Cognition or emotion or motivation?

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Metaphor Detection with Topic Transition, Emotion and Cognition in Context

Metaphor Detection with Topic Transition, Emotion and Cognition in Context

We present a new approach that uses lexical and topical context to resolve the problem of low pre- cision on metaphor detection. To better capture the relevant context surrounding a metaphor, we approach the problem in two directions. First, we hypothesize that topic transition patterns be- tween sentences containing metaphors and their contexts are different from that of literal sen- tences. To this end, we incorporate several indi- cators of sentence-level topic transitions as fea- tures, such as topic similarity between a sentence and its neighboring sentences, measured by Sen- tence LDA. Second, we observe that metaphor is often used to express speakers’ emotional experi- ences; we therefore model a speaker’s motivation in using metaphor by detecting emotion and cog- nition words in metaphorical and literal sentences and their contexts.
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The Interplay between Emotion and Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Developmental Theory

The Interplay between Emotion and Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Developmental Theory

The view put forward by Loveland and colleagues (Loveland, 2001, 2005; Bachevalier and Loveland, 2006) in many ways complements the social-motivational view. Loveland points out that ASD is char- acterized by difficulties not only with respect to the perception of social-emotional signals but also with regards to the regulation of behavior in response to these signals. At first, this may seem a trivial point since it should come as no surprise that an individual who experiences difficulties in perceiving certain properties of the world should also respond to these properties differently. Love- land’s arguments, however, are far from trivial, because they stress that perception and action are intimately linked (see Merleau- Ponty, 1964; Fogel, 1993 for additional discussion). Perceiving the emotional significance of someone else’s facial and postural expressions is of little use if one does not know how to respond appropriately, and not understanding the behavioral affordances of emotional signals may be reason enough not to attend to them in the first place. Thus social-emotional difficulties in ASD may not arise because of a lack of motivation per se but because of a lack of understanding what emotional signals afford. Support for this argument stems from the studies by Sigman and Kasari and colleagues outlined earlier in which autistic children were consis- tently less responsive to the emotional displays of others (Loveland and Tunali, 1991; Sigman et al., 1992; Yirmiya et al., 1992) despite demonstrating an awareness of the emotional displays in question (Bacon et al., 1998; Corona et al., 1998). The behavioral self reg- ulation view is also in line with studies that demonstrate typical physiological but atypical behavioral separation anxiety in autistic children (Willemsen-Swinkels et al., 2000; Sigman et al., 2003) and more generally it helps to explain why studies of emotion percep- tion tend to yield less consistent behavioral differences between ASD and non-ASD groups than studies examining the ability to use such expressions to regulate interpersonal exchanges. At the neural level, Bachevalier and Loveland (2006) largely agree with the idea that abnormalities in a social brain network are likely to lie at the root of the developmental trajectory of ASD. They par- ticularly emphasize interactions between the orbital-frontal cortex and amygdala as key to understanding the disorder, citing abun- dant evidence to support the idea that these areas play a critical role in the self regulation of behavior during social-emotional exchanges.
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Psychological interventions for behavioral adjustments in diabetes care – a value-based approach to disease control

Psychological interventions for behavioral adjustments in diabetes care – a value-based approach to disease control

in the face of social, physical, and emotional challenges.” It may be evident from this review that habitual healthful behaviors arise from successful self-regulation and resilience. Successful forming of a new behavior depends on a strong willpower that is fueled by adequate cognizance (understand- ing and reasoning) and emotional intelligence (motivation and self-efficacy). These become effective when the behavior is highly valued and in line with the purpose of life of the person. Interventional programs and services should consider including all the components in the value–cognitionemotion psychological framework, probably in different appropriate proportions, through culturally appropriate manners in dif- ferent health care settings, and for people at different illness stages and phases of life. Outcomes and targets of psycho- logical interventions should primarily be psychological measurements and health behaviors and secondarily be the biomarkers of disease control as measured by the laboratory.
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Investigating the Interaction of Emotion and Cognition: Conflict Adaptation and the Impact of Emotionally-Salient Distraction

