat the response probability function as a known function, while the distribution of the WTP depends on a vector that constitutes a finite number of unknown parameters. Moreover, estimators such as the non+ parametric Turnbull and Kriström’s, have been applied in the literature. The semi non+parametric estimators which include smoothing assumptions concerning the distribution lead to a more consistent depiction of the shape of the survivor function distribution as they allow the inclusion of descriptive variables apart from the bid price. Although there are also plenty of surveys that introduce semi non+parametric approaches, there have not been applied thoroughly in empirical research or in the field of marine and coastal goods and services.
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The risk of oil and chemical spills is related to the possibility of accidents involving large-scale oil and chemical pollution (OILECO, 2008). The survey described the current and likely future situation and gave examples of similar events in the past. The situation was described with two separate attributes, which could be targeted separately and which represent different sets of measures: namely, the frequency of large-scale oil and chemical spills ( FLS ) and the probability that oil and chemical pollution reaches the shore ( PRS ). Actions to reduce oil and chemical pollution are separated into two different attributes because environmental problems increase in significance when pollution reaches the coast. Thus, while it is important to reduce the frequency of accidents, it is also important to prevent coastal pollution. Another reason for distinguishing between these attributes is that different measures are needed to implement reductions in impact. Despite having high risks of a spill due to heavy shipping traffic, current Estonian capacity for prompt clean up and elimination of a spill is lower than in other neighbouring countries (e.g., in Finland). Thus, if such a spill were to occur, the probability of water pollution reaching the coastline would be higher in Estonia than in Finland (OILECO, 2008).
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biological and chemical markers to help quantify anthropogenically de- rived sewage pollution in coastal marine waters (González-Oreja and Saiz-Salinas, 1998; Readman et al., 2005; Adnan et al., 2012). One of these chemical markers is coprostanol (5 β -cholestan-3 β -ol), which comprises 40 – 60% of the total sterols in human faecal waste, and has been used widely around the globe as a marker of sewage contaminated (Al-Omran, 1998; Readman et al., 2005; Reeves and Patton, 2005; Adnan et al., 2012; de Abreu-Mota et al., 2014). Coprostanol like many other faecal sterols is hydrophobic, readily associating with particulate matter in sewage ef ﬂ uent and consequently is incorporated into bottom sediments (Tolosa et al., 2014). Studies have demonstrated that coprostanol concentrations correlate well with coliform bacteria, espe- cially in sewage contaminated environments (Isobe et al., 2002). Under anoxic conditions coprostanol is relatively persistent and any de- cline will invariably be associated with sediment transport. In tropical waters coprostanol, along with other selected sterols, are considered to be a more robust and reliable marker of sewage pollution than faecal coliform enumeration (Carreira et al., 2004; Adnan et al., 2012; Tolosa et al., 2014). To gain a full understanding of sewage input and source, the analysis of coprostanol is also assessed in relation to other sterols. For example, epicoprostanol, an isomer of coprostanol, can be used as a marker to indicate the level of treatment or age of the faecal matter (Readman et al., 2005; Martins et al., 2014; Tolosa et al., 2014). This compound is a by-product of sewage treatment systems and will only occur in low concentrations if the sewage is not treated or only partially treated, increasing in anoxic environments such as sewage sludge (Martins et al., 2014). Ratios, such as the coprostanol/cholesterol index can also be used to assess the degree of sewage pollution (Leeming et al., 1996; Isobe et al., 2002).
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In 2016 the Government reported on the state of our seas, as required by the Environmental Reporting Act 2015 (ERA). “Our marine environment 2016” identifi ed serious and widespread issues with seabed habitat damage and destruction, numerous threatened seabird and marine mammals, and massive loss of topsoil into our coastal waters causing deterioration in water quality and ecosystem services (Figure 1).
Assessment of state and quality of the sea and ocean surface layer waters resulted from binding the data from satellite images and the results of the simultaneously done in situ measurements is the actual direction of modern complex oceanological studies. Further development of this direction the immediate task of which consists in defining hydrochemical composition of water based on satellite data requires selecting the regions in the Black Sea where in situ measurements of water hydrochemical characteristics can be carried out simultaneously with satellite monitoring of the surface water state. The results of analysis of the hydrochemical characteristics’ (main elements of nutrient and carbon cycles) spatial distribution in the Blue Bay waters based on the data of the expeditionary research carried out by Marine Hydrophysical Institute in 2002–2014 are represented. It is shown that this region and the stationary oceanographic platform (SOP) located in its southwestern part constitute a convenient ground for synchronous remote and sub-satellite studies of natural oceanological processes and impact of the coastal anthropogenic pollution sources. The data on hydrochemical characteristics of surface water in the SOP region can be used to study background state of the coastal marine environment as well as influence of intense natural processes (storms and (or) upwellings) upon formation and evolution of hydrochemical and optical structure of surface waters, surface water and atmosphere gas exchange, effect of physical, chemical and biological processes on the sea water quality. Influence of two coastal sources of anthropogenic pollution upon the Blue Bay marine environment was studied using synchronous remote and sub-satellite measure- ments; the results of these investigations provide additional opportunities for developing and certifying the methods of remote study and monitoring of the coastal marine environment state.
