subdivided into eight units: General Affairs, Fairs and Exhibitions, Publications, Radio TV and Cinema, Trade Union, Agriculture, University information, youth and popular education and Third Countries. Adopting an opinion leader approach to public communication made it necessary to rebalance the budget allocation away from general public activity to opinion leader activity. In 1963, 78 per cent of the public communicationpolicy budget was allocated to activities addressed at opinion leaders with the remaining 22 per cent reserved for public communication activities addressed directly at the European public at large 111 . We do not have corresponding figures 1964 1967 112 , however the Commission did state that between 1963-1967 an opinion leader approach was financially prioritized because, as they noted, there was insufficient financial resources to target 185 million people. 113
Development is a noticeable growth from one state or stage to another which is higher, desirable, or more advanced than the previous. For any nation to attain a desirable or laudable level of development there must be effective use of communication which has been severally identified as a major tool of mobilization. For development programs to be planned, implemented and rated at the end as successful, it must be all inclusive i.e. it must be spread across board to include both the rural and the urban areas. For this reason it is imperative to understand the nature of these two settings as it can be a major guide in achieving the nationally established developmental plans and goals. Any reasonable growth and desirable development may be an elusive fantasy without a good communicationpolicy in place. For this reason this paper examines how national development can be improved through the effective application of the national communication policies.
This paper aims at analyzing the impact of imperfect information on the risk of bank default in crisis times, as well as banks’communication strategy during a …nancial crisis. In the model, there are two type of banks that di¤er in their exposure to risky assets. Private investors, called to lend to short-term funds to banks during the crisis, are assumed to have only imperfect information about the true exposure of a given bank. Bank managers can send either honest or misleading signals. In particular, the manager of a fragile bank (high exposure to risky assets) may want to claim that the exposure is small, in order to bene…t of better …nancing terms until "the storm is over". If generalized, this strategy is harmful for solid banks that have no means to signal themselves and must borrow at a higher interest rate than in a perfect information set-up. The model builds on our early analysis of communicationpolicy as pertaining to the corporate sector (Besancenot and Vranceanu, 2005), yet the banking sector model features additional complexity due to non-linear relationships.
Already in the 1975-1976 white paper, the user of the research is introduced as an involved actor who can obtain more out of re- search if channels for two-way communication are established (1975-1976:79). Five reasons for two-way communication are given: 1) the researchers get corrective feedback and ideas; 2) the users get an opportunity to participate; 3) the research results are more easily accepted by the users and adopted if relevant; 4) both researchers and users enrich their knowledge; and finally 5) the users get a better understanding of certainty and uncertainty when interpreting the results. The coming white papers mention dialogue activities and introduces, for example, trainee-programs (1980-1981:47). However, the 1992-1993 white paper introduces the user as a much more active participant. This implies a clearer profile of science communicationpolicy and increased emphasis on the application perspective (1992-1993:148-153) whereas, it is simultaneously emphasized that the acquirement of expertise is primarily the responsibility of the user (1992-1993:148). In the white paper, mention is also made of the Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board, established in 1991 (1992-1993:117). Biotechnology was presented as being of special significance concerning security and risk assessment. Important tasks include informing the public administration, and, not least, stimulation to debate in matters of science ethics. The Board has a broad basis in professionals, users, and lay people. The 1998-1999 white paper also attached impor- tance to dialogue in various ways. It is emphasized that dissemi- nation and application can be more difficult when those who are to apply the results have not participated in the research process (1998-1999:83). The authorities therefore recognized the need for new forums, and, in 1999, they established the Norwegian Board of Technology (1998-1999:123). The Norwegian Board of Technology was to determine the possibilities and consequences of new tech- nology, for both society and the individual citizen. The results were to be made known to Parliament as well as to other authorities and the public. At the same time, the Board was to encourage actively public debate on technology. The Board would deter- mine the specific areas for discussion and its working methods.
At Pathfield School we adopt a Total Communication approach using a range of alternative methods to support and encourage two way communication and speech and language development. These are not used in isolation and a pupil may use several of these methods.
(d) The Company’s website is also an important communication tool for employees. In addition to the items listed above, it contains a range of information which relates to employees including relevant policies and codes. Employees are encouraged to view the website on a regular basis so that they can keep up to date with information concerning the Company.
