A novel dual-band and diverse radiation pattern antenna is proposed for power efficient on-body and off-body communications intended for various applications in healthcare and sport monitor- ing. The antenna is dual band at 2.45 GHz (ISM band) with omnidirectional radiation pattern over the body surface to communicate power efficiently with other co-located body worn devices and at 1.9 GHz (PCS band), it has directive radiation pattern towards off the body to communicate from on-body device to off-body devices. The free space and on-body performances of the antenna are investigated by both simulation and experiment. The antenna shows very good on-body radiation efficiency of 58% at 2.45 GHz and 61% at 1.9 GHz. Good on-body gain is noticed at both frequency bands. Results show that the gain of the proposed antenna increases by 4.7% at 2.45 GHz and 3.2% at 1.9 GHz when placed on the body.
Due to advancement in technology, a low power networked systems and medical sensors merged as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in health care. These WSNs carry the promise of drastically improving and expanding the quality of care across wide variety of settings & for different segments of population. When a tiny wireless sensors are strategically placed on/in a patient’s body, create a WBAN. The patient’s equipped with wireless body area network need not be physically present at the physician for their diagnosis, infact these devices communicate through wireless technologies, transmit data from body to a home base station, from where data can be forwarded to a hospital, caregiver, physician, emergency.BAN containing sensor nodes in close proximity to a patient’s body monitors vital signs, providing real time feedback to allow many patient diagnostics procedures using continuous monitoring of chronic diseases, or progress of recovery from an illness. The biosensor based approach to medical care makes it more efficient by decreasing the response time, and reducing the heterogeneousness of the application. The exact system architecture and number of system tiers depends predominantly on target applications, available infrastructure, type & number of end users. The paper is organized as follows- section II discusses functional levels of WBAN. In section III, design issues has been discussed briefly. Technical challenges has been discussed in section IV. Applications of BAN in section V. Related work has been discussed in section VI. Finally we conclude our work in section VII.
expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, & Keltner, (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability to communicate emotions solely via touch of romantic couples and strangers. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride.
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A sign language is a language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning. Normally, there is no problem when two deaf persons communicate using their common sign language. The problem arises when a deaf person wants to communicate with a non-deaf person. Usually both will be dissatisfied in a very short time. Signing has always been part of human communications. For thousands of years, deaf people have created and used signs among themselves. These signs were the only form of communication available for many deaf people. Within the variety of cultures of deaf people all over the world, signing evolved to form complete languages. Sign language is a form of manual communication and is one of the most natural ways of communication for most people in deaf community. There has been many researchers who are surging interest in recognizing human hand gestures.
One can attract customers' attention us- ing variable traditional and up-to-date com- munication channels. However, the challenge remains regarding how to communicate risk effectively to diverse audiences, especially when it comes to communicating numerical information. A growing body of research shows that many consumers have difficulty understanding numerical information about risk but such data are often an essential part in informing about risks. This paper dwells on various strategies that can help to improve risk communications regarding both individ- ual consumers and basic decision making (for example, risk comprehension and risk percep- tion). The research outlines formats that can either distort or improve perception and com- prehension. We recommend several tools that can help to reveal people who can get wrong comprehension about risks and suggest cer- tain approaches to creation of materials that
WMDs and IMDs are considered highly demanding due to the nature of the data exchanged, depending on the mission and safety critical process control data. They therefore require robust, low latency, reliable and highly available wireless links while interference must be mitigated in an interference-prone radio-busy radio environment. What we are proposing here is a communication system architecture that will connect all WMDs and IMDs to the healthcare system in a secure way while guaranteeing the polymorphic requirements of each application. As part of this system, a device – called Body Sensor Managing Device (BSMD) is introduced to locally communicate with the WMDs and IMDs through the BAN, while it will transmit the data to the internet through unlicensed TV White Space (TVWS) spectrum employing the IEEE 802.22 communication standard also known as WiFar (see fig.1). Users carrying their BSMD equipment, are expected to move through the 802.22 cellular network and connect to the closest base-station to achieve internet access. The IEEE802.22 cellular network, to avoid causing / receiving interference to the incumbent devices (see fig 1), sensing- assisted spectrum databases (SASDs) are used where they offer an efficient solution for certain scenarios, eliminating the need for wireless network operations and management in a complex, interference-prone local or indoor environment when used in the context of self-configuration . Since healthcare has very strict operational requirements it is imperative to employ dynamic spectrum management, relying on the information collected and managed by such databases in order to ensure incumbent protection, co-existence and interference management as well as fine-grained adaptation to available spectrum.
