In this study, we developed a dual-component microemulsion delivery system by combining coix seed oil and tripterine for cervical cancer treatment. Tf-CT-MEs with small particle size (40.02 ± 0.21 nm) and neutral potential ( - 13.63 ± 1.31 mV) exhibited high cytotoxicity and improved apoptosis induc- tion in HeLa cells. In particular, Tf-CT-MEs exhibited more enhanced cellular uptake after Tf modification. The small size of Tf-CT-MEs enhanced tumor penetration in HeLa 3D tumor spheroids. H&E staining and FE-SEM illustrated that Tf-CT- MEs exhibited excellent antitumor activity in vitro. Western blot obviously demonstrated that the apoptotic degree of Tf- CT-MEs was higher than that of CT-MEs. We believe that Tf-CT-MEs is promising and an efficient drug delivery system for cervical cancer treatment, and its simple preparation pro- cess enables its availability as a commercial product.
13 Read more
order to investigate the influence of coixan and Gal(oct), the morphology of various microemulsions was also determined (Figure 3B). All test samples displayed as spherical particles with around 50 nm, which was essentially in agreement with the results of dynamic light scattering analysis. In addition, we also investigated the in vitro release profile of micro- emulsions using DiI as a fluorescence probe. As shown in Figure 3C, approximately 30% of DiI was released from DiI-labeled Gal(oct)-C-MEs (DiI/Gal(oct)-C-MEs) and DiI-labeled C-MEs (DiI/C-MEs) at 24 h post-incubation by using dialysis method. In contrast, the accumulative release amount of DiI was detected as only 15% in DiI-labeled coix seed oil-MEs (DiI/coix seed oil-MEs). It suggests that the modification of Gal(oct) had no influence on the release behavior on Gal(oct)-C-MEs, but incorporation of coixan seemed to promote the release rate of drugs. The storage stability and pH tolerance tests were performed through observing the transmittance. As displayed in Figure 3D and E, the clarity of the numbers written behind the bottles rep- resented the stability of Gal(oct)-C-MEs. The results suggest
15 Read more
Specific pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice aged 5–6 weeks were purchased from laboratory animal center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. All mice were housed free for chow and water in the condition of stable temperature and humidity with a regular 12-h light-dark cycle under the specific pathogen-free environment. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups (7 mice per group): 1) control mice (Ctrl group) injected subcutaneously with PBS in the right flank of axilla; 2) cachectic mice (CA group) injected subcutaneously with 1 × 10 6 LLC cells in the right flank of axilla receiving daily gavage of 2.5 ml/kg sterile water; 3) cachectic mice treated with daily gavage of 2.5 ml/kg Coix seed oil (CA + Coix group). The dosage of administration in the present study was derived from that published previously  and was also the converted dose equivalent to human use on the basis of the body surface area . The body weight of each mouse and cumulative food intake (combined of all seven mice in each group) were monitored every 3 days following tumor implantation. Twenty-four days after the tumor implantation, animals were anesthetized with a 1.2% avertin solution (0.5 g 2,2,2-tribromoethanol powder dissolved into 1 ml 2-methyl-2-butanol and 39 ml PBS) at a dose of 0.16 ml/10 g BW intraperitoneally and sacrificed via exsanguination. Epididymal adipose tissue, bilateral gastrocnemius muscle, and subcutaneous tumor mass were integrally harvested and weighted. We randomly se- lected 5 pieces of epididymal adipose tissue and 5 pieces of the gastrocnemius muscle in each group for subsequent hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining). The other pieces of mice tissues were immediately transferred to − 80 °C ultra-low temperature freezer. All experimental pro- tocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology and were in accord- ance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
According to the theory of “ uni ﬁ cation of medicines and excipients ” , the curative effect of the preparation is not only determined by the activity of the active compo- nents, but also by selecting the liquid lipids with certain pharmacological activity. 13 At present, coix seed oil (CSO) has been widely used as “ uni ﬁ cation of medicines and excipients ” in microemulsion to treat HCC because of their anti-cancer effects and excellent excipient property. 14,15 As for CSO, it has no adverse effects on heart, liver, kidney and hemopoietic system, which encourages patient compliance to improve. 5 Furthermore, the anti-tumor effect of CSO involves inducing tumor apoptosis, 16 inhibiting the formation of new tumor vessels, enhancing the immune function, 17 modifying cytokine levels and reversing multidrug resistance. 18 The applica- tion of Kanglaite (KLT) injection and soft capsule can be a powerful example. It is the ﬁ rst anti-HCC drug that its main ingredient is fatty oil from coix seed. 16 For now, inspired by the “ uni ﬁ cation of medicines and excipients ” , screening of CSO with the other synergistic drug, for example, ﬂ avonoids, encapsulating them into a nanoparticle (NP) system will be expected to render cancer cells more susceptible to apoptosis than adminis- tration of the two drugs separately. 19
11 Read more