At Key Stage 2, learners are given opportunities to build on their thinking, communication, number and ICT skills that they have started to acquire and develop during the Foundation Phase, in line with the non-statutory Skills framework for 3 to 19- year-olds in Wales and the Literacy and Numeracy Framework. Learners continue to acquire, develop, practise, apply and refine these skills through group and individualactivities in a variety of contexts across the curriculum. Progress can be seen in terms of the refinement of these skills and by their application to tasks that move from: concrete to abstract; simple to complex; personal to the ‘big picture’; familiar to unfamiliar; and supported to independent and interdependent.
We have designed and partially implemented an active management solution for multi-service networks based on role-driven policies [7,8] and Application Layer Active Networking (ALAN) . The management system supports a conventional management agent interface that can respond to high level instructions from system operators [10,11]. This interface is also open to use by users (who can use it to run programs/active services by adding a policy pointing to the location of their program and providing an invocation trigger). Typically the management policies for the user programs are included in an XML metafile associated with the code using an XML container, but users can also separately add management policies associated with their programs using HTTP post commands. We refer to the metafiles as macropolicies since they may embed many statements concerning a range of entities. Individual IF- THEN-ELSE statements are referred to as atomic policies. For our purposes a policy must consist of one or more atomic policies referring to a single entity.
As shown in Figure 7, the issues relating to the impacts of global shocks on the Nigerian economy has remained an important source of concern to the MPC since 2012, reaching its peak during the economic recession of 2016. Also, being the country’s major export commodity, discussions on the macroeconomic implications of oil price shocks were quite preeminent over the sample period. However, the topic proportions for this aspect of central bank communication were quite substantial during 2011-2015 as the oil price declines of 2008/09 and 2014 took its toll on the Nigerian economy. For instance, a portion of policy Communique No. 93 (January 2014) states as follows: “…This absence of fiscal buffers increased our reliance on portfolio flows thus, constituting the principal risk to exchange rate stability, especially with uncertainties around capital flows and oil price”. By the end of 2014, Communique No. 98 stated that “…the global economic space continued to be dominated by strong downside risks to growth, including the softening commodity prices, rising geo-political tensions, and heightening threats to financial markets in the emerging and frontier economies in the aftermath of the termination of Quantitative Easing by the US Federal Reserve at the end of October 2014. Developments in the international oil market have intensified the risks and vulnerabilities faced by oil exporting countries in the wake of a new episode of falling oil prices”. The November 2014 further notes that “…. unlike in previous episodes, the current downturn in oil prices is not transitory but appears to be permanent; being a product of technological advancement”. These concerns support our description of topic 3 and explain the dominance of the topic proportion during the 2011-2015 period.
The insurer will indemnify the insured against all sums which the insured shall become legally liable to pay above the excess as a result of any claim against the insured during the period of insurance as a result of a third party’s good faith reliance on a hackers fraudulent use of the insured’s information and communication assets where there was a clear intention to cause the insured loss or obtain a personal gain for the hacker.
Hungary and Romania stuck to pegged regimes longer that the Czech Republic and Slovakia. After having operated a narrow pegged regime with frequent discretionary devaluations, Hungary adopted a pre- announced crawling peg regime with a band of 2.25% around the central parity in March 1995 as part of a stabilization program aimed at reducing internal and external imbalances. As a result of economic reforms, both foreign direct and portfolio investment started to ow in, which pushed the exchange rate to the stronger edge of the band. This forced the central bank to step in and sell domestic currency. In the crawling peg regime, the progressive reduction of the pre-announced rate of crawl (devaluation of the central parity) contributed to a gradual reduction of in ation. However, in ation got stuck at 10% in 2000 at a time when the rate of crawl was virtually zero. Against this backdrop, the uctuations band was widened to 15% in May 2001. The exchange rate appreciated immediately and gave new impetus to disin ation. Within the in ation targeting framework, which was introduced in June 2001, heavy weight has been given to the exchange rate. Indeed, the exchange rate has remained on the stronger side of the uctuation band ever since. The main tools of stabilizing the exchange rate were interest rate policy and verbal interventions. Similar to the crawling peg system, the central bank intervenes only at the upper and lower edges of the band.