As earlier the system communicate data based on RF Technology which has limited range of communication. As technology grows rapidly, we develop the system based on ZigBee technology which can communicate the data in predefine manner. Hence we can easily monitor the different sensors values like humidity, MEMS and heartbeat. The system can view the data through pc/laptop based on ZigBee technology. By viewing the corresponding sensor data we can easily recognize the human body conditions at required amount of time.
Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body per- ception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was adminis- tered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey.
consistently worse health outcomes across all obese weight classes when compared with normal weight respondents. Participants in heavier weight classes consistently reported greater impairments in HRQoL. Similarly, the prevalence of metabolic comorbidities and psychiatric illness (ie, depres- sion) increased in line with increasing BMI. Most notably, over 45% of OC III respondents reported being diagnosed with hypertension and almost 30% reported being diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety, thus suggesting the signifi- cant and multifaceted burden of excess body weight.
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The paper will adopt the Habermassian notion of the Ideal Speech Situation articulated in his Theory of Communicative Action as its theoretical background, in which he argues that in an ideal speech situation, the sender should consider the recipients while composing, and sending his/her messages. The question remains, what are the criteria of an ideal speech situation according to the CRTC, and will Al-Jazeera be able to maintain the purity, sincerity, and truthfulness in its messages, or not? On the methodological level, the paper will be divided into two main sections: the first is a historical overview of the “right to communicate” concept arguing that it is not merely the product of the various declarations and covenants in the 20 th century, but rather is a thought that is born out of the work of many intellectuals, such as that of John Stuart Mill, John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, and Voltaire among others. After providing the reader with a brief historical background of the emergence of the Al-Jazeera network during the 1991Gulf War, the paper will analyze the CRTC ‘s “code of ethics” in which it stated that Al-Jazeera should not fall into
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This paper argues that full enjoyment of the right to communicate is contingent upon information availability. It is suggested that gatekeeping and agenda-setting processes dominated by political, economic and social elites contribute to information deprivation and homogenization of news content in mainstream US media, limiting dialogic options critical to democracy. Gatekeeping is reconceptualized as a three-tiered process influencing media and public agendas, and the framing of news presentations. It is argued that realization of the right to communicate can be proscribed by conditions unrelated to access to mass media technologies, either for information origination or reception.
We operate in a two-dimensional Blocks World domain where a human wants one or more shapes to be constructed on a grid. The human needs to communicate the goal of this planning task to the agent. Once the agent has understood the instruc- tions and its planning is done, it communicates its plan to (possibly) another human who will then execute this plan. Depending on the complexity of the task and the linguistic capabilities of the agent, this scenario may require a lot of back-and-forth communication. If the human omits details from their description and prevents the agent from ac- complishing the task, we expect the agent to initi- ate communication and ask clarification questions. If the human uses vocabulary that is new to the agent, we expect the agent to ask for a definition and the human to teach the agent its meaning in the domain.
Mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of independent mobile nodes that can communicate to each other via radio waves”. After nodes are deployed, they do not have knowledge about the neighbors so, they need to discover their neighbors in order to communicate with them. Knowledge of the neighbor nodes is essential for almost all routing protocols, medium-access control protocols and other topology control algorithms. Now, neighbor node may be trustable node or adversarial node so verification of node is require. For neighbor position verification NPV protocol is used. NPV protocol deals with verifying the neighbor node location. Nowdays, location awareness has become very important in MANET because wide range of protocol and application require knowledge of the position of participating nodes. So it is require improving NPV protocol. Examples of services that build on the availability of neighbor position information are Geographic routing in spontaneous networks, data gathering in sensor networks, movement coordination among robotics nodes, location specific services for handheld devices. Existing NPV protocol has some limitation like Lower Performance and False Positive Rate and False Negative Rate are high. So The objective of our proposed system is improve the FPR and FNR means minimize the FPR and FNR.
The system design for proposed combination requires a robust methodology and flow to define the control and communication architecture. Inspirations were taken from birds which create lift by flapping its wing and navigate through its tail. System to control and communicate was developed with the efforts of mechatronics. The design of MAV resembles bottom-up approach enhanced with bio mimicry to develop a flapping wing MAV.
