Community based adaptation

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Consolidating Contestation and Conflict through Community Based Adaptation (CBA)

Consolidating Contestation and Conflict through Community Based Adaptation (CBA)

DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.511013 175 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection changes in annual precipitation patterns [1] [2] [3]. It is, furthermore, increas- ingly clear, that the success of attaining the newly-formulated Sustainable De- velopment Goals (SDGs), will depend upon how successful developmental re- gions are at strengthening local adaptive capacity and resilience [4]. The funda- mental importance of addressing climate change for the purposes of climate-smart development is matched by large amounts of multilateral and bilateral financing made available to intensify efforts to reduce the carbon emissions of emerging economies (mitigation) as well as to strengthen the adaptive capacity and resil- ience of vulnerable populations in the Global South (adaptation) [5] [6]. Whilst mitigation and adaptation efforts may, in some instances, be difficult to distin- guish from one another on the ground, this article is especially concerned with the impact of a growing number of climate change projects, programs and policy frameworks financed as adaptation measures i.e. strengthening the capacity of people to adapt to changing climates. In rural contexts in the Global South, this is done in a number of concrete ways, including, but not restricted to, technical assistance to embed new sustainable farming practices, such as integrated soil fertility management and agro-forestry; community-based microfinance to en- able borrowing for the diversification of income streams; the introduction of drought or flood resistant crop and seed varieties; early warning systems; new infrastructure for protection (e.g. dikes etc.) and/or providing new sources of water largely to stabilise the supply of irrigation water (e.g. ponds, dams etc.). More specifically, the article focuses upon Community-Based Adaptation (CBA), which represents a popular, bottom-up and participatory approach to strength- ening adaptive capacity and resilience. CBA approaches, which have emerged to some extent as a response to top-down and technology-driven projects 1 , focus,
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Can community-based adaptation increase resilience?

Can community-based adaptation increase resilience?

Community-based adaptation assessments conducted in Timor-Leste and Solomon Islands were selected as case studies. These particular studies offer an unusually comprehensive approach to CBA assessment in terms of the breadth and detail of ex-ante analyses of adaptations from a social, economic and ecological perspective (Ensor, 2014). Their application was typical of many in terms of the development context, with both countries being characterised by substantial populations living in extreme poverty (e.g. in Timor-Leste 34.9% of the population lives on less than USD1.25 per day; WorldBank, 2015). Both nations have also recently experienced civil unrest resulting in fragmented development efforts. This, together with critically limited state services, has led to both countries having a heavy reliance on external interventions provided by national and international NGOs. Together with weak formal governance
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Community-based adaptation research in the Canadian Arctic

Community-based adaptation research in the Canadian Arctic

Community-based adaptation (CBA) has emerged over the last decade as an approach to empowering communities to plan for and cope with the impacts of climate change. While such approaches have been widely advocated, few have critically examined the tensions and challenges that CBA brings. Responding to this gap, this article critically examines the use of CBA approaches with Inuit communities in Canada. We suggest that CBA holds significant promise to make adaptation research more democratic and responsive to local needs, providing a basis for developing locally appropriate adaptations based on local/indigenous and Western knowledge. Yet, we argue that CBA is not a panacea, and its com- mon portrayal as such obscures its limitations, nuances, and challenges. Indeed, if uncritically adopted, CBA can potentially lead to maladaptation, may be inap- propriate in some instances, can legitimize outside intervention and control, and may further marginalize communities. We identify responsibilities for research- ers engaging in CBA work to manage these challenges, emphasizing the central- ity of how knowledge is generated, the need for project flexibility and openness to change, and the importance of ensuring partnerships between researchers and communities are transparent. Researchers also need to be realistic about what CBA can achieve, and should not assume that research has a positive role to play in community adaptation just because it utilizes participatory approaches. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Climate Change published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Addressing vulnerability, building resilience: community-based adaptation to vector-borne diseases in the context of global change

Addressing vulnerability, building resilience: community-based adaptation to vector-borne diseases in the context of global change

A recent evaluation explored adaptation plans in Spain, Italy, Malta, Turkey, Israel and Egypt regarding climate change and vector-borne diseases. As wealthier countries, they are likely to reflect more progressive policies than most least developed countries (LDCs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and focused on early warning systems, response plans and training. The authors found substantial variation in the actual details provided, and questioned some of the omissions given the needs of the countries involved. For example, Turkey emphasized the vulnerability of seasonal agricultural workers, but other countries did not identify sub-groups at higher risks of infection. Although cross-border movement is important for many countries, only Israel emphasized surveillance and monitoring of border areas and the need to improve vector management regulations for local authorities. Two other important weaknesses were also identified. First, most countries did not detail the agencies that would be responsible for implementation, or discuss mechanisms for collaboration and funding. Second, there was little attention given to education, and a complete lack of discussion of community participation and public engagement in policymaking and implementation. These findings echo an earlier study in 14 OECD countries on infectious disease and climate change adaptation (see [84]).
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Assessing emerging governance features for community-based adaptation in Timor-Leste and Indonesia: What works and why?

