There are several sectoral legislations concerned with water management, the main one being the water act. The water act, 2002 separated water resource management and water service provision and thereby established various institutions to run the affairs of water. This however is yet to yield results especially in relation to the application of water demand management. The current water policy and legislature is effective in issuing water permits and licenses to interested developers but it is weak in controlling how the water is used once it is connected to a business premise. Furthermore the water act to a large extent focuses on the water catchment areas but not at the user point which in this case is the industries and commercialenterprises. There are no fines provided in these legislations to deter water wastage and encourage sustainability.
Unlike a 300 MHz system, the same 20-year-old platform that likely operates your garage door opener, Inovonics products are based on advanced 900 MHz spread spectrum technology. FCC regulations permit higher transmit power for 900 systems, and the 900 MHz wavelength is 70 percent shorter than the wavelength in 300 MHz products, allowing the signal to squeeze through narrow openings in commercial environments. Inovonics products offer superior in-building range and up to 10 times the open-field range of other wireless security devices.
Any money related administrations business thinks about minimizing hazard and amplifying open door. Banks measure the danger of opening records and broadening credit against the chance to acquire intrigue and administration income. Insurance agencies deal with the danger that claim liabilities will outpace income from premiums. Speculation organizations seek after long haul portfolio thankfulness realizing that a few securities will lose esteem. Putting away and handling all information in Hadoop give better knowledge into the ideal offset of these dangers and opportunities. Monetary administrations firms that coordinate Hadoop into their operations construct upper hand by enhancing danger administration, diminishing extortion, driving client upsell and enhancing speculation choices. The previous cases from the money related administrations industry show what ventures are realizing in different commercialenterprises: Hadoop presents prevalent financial aspects contrasted with legacy information warehousing and stockpiling innovations and it additionally reveals energizing new capacities for developing the business.
• The protection of public health interests requires adequate and effective safeguards to be in place. Finland may wish to join calls for an independent, external review of mechanisms to safeguard WHO’s integrity and independence, including WHO’s Guidelines for Interactions with CommercialEnterprises to Achieve Health Outcomes. But care should be taken that such a review is not inﬂ uenced by political pressures. Finland could organise a conference on the issue to bring together policy-makers, WHO (and other UN) ofﬁ cials, theoreticians in the ﬁ eld of conﬂ icts of interest, political and social scientists and representatives of public health and public interest organisations and networks.
The economic mechanism for factoring management of trade enterprises was improved by applying a tool for refinancing receivables involving third parties, which will contribute to the effective management of fundraising processes from the standpoint of the income approach. The instruments for the implementation of the economic mechanism of factoring management of commercialenterprises, consisting of five blocks were improved (analysis of commercial enterprise debtors’ solvency in order to transfer them to factoring services; analysis of accounts receivable and assessment of its real value; planning of cash flows from factoring operations; factoring implementation assessment; monitoring and control of the repayment of receivables in the process of factoring services), that allows substantiating practical recommendations for improving the level of factoring management. Based on the concept of a portfolio of investments, a factoring model was built to optimize the debtors of the enterprise.
For the Japanese economy to return to a growth path, it will be essential to create an environment where firms can raise funds smoothly and enjoy the effects of strong monetary easing by the Bank of Japan. In the last half of the 1990s, the credit intermediation function of the Japanese banking sector was impaired by the intensi- fication of the non-performing loan problem. This has unquestionably constrained corporate financing, especially financing by small to medium-sized enterprises, which are highly dependent on bank lending. Accordingly, enhancing direct financing opportunities for firms, including small to medium-sized enterprises, would facilitate smoother financing of business activities. Such developments in financial channels could also contribute to economic recovery. The key is to reinforce the mechanism whereby abundant funds provided by investors are directly funneled to meet the funding needs of non-financial firms. This would not only contribute to the diversification of firms’ financing channels, but would also diversify credit risk, which has been concentrated in the banking sector, throughout the entire financial system.