The present study is aimed at investigating factors as dynamic complex systems and sub- systems underlying students’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in the classroom context. Due to the existence of students’ reticence affected by miscellaneous factors during classroom discussion, it is conceived to be insufficient to see students’ willingness to communicate from a single factor. Seen from a Dynamic Complex System Theory (DCST), the present study postulates the systems and sub-systems (e.g., factors and sub-factors) provoking students’ willingness to communicate in L2 that are deemed to be dynamic and interconnected one to another. I conducted a naturalistic inquiry by investigating eight Indonesian university students encompassing low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high English proficiency levels. A number of research instruments (face to face interview, online interview, and students’ log) were used to collect the data pertaining to the students’ participation in the classroom. The finding reveals that classroom systems such as social and classroom context, linguistic competence, individual differences, and cultural context affect participants’ WTC in L2. Those systems encompass some sub-systems interacting and interconnecting one to another that affect classroom communication in second language.
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Twenty-five dogs taken to three different veterinary clinics in Tokyo between June and August 2011 were prospectively recruited as subjects for this study. Because the study was cross-cultural, the main inclusion criterion for the animals was good health (other than obesity). All dogs were tested for concurrent diseases by examination of complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests. In addition, the medical histories of all animals were investigated in order to con- firm their health status. Two dogs were excluded because of diabetes mellitus, as was another dog with markedly high triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, with 22 dogs finally participating in the study. The remaining animals were clinically diagnosed to be healthy (except for obesity) according to their owner’s reports, case histories, and clinical signs at the time of presentation. Table 1 presents detailed information on dog age, gender, breed, BCS, and body fat percentage.
which may give Radiesse the potential to have long-lasting esthetic effects in skin rejuvenation. On the basis of the positive results in the present study, it is envisaged that this body vectoring technique could be used as a preventative measure; treatments would probably not be needed more than once per year, due to the potential of Radiesse to have sustained efficacy. 11
data collection methods, including surveys, journal entries, class discussions, analysis of activity materials, recording and observations of classroom interaction, SNS use tracking, and post-instructional interviews (Reinhardt and Zander, 2011). The methods aimed to provide students with experiential learning, and raised their critical awareness in regards to the use of SNSs for social purposes and ELL (ibid.). Apart from this, studies by Harrison and Thomas (2009) and Shih (2011, 2013) also employed multiple data collection methods to examine the implementation of SNSs in ESL setting. Harrison and Thomas (2009) used LiveMocha in an ethnographic study that combined classroom observation, in-class presentation and analysis of semester papers to examine the development of identity in online communities. Rather than centralising on ELL, the focus of Harrison and Thomas’ (2009) study was on friendship management, identity development and social bonding. On the other hand, Shih (2011, 2013) examined the effect of Facebook writing in a blended learning environment among groups of ESL, and English for Business Communication students in a Taiwan institution. The methods employed were peer assessment of writing on Facebook, interview, student self-efficacy scale, self-developed satisfaction survey, and pre-test and post-test English writing skills. The result of the studies showed a positive improvement in students’ English writing and a willingness to communicate ideas with friends (ibid.).
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Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways. As a pre-requisite of an individualised treatment concept, molecular and genetic characterisation of the individual tumour has to be performed to align the most appropriate therapies according to the patient ’ s disease. Reading the individual molecular tumour profile and responding by a tailored treatment concept is the ‘ communication ’ required to fight this deadly disease. This way to communicate is currently changing the field of oncology dramatically, and fundamentally involves the discipline of molecular pathology. This review
A total of 5127 healthy pregnant women with low-risk preg- nancies delivered in Guiyang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January 2018 to May 2018. Since many preg- nant women do not attend antenatal care at the same hospital throughout their pregnancy, which results in incomplete infor- mation, and only some of them agreed to undergo body composition testing, a total of 1,745 pregnant women had complete prenatal follow-up records in this hospital. Excluding 34 pregnant women with non-singleton and 393 pregnant women for whom oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) records were not available, a total of 1318 pregnant women were included in the study (Figure 1). The obstetric records of parturient and the hospital records of newborn were extracted from the prenatal care manual and discharge summary. All participants underwent a diagnostic 2 h 75 g OGTT between 24 and 28 weeks. Women with at least one elevated glucose value based upon the IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥ 5.1 mmol/L (92 mg/dl), 1 h ≥ 10.0 mmol/L (180 mg/dl), or 2 h ≥ 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dl)) were diagnosed with GDM. All other results were considered normal glucose test results (NGT). The exclu- sion criteria were as follows: (i) non-singleton pregnancy, (ii) pregnancies complicated by pre-gestational or gestational sys- temic diseases, such as hypertension, thyroid disorder, genetic history, infection or hepatitis, (iii) overt diabetes, (iv) evidence of congenital fetal malformations detected by ultrasonography, and (v) polyhydramnios.