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Monolithic Thermocouple Amplifiers with Cold Junction Compensation AD594/AD595

Monolithic Thermocouple Amplifiers with Cold Junction Compensation AD594/AD595

USING TYPE T THERMOCOUPLES WITH THE AD595 Because of the similarity of thermal EMFs in the 0 ° C to +50 ° C range between type K and type T thermocouples, the AD595 can be directly used with both types of inputs. Within this ambi- ent temperature range the AD595 should exhibit no more than an additional 0.2 ° C output calibration error when used with type T inputs. The error arises because the ice point compensa- tor is trimmed to type K characteristics at 25 ° C. To calculate the AD595 output values over the recommended –200°C to +350 ° C range for type T thermocouples, simply use the ANSI thermocouple voltages referred to 0°C and the output equation given on page 2 for the AD595. Because of the relatively large nonlinearities associated with type T thermocouples the output will deviate widely from the nominal 10 mV/ ° C. However, cold junction compensation over the rated 0°C to +50°C ambient will remain accurate.
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Design and Implementation of a Portable Computer Based Induction Motor Supervisory System

Design and Implementation of a Portable Computer Based Induction Motor Supervisory System

Ideally suited for ambient temperature measurement such as providing cold junction compensation for thermocouples, the technical specifications are shown as: Temperature range LM35DZ −40[r]

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Cold-Junction Compensated Thermocouple-to-Digital Converter

Cold-Junction Compensated Thermocouple-to-Digital Converter

thermocouple and cold-junction compensation circuit to the ADC are opened (switches S4 and S5). The internal ground reference on T- is also opened (switch S3). The connections to the internal fault-detection circuit are closed (switch S1 and S2). The fault-detection circuit tests for shorted connections to V CC or GND on the T+ and T- inputs, as well as looking for an open thermocouple condi- tion. Bits D0, D1, and D2 of the output data are normally low. Bit D2 goes high to indicate a thermocouple short to V CC , bit D1 goes high to indicate a thermocouple short to GND, and bit D0 goes high to indicate a thermocouple open circuit. If any of these conditions exists, bit D16 of the SO output data, which is normally low, also goes high to indicate that a fault has occurred.
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Cold acclimation improves chill tolerance in the migratory locust through preservation of ion balance and membrane potential

Cold acclimation improves chill tolerance in the migratory locust through preservation of ion balance and membrane potential

also improved cellular survival, as muscle cells from cold- acclimated animals had sustained less tissue damage after ≥ 24 h of cold stress. This observation is consistent with earlier work by Yi and Lee (2003), who found that seasonal cold acclimation and rapid cold hardening improved cellular survival in the freeze-tolerant gall fly larvae Eurosta solidaginis. A similar trend has been observed in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis (Yi and Lee, 2004; Teets et al., 2013). Yi and Lee (2004) further observed that improvement of cellular survival occurred even if the rapid cold hardening was given to isolated tissues in vitro (i.e. salivary glands and Malphigian tubules). Hence, various lengths of cold acclimation all show the potential to provide cellular protection to severe cold stress and this protection is at least partially independent of humoral and nervous regulation.
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A Compensation Techniques Of Railway Power Conditioner For Railway Power System

A Compensation Techniques Of Railway Power Conditioner For Railway Power System

This paper provides an analysis of a three- phase dual active bridge (DAB) topology used as high-power-density dc–dc converter for railway applications. The three-phase DAB is analyzed concerning the current intervals, the output power, and soft switching region, including the impact of zero-voltage switching capacitors. Furthermore, two measures are proposed to achieve soft-switching in the entire operating range, being auxiliary inductors and a straightforward switching strategy called the burst mode. Optimal component values are calculated to minimize losses in the complete operating range and to assess which measure is best suited. A prototype with the specifications acquired from the application has been built, yielding an efficiency of 95.6% at a nominal output power of 80 kW. High-speed train traction power supply system causes serious negative current problem. In extension Railway power conditioner (RPC) is efficient in negative sequence compensation. A novel power quality collaboration compensation system and strategy based on
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The cold shock response of Mycobacterium vaccae