significantly improved processes, or new organizational or marketing methods (Dumitriu and Nunu, 2016), (OECD and Eurostat, 2005). Finally, we define non- innovative enterprises as those businesses that had no innovative activity in the period under review (Dumitriu and Nunu, 2016), (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), 2014), (OECD and Eurostat, 2005). There are, of course, other types of innovative companies. It is obvious that the diversity, structure, capital endowment or the size of the companies generate significant differences in terms of innovative behavior and performance. This can guide research to establish a typology of firms according to their degree of innovativeness, i.e. diversity of companies can be divided into innovative clusters, starting with their (innovative) inputs, outputs and processes. Through the cluster analysis, Kemp, et al., 2003 drawing on previous research under EIM Business and Policy Research (Netherlands), develop a typology of innovative firms by using 26 indicators of innovation. Their research summarizes four groups/types of innovative firms with homogeneous characteristics in the three directions mentioned (inputs, outputs and processes), with the high internal and external validity cohesion: output-oriented companies, all-round companies, process-oriented companies and lagging behind companies.
Large number of population in Kenya derive livelihood from small and medium enterprises (poverty reduction strategy paper 1999) and financing small and medium sized enterprises is critical in fostering entrepreneurship, competition, innovation and growth. Wasonga (2008) in his study of challenges in financing SMEs in Kenya noted that by streamlining the problem of governance and finance that hinder SME growth, the rate of employment and SME contribution to GDP in the next five years could be doubled. SME financing is critical in fostering entrepreneurship, increasing competition, improving innovation and facilitating growth. Mwirigi (2006) in his study concluded that promoters of small and medium sized enterprises lack education and ability to convince investors of financial intermediaries. According to Ngare (2006) banks’ economic performance and hence value depends on the quality of services provided and the efficiency of its credit risk management. Credit risk management is necessary and critically important to ensure the long term survival of banks. In order for the banks to be effective in their operations, they should employ appropriate credit appraisal techniques (Roberto, 2008). Gariga (2007) did a study on the relationship between appraisal techniques and banking competition in the USA. The study concluded that relationships are prevalent so long as a firm commits to borrow from one lender.
positive and significant relationship between perceived commercial lending terms, financial literacy and access to formal credit. Moreover, the ANOVA results serendipitously show that access to formal credit varies with type of business and turnover. Contrary to expectations and previous thinking, however, collateral and loan repayment periods are not observed variables for the latent variable, commercial bank lending terms. The most important observed variable for commercial lending terms is interest rates. This, together with literacy levels, explains 31 percent of the variances in access to formal credit by SMEs in Uganda. The results are important because they provide evidence of the aggregate explanatory power of interest rates and financial literacy for the criterion variable, access to formal credit by SMEs. As with any study, there are a number of limitations with the present paper. Although the questionnaire was self-administered, we did not undertake follow up interviews which would have informed us the reasons why the respondents held certain views. Our study was limited to the SME firms registered and operating in Kampala, Uganda and it is possible that our results are only applicable to these firms in Uganda. Finally, the present study is cross-sectional; it is possible that the views held by individuals may change over the years. In spite of the limitations, policy makers dealing with financial literacy, commercial banks, academicians, SME owners and managers and even general readers interested in the field of economic development and financial management might find this study insightful. Future research may wish to examine the predictive power of turnover and nature of business to access to formal credit.
Special consideration should be given to the opinion that a certain segment of the disabled could work full-time, i.e., eight hours a day/40 hours a week, provided that this did not further deteriorate their dysfunction. On the other hand, the disabled employed in vocational rehabilitation facilities often fear that it might be closed down one day due to a general liquidation of similar institutions. They claim that there is a large group of disabled who are more than willing to get started with some form of work, however, they are totally unprepared for work on the open labour market or even for work in positions especially adjusted to their needs in ordinary enterprises. The fact that vocational rehabilitation facilities are run by non- governmental organisations is positively evaluated by the disabled: they feel more secure, they think that unless some sort of cataclysm occurs, they always can learn a vocation there. In spite of this, the respondents remarked that occasionally NGOs take part in unfair practices (e.g., an organisation co-operates with a company which employs the disabled but at the same time avoids signing employment contracts not only for indefinite but also for a longer definite periods of time).