Assessing emerging governance features for community-based adaptation in Timor-Leste and Indonesia: What works and why?

Both Timor-Leste and Indonesia have relatively large rural populations, a large proportion of which practice subsistence agriculture or rely directly on natural resources and assets to support their livelihoods. In Indonesia, approximately 46 per cent of the population is rural (World Bank, 2016), and 14.3 per cent of this population live below the poverty line (WFP, 2016). Similarly, in Timor-Leste, rural livelihoods provide an income for 70 per cent of the nation‘s population (WFP, 2017) and 85 per cent of the rural population practice some form of subsistence farming (Molyneux et al., 2012). A lack of diversity in food crop production, the reliance on climate-sensitive crops, and a lack of access to financial resources puts a large proportion of the population at risk to climate variability and change. For example, the 2015-16 El Nino event, considered the strongest on record (FAO, 2016a), and the subsequent significant delays in that year‘s rainy season, resulted in widespread drought across Timor-Leste and affected the livelihoods of over 120,000 people in rural districts through reduced and failed harvests (WFP, 2017). Similarly, in Indonesia, the same El Nino event reduced the quantity of planted paddy by 25 per cent. In eastern Indonesia, which was more drought affected, quantities were reduced by up to 80 per cent (WFP, 2016). Further, in both Timor-Leste and Indonesia, government responses to these events, in the form of food and water relief, and provision of additional funds, were found to be constrained by weak soft and hard infrastructure, including limited experience of government ministries to respond to slow-onset disasters and lack of technical experts, poor road networks, telecommunications and water supply systems. This led to a disproportionate reliance on non-state actors to provide aid and relief to affected communities (Ne, 2017). Implementing adaptation actions and building adaptive capacities is therefore seen as critical in such contexts, not only because of the vulnerability of the rural poor to climate change, but because of the limitations of their governments to provide appropriate relief.
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Preparing for the health impacts of climate change in Indigenous communities: The role of community-based adaptation

Preparing for the health impacts of climate change in Indigenous communities: The role of community-based adaptation

A prominent fi nding from interviews with communities and in- stitutional partners was the importance of capacity development as the most significant change brought about by IHACC. This went beyond typical capacity development outcomes such as skills development, training, and knowledge transfer, to include influencing community members’ sense of confidence and self-value as result of participating in the project; these outcomes are especially pertinent in Indigenous contexts where local/traditional knowledge systems have often been devalued and communities marginalized in decision making (Nakashima et al., 2012; UNFCCC, 2014). In turn, this feeling of self- worth and con fi dence has the potential to in fl uence and enact other changes in the lives of those individuals, their families, and commu- nities, building resilience not only to climate impacts but also strengthening health systems more broadly. Such community action is central to the World Health Organizations (2015) framework for building climate resilient health systems, and identified as the “prin- cipal mechanism for ensuring that people themselves are informed, educated and able to take appropriate action to protect and maintain their individual and families’ health.” Outcomes of this nature are not visible in typical outcome measurements applied to projects, are rarely articulated or intentionally designed into objectives and methods, and have received limited attention in the literature. Yet the insights from this evaluation indicate that capacity development has the potential to be the most prominent contribution of CBA projects, can help manage the tension between addressing immediate and longer term challenges through its strengthening of the health system, and should be a priori integrated and promoted as a central objective.
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Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Wetlands of Bangladesh

Community Based Risk Assessment and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Wetlands of Bangladesh