The cold shock response of Mycobacterium vaccae

The high degree of sequence conservation between the bacterial csps and the eukaryotic CSDs shows an evolutionary relationship. The genome of the bacterial parasite Rickettsia prowazekii {R.prowazekii) has been recently elucidated. This organism is considered to be more closely related to mitochondria than any other organism studied so far (Andersen et al., 1998). Furthermore it contains a csp-like gene, which encodes a 70 amino acid residue protein, with around 57.6% homology with the cold shock protein A of Streptomyces clavuligerus (Andersen et al., 1998). It has been speculated that the ancestor of the eukaryotic CSD may have come from the ancestor of mitochondria, which may have been, or still be a bacterial parasite (Yamanaka, 1999). It has been proposed that the CSD gene was transferred from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and by gene duplication, arrangement, insertion and other recombination mechanisms, diverged (Yamanaka, 1999). This theory has been given strength by the discovery of a mitochondrial Y-box protein in the eukaryotic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei (T.brucei) (Haymann and Read,
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Hellbach, Annette
  

(2014):


	Dlg1 is required for myofibrillar arrangement in the Drosophila heart.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Biologie

Hellbach, Annette (2014): Dlg1 is required for myofibrillar arrangement in the Drosophila heart. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Biologie

Septate junctions are the homologs of vertebrate tight junctions (Bryant, 1996). Apically of the septate junction, the adherens junction mediates cell-to-cell connection and forms an adhering belt which runs all around the cell, which is also known as the zonula adherens (Fig. 10) (Bilder et al., 2002). In Drosophila, the subapical region concentrates proteins like Crumbs, Par3, Par6 and aPKC, all of which are important for epithelial polarity (Fig. 10) (Petronczki and Knoblich, 2000; Wodarz et al., 2000). Interestingly, Scrib helps to localize these apical determinants and when Scrib is knocked-down, these proteins together with the adherens junction move to the basolateral part of the cell (Bilder and Perrimon, 2000). However, the localization of basolateral determinants like Dlg1 remains unchanged (Bilder and Perrimon, 2000). This compartmentalization of the cell helps to form its overall shape and specify an internal morphological and signaling structure (Anderson, 1996). For example, Dlg1 was shown in humans to bind to the actin cytoskeleton via 4.1 proteins (Lue et al., 1994). Human Dlg1 is recruited to the sites of cell-cell-adhesion by E-cadherin, a component of adherens junctions (Reuver and Garner, 1998).
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Analyses of the Anatomy of the Ureter near Ureterovesical Junction on the  Unenhanced CT

Analyses of the Anatomy of the Ureter near Ureterovesical Junction on the Unenhanced CT

This study has limitations. First, the ureters were not confirmed by surgery or autopsy. The invasive treat- ments are not undergo if we does not suspect urinary carcinomas, moreover urologists undergo preserving treatment for bladder cancer in our institution. At least, we assumed that the tubular or linear structure arising from the ureteropelvic junction, running through the intervening adipose tissue, and finally entering the bladder wall is the ureter on all preoperative CT, so the results of our study is feasible. Second, we investigated patients with hematuria or urothelial carcinomas, not those with rectal or cervical cancer. The results of this study may differ slightly from the situation in patients with rectal or cervical cancer. However, we excluded the patients with hydronephrosis, thus we suppose that populations in our study are similar to patients without diseases in the urinary systems, thus the results in our study would be applied to several patients with rectal or cervical cancer. Third, we did not consider that there are several tilts or rotation human at human pelvis due to degenerative dis- ease or operation. The results may not be feasible for accurate anatomical data. However, the spine position on CT table is near the position of laparoscopic surgery, so the results of our study would be clinically useful. Forth, the volume of urinary bladder would be small due to urethral catheterization, thus the volume of the urinary bladder in this study may be different with that in the surgery. However, the maximum area was less than 1500 mm 2 in group 1, and the results in group 1 may be near to that of the urinary bladder on surgery. Finally, the number of patients in our study was small. The larger population may be needed for analyses.
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				Assessment of sorting out in the casualty -emergency and accidents department Omdurman teaching hospital (OTH-EA)
			