Additionally, recent studies have focused on identifying the active components of Coix and their mechanisms. Coix contains a large number of lipopolysaccharides, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, octadecadienoic acid, and linoleic acid. Lu et al. suggest that the polysac- charide fraction of Coix seed is able to inhibit A549 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis . Neutral lipids isolated from Coix inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells . Five compounds (coixlactam, methyl dioxindole-3-acetate, and coixspirolactam A, B, and C) isolated from Coix bran inhibit the proliferation of colon and lung cancer cells . Other edible sprouts contain many bioactive phytochemicals, such as isothiocyanates, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and polyphenols, which can perform anticancer functions . We believe that Coix sprout extract will be found to contain similar ingredients as the mature Coix and other generally edible sprouts. For this reason, we will endeavor in our future studies to iso- late the active components of Coix sprout extract, which may include coixlactam, neutral lipids, and phytochemi- cals, and find their possible roles in the anticancer func- tions of CLSE.
Coix lachrymal-jobi L. is of the Poaceae. It has been used as a traditional popular medicine in ASIAN the world generally and in China, Vietnamese particularly. Coix root has been used to treat urinary tract infection inflamation, calculus of kidney, hyronephrosis….(Lợi,2006, Lee MY,2008), Coix seed is a tonic. There is several benefitsfor the elder and childrenIt is good for old people and childs(Lee MY,2008, Takahashi Michiko,1986). Specially, it supports to improve the secreted milk of breastfeeding women. (Lee MY,2008, Takahashi Michiko,1986).It is used as a remedy for milk supply to bearing baby women. Recently, researches which are done both domestically and abroad showing that Coix really helps to lower the level of sugar in blood and fight against cancer(Takahashi Michiko,1986).
10 Read more
investigations on impacts of triolein on cancer cells are necessary before drug development studies. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate impact of triolein on p53 and its target genes that involves in cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells. We found that triolein from Coix seed extract induces p53 protein level in concentration-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. Triolein up-regulated the expression of p53-dependent target genes that related to cell cycle arrest such as p21 and cyclin D1, reducing DNA content. This study provided scientific evidences for the use of Coix seed.
Stationary opening type seed meters are simple devices, essentially consisting of a seed box, an agitator and a variable sized outlet orifice. The orifice size is usually adjusted by sliding a plate that increases or decreases the size of an opening or by rotating a plate to expose a different orifice size. The seeding rate is controlled by changing the size of the outlet orifice in the base of the seed box by rotating a plate with various hole sizes around its periphery until the appropriate hole size is positioned over the box outlet. While most stationary opening types of seed meter utilise a shaft-driven agitator, some rely on small diameter flexible spring wire that is attached to the top of the seed box then passes through the outlet orifice far enough to make contact with the ground. As the machine moves forward the spring wire jiggles’ (vibrates) and so provides a degree of agitation to the seed in the box. For uniformity in seeding rate, the outlet orifice has to be above some minimum size (in relation to seed size) and the seed lot must exhibit a high degree of ‘flowability’. If the seeds have a tendency to pack or otherwise cling together in the seed box, flow through the orifice may be irregular ,intermittent or cease completely. While stationary opening type seed meters are still extensively used on many broadcast type planters, they have largely been replaced in drill type planters. Nevertheless, because of their simplicity and low cost they are still used for specific applications. For example, they are still commonly used in vegetable and grain crop production in many small-scale, low- resource agricultural systems.
The effect of inaccuracies in seed placement on plant stand is greater in the case of crops India is set to be an agricultural based country approximately 75% of the population of India is dependent on farming directly or indirectly. Our farmers are using the same methods and equipment for the ages. E.g. seed sowing, spraying, weeding etc. There is a need for the development of effective spraying and weeding machine for increasing the productivity. Most of the developing countries of Asia have the problem of high population and low level of land productivity as compared to the developed nations. One of the main reasons for low productivity is insufficient power availability on the farms and low level of farm mechanization. This is especially true for India. It is now realized the world over that in order to meet the food requirements of the growing population and rapid industrialization, modernization of agriculture is inescapable. It is said that on many farms, production suffers because of improper seedbed preparation and delayed sowing, harvesting, and threshing. Mechanization enables the conservation of inputs through precision in metering ensuring better distribution, reducing quantity needed for better response and prevention of losses or wastage of inputs applied. Mechanization reduces the unit cost of production through higher productivity and input conservation.