Some of the methods can be adapted for use in determining community-based adaptation to climate change and Community Based Risk Assessment (CRA), which has received immense attention in the scientific and policy debate, and is seen as complementary to mitigation [15]. CRA has evolved from the concept of participatory risk assessment. CRA is a participatory process for hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment including coping capacity and final strategy which allows for risk reduction to be carried out in a scientific way by involving stakeholders, especially the local community. This includes risk and social mapping; transect walks, asset inventories, historical and seasonal calendars, risk and hazard prioritization, management options, surveys, focus group discussions (FGD), interviews etc. This tool is mostly used for engagement of stakeholders in national and local risk reduction plans made by governments and non- governmental projects [16–20]. This method can also be used for identifying and understanding climate change effects and local adaptation practices by the community. This mainly involves investigating and gathering information regarding livelihoods, resilience, local risks and hazards. This tool demands special attention for making it simple [17]. Another challenge of this tool is
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IMMIGRANT ADAPTATION: UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS THROUGH SENSE OF COMMUNITY

IMMIGRANT ADAPTATION: UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS THROUGH SENSE OF COMMUNITY

Different researchers (e. g., Berry, 1984, 1997; 1998; Birman, 1994; Bulhan,1985; Tajfel, 1981) have offered models to understand individual and community responses to intergroup contact. Berry’s (1997) model of acculturation and migrant adaptation contains four common responses to intercultural contact, including integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalisation. These responses are characterized by shifts in attitudes and behavior toward one’s own and other communities. The different responses are also characterized by different mental health outcomes with integration being the most favorable and marginalisation the least. There is general agreement among these models that those who are rooted in their home culture report better social and psychological wellbeing compared to those who are not (Lafromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993). For example, McCubbin, Futrell, Thompson, and
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Vol 8 No A (2018): Special Issue 1: Food Dignity

Vol 8 No A (2018): Special Issue 1: Food Dignity

“participant support costs.” These are “direct costs for items such as stipends or subsistence allow- ances, travel allowances, and registration fees paid to or on behalf of participants or trainees (but not employees) in connection with conferences, or training projects” (Uniform Administrative Requirements, 2014, p. 90). We do not know why federal funders exclude these from indirect cost payment calculations; tuition costs for graduate students are also excluded, and perhaps the idea is that this kind of capacity development involves minimal administration and is part of the academic mission. For example, for universities, this category includes paying cash stipends to research partici- pants and honorariums or per diem expenses to external advisers. However, for CBOs that exten- sively support “participants” as mentees and devel- oping leaders with this funding line, excluding them compounds the hardship of having low or no indirect cost funding to cover basics such as book- keeping and accounting. Public universities also receive general-purpose support from state govern- ments. For example, UW receives about a quarter of a billion dollars each year in general state fund- ing (UW Office of Academic Affairs and Budget Office, 2013). In contrast, the two Wyoming-based CBOs in Food Dignity—FLV and BMA—receive US$0 in such general funds. Though public funds for higher education have been decreasing, some- times dramatically, over the last decade (Mitchell, Leachman, & Masterson, 2016), the funding provided is still substantial.
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Growing Our Own

Growing Our Own

ENYF! founded Hands & Heart Garden in 2006 on an abandoned lot, with support from the New York City housing department and the GreenThumb program of the city parks depart- ment. Today, with continued support from ENYF, 30 gardeners grow food there, mostly for their households and in part to supply diverse produce options at ENYF! market stands. Gardeners whom ENYF! supports are encouraged to sell some of their harvest at the market if they have enough. To facilitate this, ENYF! youth interns staff a “Shared Table” where growers can sell their harvests with- out needing to host their own stand. Gardeners can even invite the interns to harvest and deliver pro- duce to the market on their behalf. Depending on their labor contributions, 40–80% of the proceeds return to the grower. Since 2013, ENYF! has also been experimenting with a new growing space with several of its most prolific growers to supply the market and for senior growers to mentor youth. ENYF! also collaborates with organizers of 25 of the neighborhood’s other community gardens (of which East New York has more than any other New York City neighborhood). This has included providing technical and material support and assisting some individual gardeners.
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COMMUNITY-BASED DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION ACTIVITIES IN INDONESIA Lala M. Kolopaking, Ph.D

COMMUNITY-BASED DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION ACTIVITIES IN INDONESIA Lala M. Kolopaking, Ph.D

