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Charge collection and field profile studies of heavily irradiated strip sensors for the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade

Charge collection and field profile studies of heavily irradiated strip sensors for the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade

Fig. 10 plots the summary of neutron, proton, and pion irra- diation measurements at 500 V including the measurements using the electron beam. The maximum operation voltage at the HL-LHC, expected in ATLAS, is 500 V, which is determined from the spe- ci fi cations of the available cables used in the present inner de- tector. At 500 V, all proton-irradiated samples, A07, A12A, and A12M show similar fl uence dependences, while the collected charge is reduced for neutron-irradiated samples in the fl uence range of 0.5 – 2 10 15 n eq /cm 2 for A12A, and of 1 – 2 10 15 n eq /cm 2
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ANNEALING STUDIES ON IRRADIATED P-TYPE SILICON STRIP SENSORS DESIGNED FOR THE ATLAS PHASE II TRACKING DETECTOR

ANNEALING STUDIES ON IRRADIATED P-TYPE SILICON STRIP SENSORS DESIGNED FOR THE ATLAS PHASE II TRACKING DETECTOR

In Figure 2, the effective doping concentration of this sensor extracted from the capacitance measurements at a frequency of 1kHz is shown in dependence of the annealing time. At early time the effective doping concentration decreases – beneficial annealing, while at later times it significantly increases - reverse annealing. After long annealing times the measurements start to lose accuracy, but they hint at a saturation of the doping concentration. The full depletion voltage is proportional to the effective doping concentration, which in turns means that at given voltage the collected charge is smaller for higher effective doping concentrations. Using the equation
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BURIED GRAPHITE PILLARS IN SINGLE CRYSTAL CVD DIAMOND: 
SENSITIVITY TO ELECTRONS

BURIED GRAPHITE PILLARS IN SINGLE CRYSTAL CVD DIAMOND: SENSITIVITY TO ELECTRONS

The pulse height distributions at 80V of Ch4 and Ch5 are reported in figure 6. Measurements were taken using the internal digitizer self triggering configuration with a voltage threshold fixed to 0.3 mV (12 ADC Channels). The signal monitored for one hour shows an asymmetric distribution with a long exponential decay tail. For the collected charge, the two curves show a most probable value (MPV) equal to 1.75±0.02 fC (about 11000 equivalent electrons), and a FWHM of the distribution of 0.92±0.02 fC.

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Charge collection in irradiated HV CMOS detectors

Charge collection in irradiated HV CMOS detectors

for this measurement to ensure that all particles passing the collimators deposit their energy in the active region. Signal from a charge sensitive amplifier with a 25 ns shaping time was recorded by a digital oscilloscope. More details about the setup can be found in [20]. A convolution of Landau and Gauss function was fitted to the measured spectrum of collected charge. Because of a small

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MCP3204/ V 4-Channel/8-Channel 12-Bit A/D Converters with SPI Serial Interface. Features. Description. Applications.

MCP3204/ V 4-Channel/8-Channel 12-Bit A/D Converters with SPI Serial Interface. Features. Description. Applications.

The MCP3204/3208 A/D converters employ a conventional SAR architecture. With this architecture, a sample is acquired on an internal sample/hold capacitor for 1.5 clock cycles starting on the fourth rising edge of the serial clock after the start bit has been received. Following this sample time, the device uses the collected charge on the internal sample/hold capacitor to produce a serial 12-bit digital output code. Conversion rates of 100 ksps are possible on the MCP3204/3208. See Section 6.2 “Maintaining Mini- mum Clock Speed”, “Maintaining Minimum Clock Speed”, for information on minimum clock rates. Communication with the device is accomplished using a 4-wire SPI-compatible interface.
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Ionization Quenching Factor measurement of 1 keV to 25 keV protons in Isobutane gas mixture

Ionization Quenching Factor measurement of 1 keV to 25 keV protons in Isobutane gas mixture