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME, erstwhile SSI) sector is the backbone of every country’s development. They play crucial role in providing large scale employment at comparatively less capital, at the same time help in balanced industrialization of rural and backward areas of the country. The biggest problem faced by the sector is getting adequate and timely finance from banks. However some of the banks show reluctance in sanctioning loan to micro and small enterprises due to the poor repayment history. Hence the need for analysing the pros and cons of repayment behaviour of these enterprises and the problems involved in it is imperative. The current study mostly dependent on primary data collected from the target group by administering a structured questionnaire and secondary data from government agencies. Simple random sampling technique was used to identify the samples in the study area. The primary data thus collected were analysed using various tools to identify the repayment behaviour of micro, small and medium enterprises. It is found that despite considerable increase in quantum of financing to the sector from banking institutions, still considerable gap exists. The repayment behaviour largely depends on the adequacy of loan and the borrowal process which need to be strengthened. Further, Marketing of products and delayed collection from their buyers make the enterprises repayment irregular.
Chapters 1 and 2 explored one of the ways in which the commercial products associated with “Ancient Music” reached the United States: the immigrant Carr family, and other music publishing firms, were spurred to bring European music by financial reasons as well as in an attempt to raise the musical caliber of American psalmody. In Boston, native-born amateur musicians also looked to Europe as an ideal source of music and thought. This literate elite grew up in a Federalist tradition that had diminished in political force but maintained a hold on the learned culture of New England. Foletta describes the close links between these European-minded contemporaries, whom he calls “Federalist sons of privilege”: they met frequently for wide-ranging scholarly discussions at Buckminster’s home or the clubhouse of the Anthology Society, and published
Social enterprises promote social and environmental initiatives as both short-term and long-term goals aimed at addressing social and environmental issues within their communities. About 86.4% of social enterprises have well defined short and long-term goals relating to social and environmental sustainability with the aim of operating ethi- cally as sustainable strategies (as shown in Table 1). On the contrary, only about 47.2% of commercial organisations published their short and long-term sustainability strategic goals. Some of the short and long-term goals of social enterprises were employment generation, housing needs, adult and social care, education, animal welfare, water con- servation, natural conservation, etc. A third of the social enterprises focus on providing their customers with assurances in terms of the quality, diversity and eco-friendliness of their product range. More than half of the social organisations embarked on initiatives such as donations and sponsorships to pursue environmentally and socially related needs, hosting school trips to educate future generations, embarking on sustainability promotion and visitor awareness through displays, activities and experiences.
Small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SME) has proved to be a major tool adopted by the developed nations to attain socio-economic development. In recent time, the small-scale business sector is considered been the backbone of the modern day economy. Nigeria as a middle-income, mixed economy, and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications, technology, and entertainment sectors is ranked as the 30th-largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the 23rd-largest in terms of purchasing power parity. They have also put in place policies and established Enterprise and Economic Development Agencies to encourage promote and coordinate investment activities in various states like Ekiti state with a view to stimulating economic growth. One of such developmental strategies is the industrial development and expansion of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs). Past and present governments have emphasized the contributions of the internal developed economy through the encouragement of SMEs.
This study focused on various type of commercial design in Taiwan as a research which was happened after War in 1950s to 1960s, and specific in the designing influence. First of all, the investigation and recording of design works, with the relevant literature discussion and comparative analysis. Through the process of surveying, collecting, collating, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting, a review of the development and expression of Taiwan's commercial design at this stage was conducted, and then the phenomenon of American culture under special circumstances was summarized, and the American visual culture and symbol types that commonly used in Taiwan's commercial design at that time was studied.
The firm’s size has a crucial weight on financial inclusion of the firm (Burkart & Ellingsen, 2004). Large firms tend to be well diversified in their operations which influence their stability; thereby size can be substituted for insolvency (Honhyan, 2009). Cassar (2004) stipulated that small firms find more expensive in solving problems associated information asymmetry with lenders. Fatoki and Asah (2011) find out that firm size impacts SMEs financial inclusion and access to finance from commercial banks whereby small enterprises are less favored to large firms. Consequently, it’s hypothetical existence of a positive association between the firm size and SMEs financial inclusion.