The management impact of climate change has been a global agenda in Indonesia for last decade. Based on policy studies conducted in eight districts/cities in West Java Province, shows that development activities in climate change adaptation and mitigation require a strengthening mechanism of development management. It also shows the gaps in policy development implementation between national government, province government, district government and community. In addition, institutional development management need to collaborate between stakeholders and local community need. Through a participatory multi- stakeholder dialogue, it is found that the development climate change adaptation and mitigation activities need to implement community-based development management. The development programme process starting from initiating activities at the community level in one village, and encourage collaboration between the various communities to experience and enlarge the scale of activities, establishing common understanding from the community to in line with Regional Development Planning to set up a productive area as an economic effort considering the sustainability of natural resources. This is a social learning form to educate the community, increase satisfaction and encourage solidarity stakeholders. This community-based development management will further contain the characteristics of local culture and give priority to the value of collaboration in vulnerability due to climate change impacts.
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Metric Learning for Graph Based Domain Adaptation

Metric Learning for Graph Based Domain Adaptation

To address the issue of labeled data sparsity even within a single domain, recent research has focused on Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) algorithms, which learn from limited amounts of labeled data combined with widely available unlabeled data. Examples of a few graph-based SSL algorithms include Gaussian Random Fields (GRF) (Zhu et al., 2003), Quadratic Criteria (QR) (Bengio et al., 2006), and Modified Adsorption (MAD) (Talukdar and Crammer, 2009). Given a set of instances that contain small amount of labeled instances and a majority that is unlabeled, most graph based SSL algorithms first construct a graph where each node corresponds to an instance. Similar nodes are connected by an edge, with edge weight encoding the degree of similarity. Once the graph is constructed, the nodes corresponding to labeled instances are injected with the corresponding label. Using this initial label information along with the graph structure, graph based SSL algorithms assign labels to all unlabeled nodes in the graph. Most of the graph based SSL algorithms are iterative and also parallelizable, making them suitable for large scale SSL setting where vast amounts of unlabeled data is usually available.
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Scaled norm based Euclidean projection for sparse speaker adaptation

Scaled norm based Euclidean projection for sparse speaker adaptation

The experiments were conducted on the ETRI Korean conversation speech database collected at 16 kHz sam- pling rate and 16-bit resolution by two types of smart phone devices in clean condition. We used about 100 h of speech data spoken by 300 speakers to train the SI triphone-based GMM-HMM acoustic model. For adapta- tion and evaluation, we used 50 speakers’ 350 sentences (300 sentences for adaptation and 50 sentences for the phone recognition test) and each sentence is roughly 4– 5 s long. We used 12-dimensional Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients with log energy and concatenated their first and second derivatives as a feature vector to constitute 39-dimensional feature vectors. We applied a phone level unigram language model in terms of 39 Korean phonemes
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Adaptation Based on Generalized Discrepancy

Adaptation Based on Generalized Discrepancy

The first task we considered is given by the 4 kin-8xy Delve data sets (Rasmussen et al., 1996). These data sets are variations of the same model: a realistic simulation of the forward dynamics of an 8 link all-revolute robot arm. The task in all data sets consists of predicting the distance of the end-effector from a target. The data sets differ by the degree of non-linearity (fairly linear, x=f , or non-linear, x=n ) and the amount of noise in the output (moderate, y=m , or high, y=h ). The data set defines 4 different domains, that is 12 pairs of different distributions and labeling functions. A sample of 200 points from each domain was used for training and 10 labeled points from the target distribution were used to select H 00 . The experiment was carried out 10 times and the results of testing on a sample of 400 points from the target domain are reported in Figure 3(a). The bars represent the median performance of each algorithm. The error bars are the low and high 25% quartiles respectively. All results were normalized in such a way that the median performance of training on the source is equal to 1. Notice that the performance of all algorithms is comparable when adapting to kin8-fm since both labeling functions are fairly linear, yet only GDM is able to reasonably adapt to the two data sets with different labeling functions. In order to better understand the advantages of GDM over DM we plot the relative error of DM against GDM as a function of the ratio r/Λ in Figure 3(b), where r is the radius defining H 00 and is selected through cross validation. Notice that when the ratio r/Λ is small then both algorithms behave similarly which is most of the times for the adaptation task fh to fm . On the other hand, a better performance of GDM can be obtained when the ratio is larger. This is due to the fact that r/Λ measures the effective size of the set H 00 . A small ratio means that the size of H 00 is small and therefore the hypothesis returned by GDM will be close to that of DM where as if H 00 is large then GDM has the possibility of
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Community-based knowledge towards rangeland condition, climate change, and adaptation strategies: the case of Afar pastoralists

Community-based knowledge towards rangeland condition, climate change, and adaptation strategies: the case of Afar pastoralists