The fast electronics as well as the data acquisition software use to perform this experiment has been developed at the LPSC [11]. In the detector, each particle releases its energy by ionizing the gas; this induces a charge current on the grid of the Micromegas [12] which is proportional to the ionization energy deposited. This charge current is then treated by a preamplifier and the output signal is further sent to the FPGA, located on the printed circuit board. The value of the collected charge is recorded and finally sent to the acquisition software. This allows reconstructing for each event a charge collection profile whose amplitude is proportional to the energy deposited by the particle in the detector.
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The data not collected on community forestry

The data not collected on community forestry

First, we found significant gaps in understanding of the role of population dynamics, market forces, and biophys- ical factors as drivers of environmental and livelihood outcomes of community forestry. Given the large number and variety of variables on which we collected informa- tion, it was not surprising that most studies reported on <50% of all variables. Of particular importance, however, is the frequency with which some groups of factors were absent. Population dynamics and market and biophysical factors (besides forest type and size) were rarely con- sidered. Much of the literature on CFM continues to fo- cus on institutional factors (Fig. 1), despite the fact that population, market, and biophysical factors also affect the dynamics of forest and land-cover change (Geist & Lambin 2002; Agrawal & Chhatre 2006; Meyfroidt & Lam- bin 2011; Rudel et al. 2012), as well as local livelihood decisions and the dynamics and outcomes of collective
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Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

In the MTCC analysis the measured muons are propagated back to the top of CMS, correcting for expected momentum loss and bending in the magnetic field. In addition, the ef- fect of charge misassignment is estimated using simulated events, and a bin-by-bin correction is applied to the mea- sured charge ratio. For the muons selected in the global and standalone-muon analyses of the 2008 underground data, the average expected energy loss depends strongly on the path followed through the Earth. The underground measurements are corrected for this effect by propagating the trajectory of individual muons back to the Earths surface, using the same material model as in the simulation. Energy loss in matter is about 0.15% higher for µ + than for µ − due to slightly larger ionization losses. This difference is taken into account in the energy-loss correction, but affects the measured charge ratio by less than 0.3% over the entire momentum range.
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Algebraic Charge Liquids

Algebraic Charge Liquids

computation of the dispersion of the bound state is described in the supplement. Now the metal has both holons and hole charge carriers, and both have independent zero energy states, i.e. Fermi surfaces. These Fermi surfaces are shown in Fig. 2, and both enclosed areas will contribute a SdH frequency via Eq. (1). The values of the areas depend upon specific parameter values, but the Luttinger relation does yield the single constraint

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Nuclear Electromagnetic Generator: Introduction in Charge Algebra and Elements of Charge Kinetics

Nuclear Electromagnetic Generator: Introduction in Charge Algebra and Elements of Charge Kinetics

For all intents and purposes the dependence (1) may possess not a constant but a rather complex function form with all values included being dependent on time and spatial variables in some way. In work [1] to analize the simplest charge kinetics value λ = 1 is fixed so that value r coincides with value l and is entirely defined by it. Apparently, this does nothold true what is evidenced by the following the correlation (1).

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Search for charged Higgs bosons in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=181-184 GeV

Search for charged Higgs bosons in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=181-184 GeV

Pair production of charged Higgs bosons occurs mainly via s-channel exchange of a photon or a Z boson; in two-doublet models, the couplings are completely specified in terms of the electric charge and u W , making the production cross section depend only on one additional parameter, the charged Higgs boson mass m " . As expected in most implementa-

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The HADITH - How it was Collected and Compiled

The HADITH - How it was Collected and Compiled

The Prophet, being the recipient and therefore the guardian of the Revelation, was therefore guided. It was his charge to clarify the Revelation through his conduct, his words, and his tacit approval. In terms of his authority, the two types of revelation are equal, though ontologically they are distinct. If you were to go to the prophet and ask him, “O Messenger of Allah, is it permissible for me to do X”, he might answer by reciting verses of Qur’an that apply to your question, or he might simply say yes it is permissible or no, it is not. Either way the answer you receive is equally authoritative.
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Potential biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis

Potential biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the common cause of mortality in developed countries. The feasibility of whole-genome gene expression analysis to identify outcome-related genes and dysregulated pathways remains unknown. Molec- ular marker such as BNP, CRP and other serum inflammatory markers have got the notice at this point. However, these biomarkers exhibit elevated levels in patients with thyroid disease, renal failure and congestive heart failure. In this study, three groups of microarray data sets (GES66360, GSE48060, GSE29532) were collected from GEO, a total of 99, 52 and 55 samples, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to obtain a classifier which composed of related genes that best characterize the AMI.
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Charge and the topology of spacetime

Charge and the topology of spacetime

Topological n-geons with non-trivial topology can be explored using spacetimes with wormholes. A two dimensional (space like) wormhole is simply a surface with a handle attached. Mathematically a wormhole may be constructed by cutting two regions out of spacetime and joining the edges according to a given rule. A M¨obius strip is constructed from a cylinder by cutting and then joining the edges, after a rotation of π. The rule applied for joining the excised regions allows all combinations of space and time orientations to be constructed. The construction differs fundamentally from examples in the literature because we allow for a non-trivial identification of time as well as space coordinates. The resulting structures are topological n-geons which carry all combinations of net magnetic and net electric charge, as will be seen in the rest of this section.
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On the Origin of Electric Charge

On the Origin of Electric Charge

By introducing a background space and a set of symmetry center types, this paper exploits the way in which qu- aternionic number systems can be ordered. This distinguishes between Cartesian ordering and spherical ordering and it reveals that these ordered versions of the number systems exist in several distinct symmetry flavors. Lo- cally, the background space needs no origin and as a consequence it does not feature spin. The coupling of symmetry centers onto the background space offers the possibility to define an algorithm that computes corres- ponding symmetry related charges that are in agreement with the short list of electric charges and other discrete properties of elementary particles. For example, also the diversity of color charge and spin can be explained in this way. This indicates that elementary particles inherit these properties from the space in which they reside.
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ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CHARGE

ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CHARGE

The current density in a material depends on the density of the charge carriers and their average velocity at each place. The particles which carry current in a material - electrons or ions - are continually moving at high speeds, typically some hundreds of metres per second, but if there is no current they don't actually go anywhere on average. They are continually colliding and bouncing off each other and other particles, so they are just as likely to be moving in one direction as in any other. Their average velocity, averaged over all the charge carriers and any reasonable time interval, is zero. When a current exists, the charge carriers still rush around madly, but between collisions they acquire a little extra velocity in a definite direction - parallel to the electric field if they are positive and antiparallel if they are negative. This extra component of velocity is called drift velocity. Surprisingly perhaps, drift velocities are quite small, typically some fraction of a millimetre per second. What we think of as large currents are large because they involve a huge number of charge carriers.
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REVERSE CHARGE MECHANISM

REVERSE CHARGE MECHANISM

The said notification has increased the number of services under RCM. It has also prescribed the extent to which service tax shall be paid by prescribed person in respect of notified services (Eg:- Security Service, Supply of Manpower, etc). Tax on such few services has to be paid partially by service recipient and balance by service provider which has been commonly came to be known as ‘Partial Reverse Charge’.

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The Charge Structure of the Nucleons

The Charge Structure of the Nucleons

We have used a simple model of the nucleon in connection with the quark-parton model and the current information on parton distributions to re-establish both the value and the sign of the nucleon charge radii. It seems that the up quark is dominating the calculations of the root mean square charge radii. Equations (11a) and (11b) shows clearly why positive sign appear in mean square charge radius for the proton and why negative sign appear for the neu- tron. The major uncertainty in this work is the fact that the parton distributions

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The charge against electricity

The charge against electricity

of block-building that leads us to think of the built environment as an objective superstructure erected on an infrastructural base. In our defense of electricity, however, and in consideration of the perceptual richness of its material apparatus, we wish to lead a charge against the very idea of infrastructure. For in both the idea and its realization, infrastructure establishes an ultimately controlling appa- ratus, which secretly and inconspicuously organizes and directs the course of corporatized life from beneath (infra) the realms of everyday awareness, revealing itself to our experience only in the form of our dependency upon it. 16
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