Studies on the nature of the interaction between ultra violet radiation (UVR) and ionizing radiation on the risk of BCC have not been conclusive [16, 21]. A question- naire study of commercialpilots indicates association of childhood sunburns, flight time at high latitude, and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer ; how- ever these studies support multi-factorial causes of BCC. Studies on the transmittance of UVR of aircraft wind- screens are in agreement that UV-B is almost completely blocked [29–31] and this part of the UVR spectrum is considered the most potent in terms of carcinogenicity . The glass laminated windscreen transmittance of UV-A in commercial aircraft was approximately 50% at the mid-wavelength of the UV-A bandwidths . This part of the UVR spectrum is considered carcinogenic to humans based on mechanistic data only, as human studies were lacking , and the UVA-radiation is the subtlest form of UVR in terms of possible carcinogen- icity. It has been postulated that the increase in melan- oma among pilots could be the result of penetration of the UV-A radiation though the windshield of the cockpit and in these speculations one has also to assume that the UV-A radiation passes through the uniforms of the pilots , notwithstanding that the windows of the cockpits are small, and that this exposure does not closely match the body location of the melanomas. Neither does this explain the increased incidence of melanoma in cabin crew, some of whom are employed at the same airlines . The authors of these specula- tions on UV-A penetration into the cockpit  made some mistakes when selecting the studies to include in their meta-analysis of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew : they failed to include the Nordic study of pilots . Instead they compiled four national studies from Nordic countries , and left out the fifth cohort, the Finnish pilots, which was not published separately, but was included in the larger study . In doing so, it seems that they did not notice, or at least they did not comment on, the anatomical distribution of the melano- mas, or on the fact that the relative risk of melanoma in- creased with the estimated ionizing radiation dose . Because of the large size of this joint analysis of the five national cohorts of commercial airline pilots, it was possible to study with confidence the location of the melanomas and the dose-response relationship .
The premise of this research was to investigate the state of work-life balance in commercialpilots of Pakistan. The objective was to investigate the impact of family-work conflict and work-family conflicts on job satisfaction. This study focused on commercialpilots of Pakistan that are currently employed by the four commercial aviation organizations of Pakistan. The sampling method utilized will be convenience sampling specifically focusing on chief pilots, captains and first officers who are flying commercially. The research was conducted on 192 pilots. It was concluded that Family-work conflict results in a higher level of job satisfaction, Work-family conflict leads to a lower level of job satisfaction and amid family-work conflict and work-family conflict; Work-Family conflict has a stronger correlation with job satisfaction.
GENERAL AVIATION AND COMMERCIALPILOTS’ PERCEPTION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots’ WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots’ WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.
Background : Fatigue could impair cognitive function in pilots which may lead to accidents in short-haul flight. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors related to fatigue among short-haul commercialpilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted among Boeing 737 series typed-rating pilots taking medical examination at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta from May 5-26, 2014. Fatigue was measured with Self-Reporting Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Data were collected using anonymous self-reporting questionnaire on demographics, workload, sleep restriction (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS), personal factors, and managerial support. Linear regression was used to identify dominant risk factors related to fatigue.