Investigating the Interaction of Emotion and Cognition: Conflict Adaptation and the Impact of Emotionally-Salient Distraction

potentially relevant to an individual’s homeostasis, and therefore highly salient. Further, emotions are ubiquitous and imperative to almost all aspects of everyday human functioning, including cognition. The task of driving a vehicle, for example, requires a high degree of focus and attention, but is surrounded by emotionally-salient distractors that must be ignored in some circumstances (i.e., an incoming text message) and utilized in other circumstances to prioritize cognitive processes (i.e., a child having an asthma attack in the backseat; Blair & Dennis, 2010). Thus, understanding real-world cognitive functioning demands consideration of emotional factors (rather than adopting a strictly cognitive perspective, using abstract tasks such as the Flanker or Stroop task; Zelazo et al., 2010). In recent decades, researchers have begun to investigate cognitive control in the context of emotional signals (e.g., positive and negative images, rewards, punishers); however, characterizing the nature of this competitive emotion- cognition interaction remains a central theoretical challenge.
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Impairment in emotion perception from body movements in individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is associated with functional capacity

Impairment in emotion perception from body movements in individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is associated with functional capacity

A key factor related to daily social function is the per- ception of emotions in other people. We communicate emotions by the way we move and talk; and therefore also perceive emotions in different modalities. Visual emo- tion signals can be conveyed in facial expressions (facial emotion perception) or body movement (body language), whereas auditory signals are expressed through pro- sodic information in vocal expressions (auditory emo- tion perception). Most studies have used pictures of faces expressing one of the six basic emotions to assess emo- tion perception. Persons with BD have a moderate deficit in facial emotion perception (Kohler et  al. 2011). Find- ings for auditory emotion perception have been mixed. Some studies have found intact auditory emotion per- ception for BD I (Vaskinn et  al. 2007; Hoertnagel et  al. 2015), whereas others have found limited impairments for some emotions for either females (Bozikas et al. 2007) or males (van Reenen and Rossell 2013) with the disor- der. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of emotion perception from body movement in individu- als with BD. This can be assessed with so-called point- light displays (PLD). In PLD tasks (Johansson 1973) a light is connected to different parts of the human body, or the face, while the person is filmed when moving in a dark room. Perceivers are able to infer sex (Kozlowski and Cutting 1977), personality traits (Gunns et al. 2001), and emotions (Heberlein et al. 2004) from PLDs. We have previously shown that individuals with schizophrenia, regardless of sex, have a global deficit in the perception of emotions from body movement (Vaskinn et al. 2016), in line with other studies (Couture et al. 2010; Kern et al. 2013; Okruszek et al. 2015).
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A formal model of emotional response, inspired from human cognition and emotion systems

A formal model of emotional response, inspired from human cognition and emotion systems

Borod (1993) provides what is termed a ‘componential model’ of emotional processing that also demonstrates ways and levels of measuring emotion. It is a comprehensive model that includes processing modes, communication channels, emotional dimensions and discrete emotions. The model permits interactions between individual elements and components. His componential model is based on the brain damage cases in which disassociations have been found between expression and perception, experience and autonomic arousal (Borod, 1993).

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Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words in normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words in normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

A common task exploring attentional bias, the affective go/no- go (AGNG) task requires participants to respond (e.g. press a button) to target ( ‘ go ’ ) stimuli that are emotionally valent (e.g. sad) whilst inhibiting their response to distractor ( ‘ no-go ’ ) stimuli of different valence (e.g. happy). From a functional imaging per- spective, activation is increased in healthy adults in lateral inferior prefrontal cortex in response to positive versus neutral distractors, and in anterior cingulate, insula and hippocampus in response to negative versus neutral distractors (Van Holst et al., 2012). Com- pared with healthy adults, depressed adults show increased acti- vation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex in response to sad versus neutral distractors (El- liott et al., 2002) which seemingly indicates a bias toward negative information. However, the ability of positive stimuli to induce aberrant activations has also been demonstrated in a depression meta-analysis (Groenewold et al., 2013). Indeed, despite a general belief that mood-congruent stimuli should be more salient in depression (Epp et al., 2012), the supporting evidence from af- fective neuroscience is not conclusive. First, a fMRI meta-analysis of emotional tasks in adults with depression has demonstrated that both positive and negative stimuli induce extended and overlapping abnormal activations (Groenewold et al., 2013). More speci fi c to attentional bias, a further meta-analysis reveals the ability of positive stimuli to exert large stroop-like effects on de- pressed patients (Epp et al., 2012). Furthermore, a review of the literature indicates that numerous studies failed to demonstrate attentional bias towards negative information in depression (El- liott et al., 2011). Rather, there is the suggestion of a general, rather than emotion-congruent attentional bias, or argument for biases in more effortful processing such as interpretation and memory
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Examining the association between social cognition and functioning in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis

Examining the association between social cognition and functioning in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis

Functioning has become an important outcome of interest across the psychosis-spectrum (Yung et al 2010; Brissos et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2013). Specific investigation of factors associated with and predictive of functional outcome in the UHR population is in its infancy, but rapidly gathering interest as an alternative (or additional) outcome to transition to psychosis (Cotter et al., 2014). This work has been supported by evidence that UHR individuals not only have poor social and occupational functioning at initial presentation (Yung et al., 2004; Velthorst et al., 2010), but that a large proportion continue to function poorly at long-term follow-up regardless of whether they develop a full-threshold psychotic disorder (Addington et al., 2011; Salokangas et al., 2013; Yung et al., 2015). This study sought to examine the association between performance on a broad range of social cognition tasks with social, role and global functioning.
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Emotion and the affective turn: Towards an integration  of cognition and affect in real life experience

Emotion and the affective turn: Towards an integration of cognition and affect in real life experience

As is thought, emotion is embedded in the relational nature of life. Neither thought nor emotion is conceivable without relations with other people and things. What makes emotion fascinating, and even mysterious, is that it reflects something of the biological and evolutionary ‘intervention’ peculiar to one’s way of handling events. While the ‘rational self’ is still trying to clarify the situation, the ‘frightened self’ takes over. In a heated argument, the ‘controlling self’ is interrupted by ‘another self’ losing its temper. This biological side of life and the way it intervenes in our attempts at asserting our presence in real-life situations is expressed in metaphors such as ’She was seized/overcome by emotion’; ‘He couldn’t restrain his emotions’; ’His life is governed by passion’; ‘Your actions are dictated by emotion’; ‘I was overwhelmed’; ‘She was swept off her feet’ (see Kövecses 2000:51ff.,61, 72). The loss of control is expressed in metaphors that refer to it as insanity, magic, rapture and a divided self (Kövecses 2000:43, 110). Emotions are conceived of as autonomous forces that influence and/or overwhelm us. It is a moot point whether it is indeed emotion if it is regulated and controlled. Emotion is actually something that overcomes us. Affect, however, refers to something ‘extraneous’ that touches and influences us. If our model were to overemphasise reason, judgement and decision-making, emotion in the original sense of the word would no longer feature. A phenomenon has an emotive structure only if it could not exist or manifest itself without emotion. Hence, diverse phenomena may be emotive − primarily emotion as such, but many indirect sensations as well (Snævarr 2010:319).
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Tuned Emotions: How Age, Intrinsic Motivation, and Time Perspective Impact the Selection and Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation.

Tuned Emotions: How Age, Intrinsic Motivation, and Time Perspective Impact the Selection and Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation.

represented by a single item measure and was directly used as manifest variable in the model. Future time perspective, motivation, and subjective difficulty were represented by latent variables. For all latent variables, parcels as recommended by Little, Cunningham, Shahar, and Widaman (2002) were created. Parcels are often used in SEMs to create indicator factors that show enhanced distribution qualities, as a composite of several items is more likely to be normally distributed than each individual item. Items across each construct were combined into parcels by alternating based on their original order in the survey. Age, future time perspective, motivation, and subjective difficulty were then used to predict different emotion regulation outcomes. Model fit was determined in all subsequent structural equation models based the relative fix indexes: a Tuckers-Lewis Index (TLI), Comparative Fix Index (CFI) approximately .95 (Hu & Bentler, 1998; 1999) and a root mean squared error of
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Typical integration of emotion cues from bodies and faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Typical integration of emotion cues from bodies and faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

