Cold boot attack

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Prevention of Cold Boot Attacks on Linux Systems

Prevention of Cold Boot Attacks on Linux Systems

ABSTRACT: Contrary to the popular belief, DDR type RAM modules retain stored memory even after power is cut off. Provided physical access to the cryptosystem, a hacker or a forensic specialist can retrieve information stored in the RAM by installing it on another system and booting from a USB drive to take a RAM dump. With adequate disassembly and analytic tools, this information stored in the RAM dump can be deciphered. Hackers thrive on such special-case attack techniques to gain access to systems with sensitive information. An unencrypted RAM module will contain the decryption key used to access an encrypted file system. Bits of data are stored in capacitors where a charge or a discharge denotes a 0 or a 1. Even on withdrawal of power from the RAM module, the capacitors still retain their values for a certain time frame. This window of time is highly vulnerable to a cold boot attack, and it can be extended by using proper cooling techniques. Cold boot attacks have been widely demonstrated even on modern Android handsets with the use of a custom recovery. We go through various flaws present in modern RAM technology and take a look at some of the counter-measures that ensure safety. We present an approach to design a preventive technique that will reduce the possibility of a cold boot attack.
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Cold  Boot  Attacks  on  Ring   and  Module  LWE  Keys  Under  the  NTT

Cold Boot Attacks on Ring and Module LWE Keys Under the NTT

Abstract. In this work, we consider the ring- and module- variants of the LWE problem and investigate cold boot attacks on cryptographic schemes based on these problems, wherein an attacker is faced with the problem of recovering a scheme’s secret key from a noisy version of that key. The leakage resilience of cryptography based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem has been studied before, but there are only limited results considering the parameters observed in cold boot attack scenarios. There are two main encodings for storing ring- and module-LWE keys, and, as we show, the performance of cold boot attacks can be highly sensitive to the exact encoding used. The first encoding stores polynomial coefficients directly in memory. The second encoding performs a number theoretic transform (NTT) before storing the key, a commonly used method leading to more efficient implementations. We first give estimates for a cold boot attack complexity on the first encoding method based on standard algorithms; this analysis confirms that this encoding method is vulnerable to cold boot attacks only at very low bit-flip rates. We then show that, for the second encoding method, the structure introduced by using an NTT is exploitable in the cold boot setting: we develop a bespoke attack strategy that is much cheaper than our estimates for the first encoding when considering module-LWE keys. For example, at a 1% bit-flip rate (which corresponds roughly to what can be achieved in practice for cold boot attacks when applying cooling), a cold boot attack on Kyber KEM parameters has a cost of 2 43 operations when the second, NTT-based encoding
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A flexible framework for mobile device forensics based on cold boot attacks

A flexible framework for mobile device forensics based on cold boot attacks

Our today’s mobile devices store sensitive data about their owners in both volatile and non-volatile memory. These include contact details, user credentials, personal and business emails, pictures, location history, or perhaps even the user’s health states. That is why mobile devices are of special interest for forensic investigations. Mod- ern mobile device operating systems, like Android and iOS, increase the confidentiality of data by encrypting the file system. The utilized Full Disk Encryption (FDE) key is therefore stored in main memory at runtime, leaving it prone to extraction with a cold boot attack [1]. More- over, an attacker can retrieve sensitive user data exposed in RAM, including passwords, key material, pictures, and further confidential information [2, 3].
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Cold  Boot  Attacks  in  the  Discrete  Logarithm  Setting

Cold Boot Attacks in the Discrete Logarithm Setting

Limitations of previous work. There has previously only been one paper that considers key-recovery in the discrete logarithm setting [15]. We believe that this paper delivers only a small advantage over brute-force attacks. Furthermore, the analysis seems to be flawed: in an execution of a cold boot attack, the authors assume that the number of key bits that flip is upper-bounded by the expected number of bits that will flip. When the number of bit flips exceeds the expected amount, the algorithm will fail to recover the private key, but this is not accounted for in the analysis. Furthermore, [15] does not explicitly cover the case of asymmetric errors that appear in physical cold boot attacks, despite the fact that this is the motivation for the paper. Instead, the focus is on an idealised setting in which only 1 or 0 bits flip, but not both: however, in practice both 0 and 1 bits have the potential to flip, as described above.
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front drive shaft2 pdf

front drive shaft2 pdf

INSTALL FRONT AXLE INBOARD JOINT BOOT LH CLAMP a Mount drive shaft in a soft vise.. b Secure the clamp onto the boot.[r]

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070-5603-00_4404_Users_Manual_updFeb85.pdf

070-5603-00_4404_Users_Manual_updFeb85.pdf

Boot the "DISKREPAIR" diskette, a minimal floppy-based system and repair the directory structure of the hard disk if necessary.. Boot the "SYSREFORMAT" diskette with[r]

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SUNSCREEN AND ANTI OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HERBAL GEL OF CUCUMBER EXTRACT

SUNSCREEN AND ANTI OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HERBAL GEL OF CUCUMBER EXTRACT

BOOT STAR RATING System As the boot star rating system specifies the category of the formulation with reference to the protection against UVA rays in comparison to UVB rays, the value of[r]

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Defect detection in high pressure die casting product using image processing technology

Defect detection in high pressure die casting product using image processing technology