Interaction Plots for WCB Time to Closest Point of Approach Metrics. Figures 18a through 18d collectively depict the four-way interaction observed among intruder type, traffic level, ownship speed, and intruder approach angle. Figure 18a represents a portion of the four-way interaction showing average time to closest point of approach by intruder approach angle across ownship speeds for ATPs interacting with manned intruders. Figure 18b shows another portion of the same interaction, but for GA pilots interacting with manned intruders. In both of these plots we can see ATP and GA pilots averaging a significantly larger tCPA when traveling at the lower speed of 150 knots for all intruder approach angles, except for 000° (the head-on angle). In the head-on angle we can see a significantly lower tCPA value compared to all other angles. This head-on value difference is even more drastic in the GA pilot plot in Figure 18b when compared to the ATP plot in Figure 18a. Additionally, we can see that ownship speed had less of an effect on tCPA for GA pilots than for ATPs in this particular interaction. While Figures 19 and 20 only represent half of the four-way interaction (all
(Transport Canada, 2004). Specifically, lessons are designed to be slightly outside a candidates’ existing skill level with progressively complex exercises. Deliberate practice also requires feedback from an instructor, where trainees receive feedback to improve performance and receive instructions for future exercises. Thus, debriefings immediately after exercises and training sessions are conducted as part of flight training. Due to all the components aimed at improvement of skill, time spent conducting deliberate practice predicts skill learning much more than any other type of activity (Duckworth et al., 2011; Ericsson et al., 1993; Kellogg & Whiteford, 2009). An implication of these findings is that task repetition day-to-day operations contributes to ones’ total flight time, but contributes little towards improving the pilot’s skills. Improving skills occurs when one engages in deliberate practice. One engages in deliberate practice during training to obtain or renew qualifications. Thus, pilot expertise is highly related to qualification level. For example, while investigating unauthorized entry into active runways by pilots, Van Benthem and Herdman (2013) found that pilots with higher qualifications (i.e., instrument flying rating, commercial pilot, military qualifications) had reduced tendencies of committing mistakes such as runway incursions. The obtention of higher qualifications in aviation is linked to spending more time in training, hence more deliberate practice. In commercial aviation, pilots generally work in pairs where tasks are shared between crew members. Even at the crew-level, deliberate practice was shown to significantly improve flight crews’ decision-making during emergencies (McKinney & Davis, 2003).
Flying is a closed loop continuous task best performed with good man machine dynamics. For successful and safe operation of aircraft, pilots must be able to operate controls effectively and be able to see all displays clearly. Designers need to take full account of human diversity in order to accommodate variations in various anthropometric parameters . The Indian Air Force has laid down anthropometric parameters for all aircrew flying fighter aircraft. However, apart from the general anthropometric limits for all aircrew and a minimum stature height of 162.5 cm, no specific anthropometric parameters have been defined for helicopter aircrew of the IAF .
Liability always depends upon the court. All Pilots are obligated to use the best tools available to them. There is a growing consensus among pilots that PPUs of one form or another are a useful tool for improved pilotage. One could equally argue if a Pilot failed to use a proven and available technology, then he/she may be held liable.
scanning. Traffic pattern - Entries into traffic patterns while descending create specific collision hazards and should be avoided. Traffic at VOR sites - All operators should emphasize the need for sustained vigilance in the vicinity of VORs and airway intersections due to the convergence of traffic. Training operations - Operators of pilot training programs are urged to adopt the following practices: Pilots undergoing flight instruction at all levels should be requested to verbalize clearing procedures (call out "clear" left, right, above, or below) to instill and sustain the habit of vigilance during maneuvering. High-wing airplane - Momentarily raise the wing in the direction of the intended turn and look. Low-wing airplane - Momentarily lower the wing in the direction of the intended turn and look. Appropriate clearing procedures should precede the execution of all turns including chandelles, lazy eights, stalls, slow flight, climbs, straight and level, spins, and other combination maneuvers.
392. A key element of training has been induction training. About three-quarters of Pilots reported to have put their Personal Advisers on formal induction training courses. These ranged from a couple of days to a few weeks and often involved explaining the Personal Adviser role as well as the Connexions Pilot and services as a whole. Induction training was thought particularly useful, as Personal Advisers had been recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds. In one Pilot, the Personal Adviser induction training produced a vast range of practice and service development issues that fed into the business planning process. 393. The investment in training has been significant in many Pilots. It was not just the costs of training but also having to give people time off to study and study leave. One Pilot loaned laptops to its Personal Advisers to help them in their studies towards the National Personal Adviser Diploma. This helped to them to study in a more flexible way.
In this study we recruited 39 cadet pilots forming one cohort in their academic phase of their military training, aged 21–23, with no history of psychiatric disorders, head trauma, central nervous system disorders or use of psychotropic medications. All participants were right handed, with normal or corrected sight, speak and understand Hebrew fluently, and with 15 years of educa- tion. In order to minimize the individual differences that are more related to situational differences (like sleeping hours, time of meals, etc.), we tested a group of cadet pilots that have the same routine, in a group-testing pro- cedure. They all performed the cognitive test-battery simultaneously. All participants were randomly assigned into one-session examination of either morning group (07:00 a.m., N = 11), late-afternoon group (06:00 p.m., N = 13), or a late evening group (10:00 p.m., N = 15) 1
G.S.R. 116 (E) – In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 124 of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 (38 of 1963), the Central Government hereby approves the Mumbai Port Trust (Licensing and Control of Pilots) Regulations,2007 detailed in the Schedule Annexed to this notification made by the Board of Trustees of Mumbai Port Trust, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by Section 28 of the said Act and in supersession of the Regulations contained in the “Mumbai Port (Licensing and Control of Pilots) Regulations, 1975”.