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The monitoring of water quality is now a subject of concern in marine, stream, river and rivulet waters due to the uncontrolled disposal of wastes such as, urban effluents, runoffs from rain, atmospheric deposition, municipal and industrial effluents into the water bodies (Droup et al., 2011). It is as a result of these factors that the marine and the fresh waters of coastal area of Rivers State will be compared as a healthy water environment prevents the occurrence of disease. The low quality of drinking water in coastal areas of Rivers State, Nigeria will result in contacting water borne illness as the pollutants find their way into the drinking water sources that are not eliminated by treatment processes thus making people sick since there is uncoordinated efforts by both the local, state and federal agencies.
development levels and is likely to remain above 400 ppm for the foreseeable future (WMO, 2016), the highest levels in at least the past 800,000 years (Masson-Delmotte et al., 2013). As the global climate system warms so do the tropical oceans (Lough, 2012) and this has consequences, some of them already observable, for the Great Barrier Reef. In addition to regional warming, surface ocean climate of the Great Barrier Reef and coastal Queensland river catchments is modulated by ENSO events. El Niño events are typically associated with a weaker summer monsoon, fewer tropical cyclones, less rainfall and warmer late summer sea surface temperature, as observed in 2016. La Niña events are typically associated with a more active summer monsoon, more tropical cyclones and higher rainfall, as observed in 2011 (Lough, 2007). Within-season rainfall variability is also modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation and, over decadal timescales, by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (Risbey et al., 2009). The combined impact of these different drivers is to introduce more variability into regional climate which, at times, can reinforce the intensity of extreme events. The magnitude of surface climate anomalies associated with ENSO is, for example, now magnified due to warming of the global climate system (e.g. Power et al., 2017).
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work in the area. Mohagheghian et al  reported the distribution of estrogenic steroids in various STPs in Tehran. Other studies, such as [16, 17], linked water quality and chemistry data, including biological and chemical oxygen demand, phosphorus and nitrogen, to point and non-point sources of coastal sewage discharge without in depth characterization of EDCs constituent in the effluents or the receiving waters, except for a few heavy metal determination studies [18-22]. To the best of our knowledge, there are no available published reports to date that documented the occurrence of steroidal estrogens in any Middle Eastern water body or their removal rates from STPs. It is crucial to establish such field of research in the region to ensure that the reproduction fitness of our marine life is not adversely affected by EDCs. The unique environment and weather in Saudi Arabia as a semi-arid land country makes it critical to study the fate of EDCs in general and estrogenic chemicals in particular in aquatic systems; and evaluating the threats that they may impose on the magnificent Red Sea biodiversity. The broad objective of this study was to start the first step toward establishing the endocrine disruption research in the Kingdom, specifically by investigating the occurrence of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 in the Red Sea water and to test the removal capacity of these EDCs from two selected STPs. The findings would allow us to put the data into the global context to know where we fit and what future direction ought to be considered.
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At one time this property was part of a larger farm, but it now contains a single contemporary house near the water and a few small watermelon fields. Almost half the site is covered by swamp forest adjacent to a small creek that defines the southern edge of the property, with the remainder in fields or pine woods. An entrance drive lined with oaks and pines, displaying the characteristics of a rural lane or farm road, parallels the north property line, turning near the water to reach the house. The adjacent property to the north has already been divided into the conventional pattern of farm fields along the state road and residential lots along the waterfront. The site can be best described in terms of three distinct open areas --or “outdoor rooms” -- bounded by the wet woods and the pine stands. The upper field, adjacent to the public road, enjoys views across neighboring farmland, and encompasses a small stand of oaks lining the existing drive. The central field, bordered on three sides by woods and on the fourth by the drive, is a comfortably e n-closed space focused inwardly on itself. And the waterfront area possesses a park-like quality with its tall pines, meadow grasses, and wildflowers framing outward views across the Sound.