A cold chamber machine is used for high melting point casting alloys because plunger and cylinder assemblies are less subject to attack since they are not submerged in molten metal [8j..[r]

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700P04830_Xerox_8090_Diagnostics_Handbook_Sep89.pdf

700P04830_Xerox_8090_Diagnostics_Handbook_Sep89.pdf

Boot Diagnostics can be loaded from the rigid disk drive, the ethernet, or the cartridge tape drive.. Boot Diagnostics are automatically initiated after successful [r]

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Accounting Boot Camp For College Juniors

Accounting Boot Camp For College Juniors

his paper describes a day-long orientation for new accounting majors, which our Department of Accounting calls a boot camp. As the name boot camp suggests from its military roots, it was an effort to offer junior students a brief view of the realities of a professional accounting career, their responsibilities during their last student years and the social networking and other resources that help to build a successful career. Both accounting professors and members of the professional community, most of them our alumni, acted as facilitators for the event. The accounting boot camp was scheduled as a day-long event early in the fall semester. The schedule for the boot camp is included in the Appendix A. The timing of the event was important because we wanted to provide information intended to be helpful in the students’ recruiting process, which typically begins in early October.
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Proposed 2009 Regulations Dealing with § 356 Nonrecognition Rules Should Be Given the Boot

Proposed 2009 Regulations Dealing with § 356 Nonrecognition Rules Should Be Given the Boot

prevent the Service from collecting a substantial amount of tax revenue that could otherwise help reduce the federal budget deficit. 255 Deferral of loss, on the other hand, both protects against contrived transaction structuring by shareholders for tax avoidance purposes and preserves congressional intent to defer losses in corporate reorganizations. 256 Requiring shareholders to allocate boot in § 356 transactions on a pro rata basis is the fairest and most practical way to accomplish deferral because shareholders can preserve any unrecognized target share losses in the tax basis of the newly acquired shares for which their surrendered target shares were directly exchanged. 257 Pro rata allocation of boot is also consistent with the treatment of boot in § 351 transactions, and it is safe from scrutiny under the economic substance doctrine. 258 Although a shareholder could also defer loss recognition through basis-shifting, this method would result in a practical circumvention of § 356 if transaction- splitting, as permitted under the proposed 2009 regulations, is allowed. 259 Thus, the Treasury Department should close this loophole by modifying the proposed 2009 regulations to conform more closely to congressional intent requiring mandatory § 356 application and loss deferral when shareholders exchange target stock for both acquiring stock and cash in a reorganization. 260
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Separated Boot Rrocess Nov83 pdf

Separated Boot Rrocess Nov83 pdf

If they do match, and the response is an ack, the program notes the net HiNet user number and waits for a new Boot Phase 2 to be sent to that user number.. It then executes Boot Phase 2.[r]

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Separated Boot Process Apr85 pdf

Separated Boot Process Apr85 pdf

Next comes a data block, always in the following format: Default partition assignments four names of eight characters IOBYTE Default type-ahead buffer and pointer Honor Flag see descript[r]

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The boot and shoe industry of Saorstat Eireann

The boot and shoe industry of Saorstat Eireann

The industry has been favoured by protection since the inception of impoit duties in the Free State, An ad valorem duty of 15 per cent, was imposed on all boots and shoes from 5th May, 1[r]

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Unna's boot in non-healing ulcer

Unna's boot in non-healing ulcer

TYPES OF ULCERS- BASED ON THE ETIOLOGY:15,17  Ulcers related to venous disorder: Varicose ulcer, Venous ulceration, Ischemic ulceration  Ulcers of mixed arterial and venous origin:  A[r]

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German Winter Warfare (MID Special Series No  18) pdf

German Winter Warfare (MID Special Series No 18) pdf

The clothing and equipment intended for winter warfare must afford not only comfort but freedom of movement for combat, and especially for attack in severe cold, deep snow, and strong wi[r]

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06510K Dataram DR 216 Installation Guide Jul1989 pdf

06510K Dataram DR 216 Installation Guide Jul1989 pdf

If the system will not boot with the DR-216, put a working memory board at location 000000 and set the address of the DR-216 in question to start above that of the lower board.. Now boot[r]

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Full-field Strain Analysis of a Ski Boot

Full-field Strain Analysis of a Ski Boot

To get more information about the initial strain situation a ski boot, first, the buckling process was analyzed. The 4 stages of the buckling are shown in figures 5a and b. The spatial distribution of the strains was measured at all 4 stages. A linear increase of the major strain value with increasing section length and a maximal strain value of 2.5 % was observed after the fourth stages.

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Virtual Revision Stations Boot Camp Essay

Virtual Revision Stations Boot Camp Essay

Period 2 Boot Camp Partner Lindsey Ahn Patrick Bohan Emily Balmaseda Bruce Siavichay Joshuan Barba Dasiah Christmas Patrick Bohan Lindsey Bohan Mario Camacho Caleb Rhee Dasiah Christmas Joshuan Barba Tristan Co Sofia DIamantopoulos Jiro Dela Cruz Rynn Dragomirov Juno Dela Cruz Sian Han

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Living Under the Boot: Militarization and Peaceful Protest

Living Under the Boot: Militarization and Peaceful Protest

The second half of this paper will focus on remedies, which include statutory and regulatory change: (1) changing training methods on crowd control to emphasize citizens’ rights of fre[r]

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