Regional versus major airline pilots. No significant difference was found between the manual flying ability of regional airline pilots versus major airline pilots. The hypothesis proposed that inexperienced regional pilots, who may have been hired with lower total flight hours, did not fully develop the flight skills need to fly a complex aircraft without the assistance of automation. Furthermore, regional pilots may become more and more dependent upon the automation and are lulled into a sense of complacency while using it. However, the statistical testing of the ASRS reports did not support this hypothesis.
development of the Activity Agreements across the ten areas and helped produce the important Activity Agreement Guidance document, the definitions (of the key terms and what they cover which is definitely good practice in programmes of this nature where jargon can easily be misinterpreted) and the evaluation framework. The last of these, which was complied with the help of the pilot areas, while it offers some useful questions to consider, does not provide a robust monitoring and evaluation framework linking the inputs, interventions and outputs to the desired outcomes, including soft outcomes. Had this been put in place it might then have been possible to guide the pilot areas more closely in terms of the information they needed to gather and the evidence that would be required for the final evaluation. We have a general sense that national pilots would benefit from involving professional evaluators at an early stage, for a small time input, to help put such a framework in place. 6.17 The other main remit, that of communication, has been well addressed with
interpretation—do not seem to support them. The portrayal of pilots as biased and irrational are not (fully) warranted neither by the methods nor by the results described in the original article—which may prove a relief for pilots. Instead, it originates in the interpretation of those results by Walmsley and Gilbey, an interpretation chiefly based on inappropriate reliance on a flawed statistical technique—null hypothesis significance testing, or NHST, something which should act as a call of attention to those scientists still using it (for a quick solution see, for example, Perezgonzalez, 2015, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00223). In a nutshell, Fradera opted to summarise the interpretation of (selected) outputs made by Walmsley and Gilbey instead of re-interpreting those outputs anew within the context of the methodology and the results described in the original article, as I shall argue below.
The pilots may have swept up employers who would have provided level 2 training in any event, eg from the social-care or public-transport sectors to meet what they perceive are the new legislative requirements placed on them. The other group who have become involved are employers who already have a positive approach to training. Our measurement of the potential deadweight is not precise enough to know whether these employers would have provided NVQ level 2 training to their employees regardless of ETP. The pilots may have been instrumental in persuading employers to take part in a higher level qualifications-based training and to provide training to greater numbers of employees than they would have otherwise. To achieve greater additionality, participation needs to be targeted more effectively at the ‘hard-to-reach’ employers not normally involved in, or with little urgent need of, training their low-skilled employees to qualifications. There is some evidence that the brokers can help in this process by helping to explain the UK’s complex training infrastructure to employers and identifying training that will bring business benefits.
9. All four pilots have demonstrated progress towards achieving their pilot- specific objectives and to addressing the issues with non-emergency patient transport identified by the Griffiths Review. Future work will be better placed to evaluate the impact of the pilots i.e. whether improved service models are delivering better outcomes for patients. It is recommended that an evaluation framework for the summative evaluation be developed as soon as possible so that there is sufficient time to gather relevant data.
Certain groups have long been recognised to suffer from multiple disadvantages, which not only constrain their ability to take ready advantage of a rising labour market, but also to participate effectively in programmes designed to help them do so. Such groups include, for example, those whose motivation and self- confidence have been undermined by long term unemployment, those with learning difficulties, those lacking basic and/or key skills, those whose work-related behaviours are dysfunctional, and those whose previous experiences may make them particularly unattractive to possible employers. It is to these groups that Pre- Vocational Pilots (PVP) offers the kind of additional help which they need to overcome, not just the effects of (often very) long term unemployment, but also their additional disadvantage.