The facial expressions of others are a rich source of social information, conveying cues to affective and mental states. Correct interpretation of facial expressions is therefore important for fluent social interaction and wider socio-cognitive development (Adolphs, 2002; Frith, 2009). Previous research indicates that facial emotion perception is affected by the context in which a facial expression is encountered, suggesting that interpretations are informed by our knowledge and experience (de Gelder et al., 2006; Feldman-Barrett, Mesquita, & Gendron, 2011). Categorization of morphed facial expressions, for example, is biased by the concurrent presentation of social interactants (Gray, Barber, Murphy, & Cook, 2017) and other non- interacting faces (Masuda et al., 2008). Perceived facial expression can also be influenced by affective vocal cues (de Gelder & Vroomen, 2000; Massaro & Egan, 1996), situational stories (Carroll & Russell, 1996), and visual scenes (Righart & De Gelder, 2008a, 2008b).
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Cognition, emotion and trust: a comparative analysis of Cambodia’s perceived and projected online image

Cognition, emotion and trust: a comparative analysis of Cambodia’s perceived and projected online image

perceived and projected destination images by analysing the use of cognitive and affective image components. Secondly, this study is of an exploratory nature and is intended primarily to lay the groundwork for further research exploring the similarities and differences between projected and perceived online destination images and the role trust plays in the process of destination image formation. Thirdly, due to time and financial restrictions the analysed sample of amateur travel blogs and websites could be considered as small and not truly representative of the variety and quantity of online information sources on Cambodia as a tourist destination. Fourthly, while this research is aimed at exploring the differences between projected and perceived online destination image, the case study nature of the study means that the results may not be replicated in all research in this area. Fifthly, for the purposes of this study, blogs and websites were seen as offering competing, rather than complementary information sources, which would hardly be the case in reality, where travellers usually consult a variety of information sources to form perceptions of places and finalise their holiday plans. Finally, the issues of generalisability and subjectivity characteristics for qualitative studies should also be recognised as weaknesses of this research. Further studies drawing on larger and more heterogeneous samples would offer ways to explore the importance of cognition, emotion and trust in other contexts by taking into account the role social/cultural capital of the language used and authenticity play in evaluating and analysing information sources. Another research avenue could be to use a scenario-based approach to shed light on consumers’ perceptions of amateur travel blogs and official tourism websites in terms of projected and perceived destination image.
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Why, when, and how to diversify? A comparison between Western theories and the cognition of Chinese enterprises

Why, when, and how to diversify? A comparison between Western theories and the cognition of Chinese enterprises

The strategy of diversification has been popular in the world since the 1960s (Hoskisson and Hitt, 1990: 461). Along with the rapid development of the Chinese economy and enterprises, a lot of Chinese firms have taken the diversification strategy as a means of development since the 1990s. There have been a large number of researches on diversification in the West, but there are few empirical studies in China. Hoskisson and Hitt (1990: 498) provided us with a holistic model of “Diversification Motivations m Diversification Strategies m Firm’s Performance” on the basis of an extensive review on the studies of diversification. If the relationships described in the holistic model are studied in the Chinese context, an interesting question arises—why, when and how to diversify? Are there any difference between the cognition of Western theories and that of Chinese enterprises on the motivation (why), timing (when) and industry choice (how) of enterprises’ diversification? In this paper, two samples are selected to seek an exploratory answer to this question. The first one is 140 papers on enterprises’ diversification published in top-notch Western journals from 1981 to 2000; the second one is public statements on enterprises’ diversification by 30 influential CEOs in China.
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Emotion and Cognition: The Case of  Military Personals