		
		
			
				
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← Return to Article Details Assessment of sorting out in the casualty -emergency and accidents department Omdurman teaching hospital (OTH-EA) Download

Results: In this study 700 patients were seen most cases were cold (mild, not urgent) (396pts) 56.6 %, the hot about 43.4% both are classified into groups or categories according to their degree of illness or injury as follows: severely ill or injured (emergent)(120pts) 17.1%, moderately (urgent)(184 pts) 26.3% . The correctly categorized cases were (599) 85.6% and miss categorized cases were (101) 14.4%, although the sisters did not perform or elicit clinical examination and did not start the first aid or primary survey in addition to there is no medical equipment and surgical instruments.
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The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on Bank CEO and Director Compensation

The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on Bank CEO and Director Compensation

Leverage: Previous research indicates that debt can alleviate agency problems (Grossman and Hart, 1982; Jensen, 1986; Stulz, 1990). For example, managers often seek to build empires and might prefer to invest in negative net present value projects, rather than return cash flow to shareholders. However, increased leverage limits an executive’s tendency to invest in poor projects because it reduces the margin for error and pre-commits cash flows for debt service, rather than investment in poor projects. Because poor investments are curtailed with increased leverage, firm value should increase. Thus, leverage can induce managers to act in the interests of shareholders, obviating the need to use equity-based compensation as a means to align managerial and shareholder interests. This suggests that equity compensation and leverage are negatively related. Leverage is defined as the total debt (sum of short-term and long-term debt) divided by the market value (total assets).
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A cellular process that includes asymmetric cytokinesis remodels the dorsal tracheal branches in Drosophila larvae

A cellular process that includes asymmetric cytokinesis remodels the dorsal tracheal branches in Drosophila larvae

notwithstanding, the actin accumulation behind the deformed autocellular junction (Fig. 4B) and the position of the midbody near the tip of the de novo junction (Fig. 4C,D) bears an uncanny resemblance to the mitotic machinery described in epithelial cells (Bourdages and Maddox, 2013). As all the DB cells are potentially capable of dividing in this fashion, we documented the various ways of completing cytokinesis, as summarized in Fig. 6. According to our results, the intercellular junctions continue to remodel in parallel with cytokinesis (Fig. 6C,D). It follows that there are multiple ways in which cytokinesis may be completed, depending on the position of the intercellular junctions relative to the autocellular junctions (Fig. 6C-F). Our analysis has identified three possible outcomes. In type 1 cytokinesis, the emerging junction intersects with an intercellular junction (supplementary material Fig. S3,A5 and Fig. 6C). In the case of type 2 cytokinesis, the junction connects to the other side of the autocellular junction (supplementary material Fig. S3,B5 and Fig. 6D) and forms a circumlumenal ring (Fig. 2G). Finally, in type 3 cytokinesis, the nuclei are pushed away from the growing junction by the ongoing remodeling process (supplementary material Fig. S3,C3) and the asymmetric junction that normally runs between the daughter nuclei, intersecting with the membrane on the opposite side of the cell, fuses to the proximal side of the cell instead (supplementary material Fig. S3,C5 and Fig. 6F). Through this unequal division the cell is partitioned into a bi-nucleated and an anucleated daughter cell (Fig. 6F).
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Outcome following cervicothoracic junction fusion in T1 pathological fracture of breast cancer spinal metastases: a case report

Outcome following cervicothoracic junction fusion in T1 pathological fracture of breast cancer spinal metastases: a case report

The cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) is defined as the area extending from vertebral segment C7 to T2. Spinal metastases of CTJ are rare, range from 10% to less than 20%. A 47-year-old woman complained sensory and motor disturbance since 3 weeks prior to admission. History of lump on the left breast was confirmed. Neurological deficit was confirmed as ASIA C at the time of diagnosis. MRI finding suggest fracture of T1 vertebral body with kypothic angle 28° that causing anterior compression of spinal cord. The patient underwent decompression and posterior fusion from C4 to T4. A biopsy sample was also collected from the spine and left breast to confirm the diagnosis. Patient evaluation was done during discharge and at certain points of follow-up for improvement on its neurological, pain, and functional status. An MRI evaluation was performed to evaluate spinal stability and fusion. Significant improvements were observed in patient ambulatory and pain status. Cervicothoracic junction fusion procedure is a considerable choice for the management of pathological vertebral fractures with cervicothoracic junction involvement caused by spinal metastases of breast cancer.
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RF Field Driven Electron Tunneling through Mesoscale Junctions

RF Field Driven Electron Tunneling through Mesoscale Junctions

The central idea behind the experiments conceived during this study was to achieve the fabrication and measurements of a mesoscale tunnel junction. It was contemplated to assess how the irradiation of the junction with GHz microwave fields (at low temperatures) could result in transport of electrons across the junction, in addition to possibly manifesting any quantum mechanical effects, such as tunneling or coherence. The current produced as a result of the electron transport, on the orders of femto to pico-amperes, could then be measured with sensitive ultra-low noise precision instrumentation. We would expect the elec- tron transport and consequent tunneling current depend on the field intensity, separation and the bias voltage. This transport amounts to the generation of a weak tunneling current through the closed circuit which is amplified by a fem- to-ampere ultra-low-noise current/voltage Trans-Impedance Amplifier (TIA).
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Quantum Interference in Josephson Junctions

Quantum Interference in Josephson Junctions

ticed that superconductors are perfect diamagnets; i.e., the magnetic induction is exactly zero in a superconduct- ing region, so that M = −H and the magnetic susceptibility is μ = −1. The Bardeen, Copper and Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity [5], published in 1957, finally established that condensation of electron pairs (Coo- per pairs) in a coherent macroscopic state would explain most of the experimental properties of superconductors. A Cooper pair consists of two electrons with opposite spin and opposite momenta coupled via an effective elec- tron-electron interaction mediated by lattice vibrations. The zero-spin Cooper pairs, possessing a boson nature, can all condensate in a macroscopic state whose wave-function is characterized by a complex number whose phase plays an important role in determining the superconducting properties, as we shall see, referring to Jo- sephson junctions, in the following sections. After the BCS theory had been published, Josephson derived Equa- tions (1a) and (1b) by means of a purely quantum mechanical analysis in 1963. Alternative derivations of the above equations have been also proposed by Feynman [6] and by Ohta [7]. In the Feynman model a JJ is de- scribed as a weakly coupled two-level quantum system. Ohta noticed that Feynman model did not include an additional term due to energy contribution of the external classical circuit biasing the Josephson junction. The latter author therefore introduced a semi-classical model based on a rigorous quantum derivation.
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"Resistance of Single Ag Nanowire Junctions and Their Role in the Conductivity of Nanowire Networks"

"Resistance of Single Ag Nanowire Junctions and Their Role in the Conductivity of Nanowire Networks"

segments are mapped to create a near-perfect replica of the original network (see Figure 4). The inter-wire connections are modelled by generating an idealized probability distribution through spline interpolating the data of Figure 3, while the spatial arrangement of the wires remains fixed throughout. The interpolation was performed by setting a minimum cut-off resistance of 0.15 Ω (minimum measured value) and a maximum of 70 Ω. The resistance value of a junction then becomes a random variable that can be chosen given a certain probability defined by the spline distribution. In order to acquire statistical significance for the calculated sheet resistance (R calc ), an ensemble
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The Interaction Between Quinine and Trimethylamine in the Formalin Test