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to the local incongruities of the respective litter function density and explanatory origin parameters in the study region. Likewise, the detected effects of beach use on the density of Unclassified litter items are difficult to interpret: In the present study, more than 70% of the Unclassified items consist of plastic pellets and nylon particles, which do not link back to any explicit origin. An extension of the study is further needed to explain the variations in Agricultural and Personal Use litter items. The encountered difficulties underline that a certain proportion of land-based litter items cannot be explained by origins in the immediate surroundings of the study sites, but travel longer distances before they reach the coastal environment. A potential remote source for all function categories might be illegal and poorly operated landfills since illegal waste dumping is still a commonly performed in the study region. In the provinces of Adana and Mersin, around 1500 tons of general waste are deposited at unofficial dumping sites daily. Wind-blown litter is expected to be a likely consequence (Altuntop et al. 2014). Even though it is desirable to include such landfills as point sources in the analyses, due to their illegal status, obtaining a comprehensive data set is unlikely in the near future. Potentially the inclusion of further study sites by extending the survey focus may help to reveal and better understand relationships between land-based litter point sources and the respective functions.
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taken to reduce fugitive emissions like sprinkling of water in and around site. Vehicles delivering construction materials to the site will be enclosed and covered to prevent escape of dust. DG set will be at adequate height. Noise Quality -Rise in noise levels are expected during construction phase of the project due to operation of construction equipment, movement of raw material carrying vehicles and allied activities. However, appropriate measures will be taken to reduce noise levels to the possible extent. Training will be given to all the workers for the proper handling of equipment’s with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Proper maintenance of the equipment’s will be done.
The characteristic shape and the position of Area 1 clearly identify it as the cold SUI, as already stated. As with PC I, the troughs in the loadings coincide with this feature being near the limit of its southerly extension, during March to April. When the loadings peak, the SUI is either in the far north or absent from the Gulf of Guinea. Area 2 corresponds to an area of ocean space not identified with any one particular process, but characterised by generally warm temperatures for most of the year. However, it can also be quite a variable area, under the seasonal influence of both the migration of cold SUI waters from the north and the influx of warm water from the tropical central Atlantic to the west. It is typically warm when the loadings are at a peak, between October and December, and cold when the loadings are at a trough and the SUI is extended. Area 3 represents the coastal upwelling areas along the coast, but offshore there is no boundary, instead the area extends both east and west and to the southern limit of the scene. This pattern is strongest in the coastal and equatorial upwelling areas, with a weaker band between them. Thus, Area 3 appears to couple the coastal and equatorial upwellings. The monthly SST composites show this pattern to be strongest after the end of the major upwelling, when the loadings are at a peak. This is because during this period Area 3 is relatively cool compared to Area 2. The position of Area 4, close to the coast of Nigeria and Cameroon, appears to identify it with the large areas of warm, low salinity water that exist in this location, originating from river discharge. Again, this pattern is observed when the loadings are at a peak.
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sampling locations in the study area were observed with very good categories. K.Yogendra and E.T.Puttaiah (2008) studied determination of water quality index and suitability of an urban waterbody in Shimoga Town, Karnataka. This study shows that the waterbody is eutrphic and it is unsuitable for the human uses. It is also observed that the pollution load is relatively high during summer season when compared to the winter and rainy season. Abegunlin studied roof age effect on the quality of harvested rainwater and its health implication at the selected location of Southwest Nigeria. Khwajam Anwar and Vanita Aggarwal (2014) also did analysis of ground water quality of Aligarh city using water quality index. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre - monsoon and 16,82 to 70.34 during post - monsoon. The study reveals that 50% of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.
capita is decreasing rapidly. Currently about 80 countries and regions, representing 40% of the world's popula- tion, are experiencing water stress, and about 30 of these countries are suffering water scarcity during a large part of the year. During the last four decades, the number of countries experiencing water scarcity, most of which are developing countries, has increased. It is believed that by 2025, approximately 1.8 billion people will live in countries with absolute water scarcity (UN Water, 2013) . To meet the crop demand projected for 2025, an additional 192 cubic miles of water per year could be required; a volume nearly equivalent to nearly 10 times the annual flow of the Nile (Gleick, 2001) . Therefore a natural question to ask is: where will the water deficit become larger and larger and how should it be solved? In addition to the natural scarcity of freshwater in various regions and countries, the quality of the available freshwater is also deteriorating due to pollution, fur- ther intensifying this water shortage. Every day, 2 million tons of sewage and other effluents drain into the world’s waterways, which is six times more water than already exists in all the rivers of the world. Presently, global water resources are grossly polluted by wastes to the point that vast stretches of rivers are dead or dying, and many lakes are cesspools of waste. Many options have been proposed worldwide to address the water supply issue, such as more inland reservoirs, desalination plants, wastewater reuse facilities etc.