With the recent advances in computer networking applications, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are widely used to detect the malicious connections in computer networks. IDS provide a high level security between organizations while preventing misuses and intrusions in data communication through internet or any other network. Adherence to network usage policies is crucial since a system or network administrator needs to be informed whether the information is compromised, if the resources are appropriately used or if an attacker exploits a comprised service. Server ﬂow authentication via protocol detection analyzes penetrations to a communication network. Generally, port numbers in the packet headers are used to detect the protocols. However, it is easy to re-map port numbers via proxies and changing the port number via compromised host services. Using port numbers may be misleading for a system administrator to understand the natural ﬂow of communications through network. It is also di ﬃ cult to understand the user behavior when the tra ﬃ c is encrypted since there is only packet level information to be considered. In this paper, we present a novel approach via Hidden Markov Models to detect user behavior in network traﬃc. We perform the detection process on timing measures of packets. The results are promising and we obtained classiﬁcation accuracies between %70 and %100.
We analyse intraday changes in the money market yield curve on days, when the Governing Council, the decision-making body of the ECB, meets to discuss monetary policy. The meetings now take place once a month. The timing of specific events on those days is crucial for the con- struction of indicators of monetary policy news. Immediately following the meeting, the ECB announces and explains its decisions on two different time instances during the same day (see Figure 1). The ECB publishes its monetary policy decision at 13.45. The publication consists of a short press release that simply states the interest rate decision. Three quarters of an hour later, beginning at 14:30, the ECB holds a press conference where the President of the ECB ex- plains this decision in detail. At the beginning of the press conference the President of the ECB reads an introductory statement that provides a comprehensive summary of the assessment of economic and monetary developments and explains the monetary policy decision taken by the Governing Council. This part of the press conference is usually over by about 14:45. Following the introductory statement, the President answers journalists’ questions which relate mainly to considerations underlying the ECB’s policy decision.
These new ideas have made a mark on central bank practice as well. At the Federal Reserve, for example, then-Chairman Alan Greenspan, who once prided himself on “mumbling with great incoherence,” was by 2003 explicitly managing expectations by telling everyone that the Fed would keep the federal funds rate low “for a considerable period.” This guidance was only the latest step in what was, by then, a long march toward greater transparency that began in February 1994 when the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) first started announcing its decisions on the federal funds rate target. In May 1999, the FOMC began publishing an assessment of its “bias” with respect to future changes in monetary policy in its statements. It also began issuing fuller statements, even when it was not changing rates. About three years later, it began announcing FOMC votes—with names attached—immediately after each meeting. Starting in February 2005, the FOMC expedited the release of its minutes to make them available before the subsequent FOMC meeting. And most recently, starting in November 2007, the Fed has increased the frequency and expanded the content and horizon of its publicly-released forecasts.
This study examines the cash-less economic system so as to assess the relationship between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the implementation of cash-less policy. Nigeria has continued to evolve in different realms of transactions from the commodity money (trade by barter) to the cash-less realm. The economy is being reformed, institutions are being reshaped and legislations are being re-examined so as to reposition the nation to take its rightful position in the international community. In order to achieve the primary objective of the study, the study used structured questionnaire as a means of data collection from 120 respondents randomly selected. The data was analyzed using simple percentage procedure, and the collated data tested using chi-square technique. Study revealed that there exist a significant relationship between ICT and cash-less policy implementation in the Nigerian financial environment. Based on the findings it was recommended that the federal government of Nigeria should collaborate with all the states ICT centers and other private institutions to provide mass ICT education for the computer illiterates and banks should invest more in e-banking technology in order to enhance public awareness which would in turn encourage cash-less economy in Nigeria.
However, the stakeholder surveys and interviews conducted as part of this research found that communication activity is an important but second order priority relative to other delivery tasks. The main target groups are applicants and beneficiaries (rather than the wider public) to support spending and publicity compliance. There is evidence of a dominant compliance logic to delivery, driven by increasing EU obligations and risk aversion which is detracting resources from both performance and communication activities. Many stakeholders consider that social media is not fully exploited to publicise achievements and disseminate project stories creatively in a way that engages the public. Further, the regional/local visibility, reach and engagement of policy stakeholders has reduced following the dismantling of regional development institutions in 2010/2011, according to many stakeholders. The centralisation of governance responsibilities during the 2007-13 period and in 2014-20 has also had negative impacts on the capacity of the Managing Authority and delivery bodies.