Prohibiting chemicals in organic crop production increases the risk of diseases for many crops, especially for biennials, which are exposed to infection during two subsequent seasons. A lot of research has been done to ensure seed health and healthy plant community development. Combination treatments were tried to develop using milder physical treatments with compounds of natural origin (essential oils, organic acids etc.). Groot et al. (2005) when testing 30 essential oils found that thyme oil exhibited the highest in vitro inhibiting activity against two bacterial and two fungal seed-borne pathogens of carrot. A.Borgen (2001) wrote that the most effective preventive method for control of seed borne diseases is to only introduce healthy seed into the system. It is of vital importance that the seeds purchased are free from diseases – this is not automatically the case even though it has been grown on the basis of disinfected plant material. Seed borne diseases occur equally often in conventional non-treated seed as in certified organic seed. The choice of resistant varieties is also an important component in the preventive strategy. No cereal variety is, however, completely resistant to all diseases - this would probably also be contrary to the wish of maintaining biodiversity. All things considered, it will be advantageous to use mixtures of several varieties, but this strategy is difficult to be implemented in the multiplication phase of the propagation, due to practical reasons as well as due to the degree of purity required by the rules for certification of seed. The cultivation conditions influence the occurrence of seed borne diseases, but we only have limited knowledge of this. It has been stated that row cropping may reduce the impact of some diseases, but the importance of this has not been determined (Borgen, 2001). Also early harvesting has an influence on some diseases (Olvång and Poulson, 2002).
17 Read more
The pest interaction of seed dynamics by giving importance to the temporal effects has been carried over. These parameters namely a ( 1 a denotes the yield coefficient of seed to pest), b (protection to seed offered by the environment), α (seed production), β (seed deposition) and δ (seed establishment rate) has been discussed in detail in reference to the influence of pests on seeds. The ecotone dynamics of forest boundary surfaces under pest interaction on seed dy- namics are elaborately discussed quantitatively, which enables one to demonstrate and illustrate the figures and numerical values successfully.
19 Read more
Researchers have presented a better speed of operation and good Seed Sowing capacity for new advanced agriculture process which includes robotic based cultivation. An agriculture robotic system is used. They has used DC motor which has four wheels. An agricultural farm is cultivated by the Plow machine, depending on the crop considering particular rows specific columns. Ultrasonic sensor detects the blocks in the path with measure the distance between both robot and block. Also senses turning position of our vehicle at end of the each column. The seed block can be detected and solved using water pressure. This machine can be controlled on remotely. A sensor guided robot rover for digging, precise seed positioning and sowing has been proposed to reduce the human effort.
Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India during kharif season of the agricultural year 2016- 17. The field lay out was done in randomized block design with three replications. Each entry was represented by 6 row plot of 2.0 m length with a line-to-line spacing of 30 cm apart. The seeds of genotypes were direct seeded in the rows and later thinned to a single seedling per hill at a distance of 10 cm approximately. All recommended practices were followed to raise a healthy crop. A total of twenty characters for yield and its components as well as capsule characters related to shattering were evaluated. Observations were recorded on ten quantitative traits, viz. days to maturity (DM), plant height in cm (PH), branch number per plant (B/P), capsule number per plant (C/P), capsule length in mm (CL), capsule width in mm (CW), seed number per capsule (SN/C), seed weight per capsule in mg (SW/C), 1000-seed weight in grams (TSW) and seed yield per plant in grams (SY/P). Observations were also recorded on ten capsule shattering related traits, viz. capsule split before drying of capsules in mm (CS-1), capsule split after drying of capsules in mm (CS-2), capsule open before drying of capsules in mm (CO-1), capsule open after drying of capsules in mm (CO-2), unattached seed weight in mg (UW), retained seed weight in mg (RW), potential seed weight in mg (PSW), unattached seed number (UN), retained seed number (RN) and potential seed number (PSN).