Emotion and Cognition: The Case of Military Personals

The term emotion has a thorough set of definitions that it seems evitable to mention them all. Since a long time, emotion was viewed only as a negative in- fluence and hindrance to the perception and rational decision process. More re- cently, some researchers [17] [18] have stressed the importance of environmen- tal, social, and emotional influences on cognitive strategies and decision-making. Thus, Scherer (1982) [19] defines emotion as the set of episodic variations with- in the different members of the organism, and in response to events assessed as important for that organism. Subsequently, according to the component process model (CPM), emotion process involves the synchronization of activities be- tween five emotion components: the appraisal, the bodily reaction, the action tendency, the expression, and the feeling component. An emotion, as underlying by this model, is seen as “the model response markers” that enfold the frequent multi-component configuration of appraisals and the patterns of related res- ponses. It is made by organized packages that are available to consciousness (in the form of non-verbal). The occurrence of some of these packages gives the pervasiveness of situations and, yields emotions of frustration, loss, achievement. Due to the human condition, the modal emotions have been referred to through universal linguistic labels, except for some particular interpersonal relations in some cultures. Then, the lexical and semantic expressions reflect the appraisal patterns and the response type within the emotional package.
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Emotion, cognition and spectator response to the plays of Shakespeare.

Emotion, cognition and spectator response to the plays of Shakespeare.

emotional responses of a Renaissance spectator would give us further insight into the theatre of the time: for example, why some plays were popular and others less so; what the appeal of drama was for playgoers. More than that, though, it might also help us to think critically about the kinds of emotional experiences that individuals would have had within other kinds of large-scale public gathering, such as at a public execution or a cockfight. It might offer us a clearer sense of the relationship between individual and collective emotion within a crowd setting, and help us to consider the complex ways in which social, religious and political contexts affect the act of spectating.
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Dimensional Structures of Human Societies: An Alternative Interpretation of Agoramétrie Type Survey Results

Dimensional Structures of Human Societies: An Alternative Interpretation of Agoramétrie Type Survey Results

Chance (1988) described “agonic” social organization as competitive, conflic- tual, and hierarchically organized around the principle of social dominance and associated control of resources. We refer to this AR—MP combination as the secondary relational model “agonic society”. Social dominance is conceptualized both in terms of rank in the social hierarchy and the capacity to acquire and control resources. Any two individuals in agonic society are either of the same or different social rank, and all are concerned with self-security and maintaining, or improving, their status levels. In primate societies, life possesses a continual un- certainty, because social ranking is actively and aggressively contested. Low- er-ranking members live with anxiety, execute gestures of appeasement and submission, and are fearfully poised to escape the wrath and punishment of higher ranking members. Social control is expressed territorially, through the physical closeness of the lower-ranking members to the centrally dominant fig- ure(s). Thus, in agonic society, hierarchy is inseparable from, and is articulated in terms of, territory . Hierarchy and territoriality are the bases of AR- and MP-based social relations (TenHouten, 2013: pp. 31-35). As small-scale egalita- rian societies increase in size and complexity, social dominance structures emerge and become institutionalized, so that communal resources become sub- ject to allocation based not on any principle of equality but on status, prestige, and power. This requires social cognition, and social intelligence, both for this subject to power and those who wield power (Hallpike, 1988: pp. 208-287).
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Developing an Expert and Reflexive Approach to Problem Solving: The Place of Emotional Knowledge and Skills

Developing an Expert and Reflexive Approach to Problem Solving: The Place of Emotional Knowledge and Skills