The Interaction Between Quinine and Trimethylamine in the Formalin Test

Quinine, an anti-malaria drug, specifically blocks Cx36, and with lesser potency Cx50, in mammalian cells. Cx36 is exclusively expressed in neurons and is the principal connexin in adult neurons [1]. Trimethylamine (TMA) is a gap junction channel opener and has been reported to open gap junctions as a result of intracellular alkalinization [2-4]. Previous works have shown that gap junction openers exacerbate seizure activity [5-7]. Quinine (a tertiary amine, pKa≈8.7) has been shown to close gap junction channels in a reversible, concentration- dependent and connexin-specific manner. Furthermore, the binding site was found to be intracellular and likely coincides with that for local anesthetic molecules [1].
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EDGE-BASED JUNCTION DETECTOR OPERATOR ON CIRCUMFERENTIAL ANCHORS FOR 3D RECONSTRUCTION

EDGE-BASED JUNCTION DETECTOR OPERATOR ON CIRCUMFERENTIAL ANCHORS FOR 3D RECONSTRUCTION

Abstract - A junction is defined as a meeting point of two or more ridges in the gradient domain into which an image can be transformed through Gaussian derivative filters. To accelerate the detection process, two binary edge maps are produced; a thick-edge map is obtained by imposing a threshold on the gradient magnitude image, and another thin-edge map is obtained by calculating the local maxima. Circular masks are centered at putative junctions in the thick-edge map, and the so-called circumferential anchors or CA points are detected in the thin map. Radial lines are scanned to determine the presence of junctions. JUDOCA Introduce a new algorithm for measuring the detection accuracy and so-called junction coordinate systems. In proposed system the Location of the Edge will be detected accurately in 3D Reconstruction and reconnect the edges.
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Reproducibility of Linear Measurements Performed with 3-D Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Scan Reconstructions in Region of Pterygomaxillary Junction

Reproducibility of Linear Measurements Performed with 3-D Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Scan Reconstructions in Region of Pterygomaxillary Junction

Apinhasmit [acc. 14] suggested that synostosis rather than pterygomaxillary fissure confirms the failure to achieve complete separation at the pter- ygomaxillary junction. The presence of synostosis at the pterygomaxillary fissure changes its hardness. The failure of exact separation of the pterygomax- illary fissure was presented by Cheung et al. [16]. They confirmed the 12% rate of occurrence of syno- stosis in their population group [16]. Preoperative radiography is currently obligatory. Radiographic analysis is crucial not only to ensure the accura- cy of treatment planning, but also to evaluate ana- tomical structures and predict possible alterations that may lead to intraoperative and postopera- tive complications [17]. The introduction of CBCT allowed for early recognition of possible anatom- ical differences. New software applications have been developed to enhance anatomical analy- sis in a single software platform [18]. In this re- search, regardless of manual selection of cranio-
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Spherical and Ring-Like Configurations for the Gravitodynamical Field

Spherical and Ring-Like Configurations for the Gravitodynamical Field

Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) is the most widely used technique for communication purpose. It provides better transmission quality, higher bandwidth and data rate. Although OFC has several advantages, but still the performance of the optical system has been observed to degrade because of various transmission impairments. But specifically, the most dominant impairment is dispersion. Dispersion, i.e. pulse broadening further leads to Intersymbol Interference (ISI) in the signal. In literature, various dispersion compensation techniques such as Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF), Electronic Dispersion Compensation (EDC), Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC), compensation using digital filters and Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) are discussed. DCF and FBG are the commonly used techniques because of their respective advantages. On combining the Single Mode Fiber (SMF) and DCF, there are four possible schemes for compensation. These schemes are compared in accordance with their simulation results and it is concluded that the Post + Pre hybrid module has the maximum Q-factor of 29.8 for an optimum threshold of 0.48 periods and the minimum BER is 1e-194.9. A hybrid of DCF and FBG is also proposed.
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Polyneuronal Innervation of the Fast Muscles of the Marine Teleost Cottus Scorpius L

Polyneuronal Innervation of the Fast Muscles of the Marine Teleost Cottus Scorpius L

Quantized junction potentials—that is, junction potentials that increase in amplitude by discrete steps—recorded intracellularly from the fast somatic muscles of tench and catfish Barets[r]

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