12 Read more
Previous observations have clarified that seed quantit- ative characters such as seed length, seed width, embryo length, embryo width, testa cell length and testa cell width were important to deduce phylogenetic relation- ship among species of the genus Dendrobium and was comparable to rDNA ITS-2 based phylogeney . Such characters are largely governed by genomic changes or get modulated according to ecological adaptations. To explore the potential of latter, a novel comparative anal- ysis of seed micromorphology and ultrastructure was performed in twenty species of the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from well-defined altitude based phyto- geographical realms i.e. temperate, subtropical and trop- ical regions (Figure 2). The studied characters included seed volume, free air space, seed coat ornamentation of the periclinal walls and seed coat sculpturing those could easily be used to distinguish groups of species based on defined climatic regions. However, genetic relatedness derived with these characters among all studied species from different geographical regimes showed non-signi- ficant correlation (R 2 = 0.168) with the phylogeny de- duced earlier based on seed quantitative characters (Figure 4) . Based on these results, therefore, it may be concluded that such traits are the direct signatures of adaptation according to climatic preferences rather than their selection during speciation.
10 Read more
Started from an initial broad base population; 500 - 1000 seeds sent to each grower to plant, select, allow random mating and harvest seed; Portion of harvested seed returned to breeder; Seed mixed and redistributed for 3 cycles; Cultivar development.
10 Read more
measurement of protein, oil, and/or starch of seed. In another embodiment, selection is based on differential scanning calorimetry measurement of starch thermal characteristics. In yet another embodiment, selection is based on gas chromatographic measurement of fatty-acid oil composition of seed. In some embodiments, particular types of fatty acids are selected for in the breeding process.
72 Read more
used as a traditional medicinal plant in Korean peninsula only. The plant is grown tropical, subtropical, temperate regions and popular in Korea, China and Japan . The seed production in Korea ranks fifth among other medicinal plants with an annual income of 26.5 billion won (MAFRA 2015). Compare to other cereals in contains higher protein, high lipid and fiber content  large amounts of calcium, iron, vitamin B1 which makes this plant as a alternative food source [5-6]. The powdery form of seeds is known to have the disease reducing ability. Some believes that adlay plant seeds could reduce the risk of the occurrence of cancer, lower the level of blood cholesterol and produces coixol a functional material of some medicines [7-9].
10 Read more
of some cultivars in controlled environments did not vary during seed filling, in contrast to field temperatures which can vary substantially (Egli et al. 2005), and the plants were at these temperatures from anthesis until seed harvest. However, there may be critical periods during seed development when seeds are particularly sensitive to temperature (Egli et al. 2005; Shinohara et al. 2006a). This was investigated for pea (Pisum sativum L.) by Shinohara et al. (2006a), who showed that when plants were exposed to a day/night temperature of 30/20 °C for 4 days (= 240 °C h above a base temperature (Tb) of 25 °C) at the beginning of seed filling and then returned to the field until seed harvest, germination was significantly reduced in one of two cultivars (Table 2). Exposure to these conditions at later stages of seed development did not affect germination.
In the present study, the % SI of a genotype did vary across sites. The same genotypes were measured at an orchard in Tasmania and in Western Australia. On average, the genotypes at the Western Australian orchard were slightly more self- incompatible than the same in Tasmania. These genotypes also had higher seed per capsule after outcross pollination and much higher bud numbers in Western Australia than the same genotype in Tasmania. Competition for resource allo- cation could account for the difference in SI level between sites. Resource competition is thought to drive the early abor- tion of capsules with low seed set in E. globulus (Suitor et al., 2008), and site differences in thresholds for abortion (Suitor et al., 2008). It is likely that there was increased competition for resources on the Western Australian trees, with their higher bud numbers per tree and higher seed per capsule. Under this scenario, it is suggested that the outcrossed buds would attract more resources and develop into mature fruit, whereas the developing selfed capsules, which have much lower seed numbers, would be more likely to abort. Conversely, in the Tasmanian orchard, the level of competition for resources between developing capsules on the tree would be lower, as there were fewer buds and lower seed per capsule, allowing more selfed buds to develop to maturity. Resource allocation has been suggested to be the cause of ovule abortion in other eucalypt species including E. camaldulensis (James and Kennington, 1993), E. spathulata, E. platypus (Sedgley and Granger, 1996) and E. regnans (Griffin et al., 1987).
Large differences were found among populations the characteristics as seen from Table 2 and Figures 1&2. The variation was also supported by results of analysis of variance. The results showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) for the seed width (SWI), seed length (SL) and germination percentages (GP %) among populations (Table 3). This result was well in accordance with the results on seedling morphology in different forest tree species [4, 9, 10]. The results emphasized importance of selection of population to produce quality seeds.