The training program on emotions took place over four weeks. Each week, between one and a half and two hours were devoted to a specific emotional con- tent in line with the adapted version of Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model, i.e. the five-branch emotional competencies model. Concretely, the first lesson questioned the learner about his emotional relationship to math problem solv- ing. The goal here was to get students to think about and become aware of how they experience problem solving. The second lesson aimed to familiarize learn- ers with the concept of emotion by working on its components and on the basic emotions. The ability to identify and understand one’s own emotions was also part of this session. The third lesson emphasized the importance of expressing rather than repressing one’s emotions, addressed the social norms associated with emotional expression and introduced the concept of emotion regulation. The fourth and last lesson proposed to discover and experienced six strategies used by upper elementary students to regulate their negative emotions when solving math problems: task utility self-persuasion, brief attentional relaxation, help-seeking, emotion expression, dysfunctional avoidance and negative self-talk. While the first three are effective, the last three are ineffective (Hanin et al., 2017). A wide range of activities were provided including video-clips, analyses of mini-case studies, drawings, Chinese portrait, short lectures, facial expressions analyzes, group tasks and discussions and role play. At the beginning of each lesson, a summary of the previous lesson was made by the teacher in interaction with the students. To facilitate the transfer, at the end of each lesson an activity of linking of what had just been learned to problem-solving tasks was offered. At the end of the fourth lesson, students received an illustrative plate of twenty ba- sic emotions as well as a booklet containing a succinct and pictorial description of the six emotion regulation strategies. Students in the “emotion and cognition” condition were invited to use the booklet during the subsequent intervention on heuristic strategies and self-regulated behaviors.
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Imagery and implementation intention: A randomised controlled trial of interventions to increase exercise behaviour in the general population

Imagery and implementation intention: A randomised controlled trial of interventions to increase exercise behaviour in the general population

Further, the current study shows that a short guided imagery intervention may be successful in increasing exercise behaviour. This is consistent with previous research linking imagery with sport performance (e.g. Short et al., 2005). These findings further suggest that imagery may be used not only in a sport context but in a health promotion context as well. Future research should be directed towards an understanding of how different functions of imagery may result in different behavioural outcomes. Different individuals may be inactive for different reasons and thus be more responsive to certain suggestions than others. For example, one individual may benefit from mentally increasing their confidence in a particular skill (or just to go to the gym at all which may be intimidating) (Cognitive Specific) yet another person may benefit more from focusing on a future thinner self (Motivation Specific function). Thus, it may be of great use to investigate how the different functions of imagery serve different exercise outcomes as observed with sport performance (e.g. Short et al., 2005).
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Maximizing Mindful Learning: Mindful Awareness Intervention Improves Elementary School Students’ Quarterly Grades

Maximizing Mindful Learning: Mindful Awareness Intervention Improves Elementary School Students’ Quarterly Grades

Consistent with both MBSR and SEL, self-awareness, self-control, and social awareness concepts were woven within the 35 tracks, as well as responsible decision making and core values including kindness and gratitude (Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning 2005; Kabat-Zinn 2003). The program was designed to allow students to consistently explore what is happening inside themselves so they become familiar with their inner experiences. As an example, a student who has consistently experienced how it feels to be angry and has brought awareness to how the body and thought patterns respond to this emotion may be more likely to identify anger when it comes up, and choose productive ways to respond. The language and examples were developed specifically for children in this age group and pilot-tested through a series of trials conducted over the course of 3 months at a YMCA camp for students in grades 1 4.
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<p>Social cognitive training for adults with Noonan syndrome: a feasibility study</p>

<p>Social cognitive training for adults with Noonan syndrome: a feasibility study</p>

The process evaluation showed that there were no drop- outs, all three phases of the intervention were feasible, and patients reported benefits from the training. Strong aspects concerned the (small) group-based format, in which NS patients learned from one another’s experiences, gained more awareness of their social cognitive difficulties, and were able to practice strategies. The number of patients included in this study was smaller than intended, which could be related to the nature of the (social) cognitive deficits in patients with NS. Providing more information concerning the beneficial effects of group training and considering alternative train- ing locations in order to reduce the time investment may be helpful in this regard. eHealth interventions can also be considered, although exercising social skills in real-life interaction remains necessary. The evaluation also showed that more time may be spent on practicing social cognitive skills and performing exercises and to a lesser extent on psychoeducation and discussion of experiences and social cognitive complaints. Additional exercises can be consid- ered, focusing for instance on emotion-regulation strategies, task-concentration training, and elements of acceptance and commitment therapy, which may be helpful in diminishing alexithymic problems and social anxiety and in increasing acceptance of emotions. Furthermore, training partners were less involved in the training than intended, which could have hampered the generalization of training effects to daily life. The selection of appropriate training partners, their role, and the benefits of their involvement should be addressed more elaborately during both the intake procedure and the sessions
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