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In the tribal region of Visakhapatnam district the main sources of water are open wells, Bore wells, Natural Springs (Oota) and Kundi’s available for drinking and utility purpose. In some remote habitations, even due to unacceptable quality of water, the water form natural springs are preferred. According to the survey in the villages, there have been facing severe scarcities of drinking water in spite of good rain fall over the region. Every year people die due to drinking of contaminated water which causes water borne diseases like malaria, dengue, typhoid, diarrhea and cholera in rainy season. But the villages could not effort for the replacement due to their economic problems and location in isolated areas. So far no studies have been conducted on the water quality with regard to its physical and chemical activity, and therefore there is a need to find out the status of water quality in this tribal area.
Light and external nutrient loading into the ponds played more of a role in the community composition rather than the effect of aeration. Antenucci et al. (2005) showed that with aeration increased diatoms, cyanobacteria, and chlorophytes in a dam where the cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, was able to outcompete competitors in light as mixing enhanced prolonged light exposure. Shallow ponds (<15 m) with continuous aeration often enhance cyanobacteria production since there is still enough light to not cause limitation and they are able to utilize phosphorus throughout the water column (Lilndenschmidt, 1999). Cyanobacteria can also replace diatom communities with aeration when concentrations of Si are depleted (Hawkins and Griffiths, 1992) which diatoms need for frustules. NH 4 + have been shown to preferentially stimulate
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Environmental zoning approach is an innovative coastal zone management approach in the present day situation. Environmental zoning approach is highly applicable for the vulnerable areas regarding the land use pattern (Fig. 5). In this context this approach may highly appropriate for the present study area as the zone situated in a coastal vulnerable area experienced with tropical cyclone and allied coastal hazards. The main theme of this approach is how to diminish the severity of vulnerability of a susceptible part introducing the pioneering land use pattern. According to researcher’s ground verification during the field survey the environmental zoning approach map has been prepared to show that whatever portions of the coastal stretch should be used for what purpose by the customary coastal dwellers to ensure the reduce of coastal hazard severity. If the indigenous coastal people of the Subarnarekha delta plain obey this approach then they would be benefitted from the brutality of upcoming coastal hazards. To prepare this map one should kept it mind that some places of the front face of the sea should be unoccupied which are treated as the natural processes and their modification actions. The Fig. 6 denotes the area where the natural processes are always plays their role to adjust the natural setting.
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In 2005 Nsawam was of Class III (poor quality) but the remaining stations were all of Class II (fairly good waters). In 2006 Nsawam (in Densu Basin) remained in Class III, while all other stations were of Class II. Potroase (in Densu Basin) was in Class II but had the highest wa- ter quality with a WQI of 79.6. Apart from Mangoase in Densu Basin whose waters deteriorated in 2006, the other stations in the Densu Basin showed marked improvement in water quality in 2006 over 2005. However, there was a reduction in water quality in all the stations in the other river basins in 2006, except Lake Barekese that had an improvement over 2005. In 2007, Nsawam was of Class III, but all the other stations fell in Class II. Potroase in the Densu Basin, although was in Class II, had the high- est quality, with a WQI of 74.5 in 2007. Weija Reservoir, Potroase and Nsawam in the Densu Basin had lower wa- ter qualities in 2007 than in 2006. Mangoase in the Den- su Basin and Mankrong Junction in the Ayensu Basin, in 2007, maintained the same water quality as in 2006. All the remaining stations in 2007 showed improvement in water quality over 2006. Finally, in 2008, Nsawam was of Class III, but practically maintained the same water quality as in 2007. All the remaining stations were of Class II but showed lower water quality than in 2007, ex- cept Lake Barekese which showed an increase in water quality in 2008 over 2007. Dunkwa-On-Offin in 2008 had a WQI just below 50 (i.e. 49.7) and was nominally of Class III, but practically was in Class II. It was observed that Nsawam was the only station that consistently fell in class III for all the four year period. This indicates the polluted nature of that stretch of the River Densu at Nsawm. Lake Barekese was the only station that showed a progressive increase in water quality from 2005 to 2008, although was of Class II.
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