In the ever-continuing quest for finding a suitable and effective remedy against failure of rainfall, researchers have analyzed coping strategies that have been used by the pastoral community for long periods. The current findings have shown that respondents’ labor forces have a significant relationship with the coping strategies such as mobility + selling and mobility + use of crop residue due to the failure of rainfall in SRS. Respondents’ labor forces are also significant with all the listed coping strat- egies except mobility + herd splitting as a result of the failure of rain in the LRS. The probable explanation could be due to herders’ demands for more labor force to manage the different species of livestock that need higher number of laborers. If the labor demand is not fulfilled, pastoralists may choose to sell their livestock although they do not want to lose their herd size with- out value addition. The significant relationship that was observed between mobility + selling and differences in terms of external influence in the study areas may con- tribute to the variability in terms of livestock holdings between the two districts. This reflects variation between the two districts in terms of communities’ preferences in selling their livestock before large proportion of animals are lost as a result of drought that might allow the remaining livestock to survive on the scarce feed resources during shortage of rain. The results of the current finding agree with the activities of the Prime project (2015) in Jigjiga and Borana that is designed to support resilience among pastoral communities in Ethiopia. Furthermore,
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A Modified Combined Approach Framework of Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for Water Resource Systems Based on Experience Derived from Different Adaptation Studies in the Context of Climate Change

A Modified Combined Approach Framework of Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for Water Resource Systems Based on Experience Derived from Different Adaptation Studies in the Context of Climate Change

Hazard based approach and vulnerability based ap- proach are the two approaches applied in guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment. Hazard based approach gives more emphasis on the climate change incremental impacts. In hazard based approach the as- sessment begins with the projections of climate change by different climate models. Several reviews have concluded that these hazard based assessments are important for identification of climate change risks but its results are not useful immediately for design of adaptation policy. USCSP Guidebook and UNEP Handbook have used this approach. Important shortcomings of hazard based ap- proach are: over reliance on the model based climate, non availability of climate impact projections at spatial scales required by the decision makers, long term climatic pro- jections which have less relevance to many adaptation actors and less emphasis on non climatic factors, natural variability of climate. On the other hand vulnerability based approach assesses future climate change in the light of current climatic risks with strong emphasis on the so- cial factors which determine ability to cope up with haz- ards from changing climate. This approach begins with the past experiences of managing risks of climate, in- volves all the stakeholders from beginning and links the adaptation to climate change with the activities of stake- holders directly. If low or no regret options of adaptation are available then this approach can produce useful results without considering reliable impact projections. Disad- vantages of vulnerability approach are: greater importance given to expert judgment, comparability across the re- gions is limited because of large qualitative natured re- sults and absence of clear methodology. This approach was used in the UNDP-GEF adaptation policy framework. The initial emphasis on the hazard based approach was evolved towards integration of both approaches with more focus on the vulnerability approach [4]. The combined approach presented in [4] is shown in Figure 1.
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Comparative analysis of adaptation in adaptive educational hypermedia and IMS learning design

Comparative analysis of adaptation in adaptive educational hypermedia and IMS learning design

This example adaptation strategy initially only dis- plays questions; however, at the next access, answers will be made available. The strategy’s initialization section is performed only once, before the user starts the lesson. In this section, all concepts that are not labeled as answers are made visible (the rest is invisible by default) and the Boolean showanswer variable is created and initialized as false. The implementation section is repeated every time the users perform any action. Here, it is checked whether the user accessed a concept of the type question; if so, then answers can be shown, so showanswer becomes true. The result is that, after a user selects a question, its an- swer will show up next time he refreshes the same page. Showing an answer means allowing access to it via the menu (thus, adaptation navigation) and actually displaying it at the next visit of the question (thus, adaptation of con- tent). If the answer is displayed on a separate page, this becomes pure adaptation navigation, whereas if a menu is not present, it will be pure adaptation of content. Thus, from a conceptual point of view, it is not necessary to separate the two adaptation types; these decisions are of a lower level and to be decided by the presentation adapta- tion. The strategy presented here can be extended to any number of questions, but is overly simplified here for readability (example based on ‘type-based’ strategy in [1]). Please note that the simple strategy above does not use the labels of the goal model, but the types of concepts, as defined in the domain model (Fig. 2). If we wished to use labels, we would have only to replace PM.GM.Concept.type with PM.GM.Concept.label. This illustrates how easy it is to use the same static data for different adaptation purposes. Please note that the author creating static content can be different from the one au- thoring dynamic content.
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Too little, too late? Assessing the current international policy response to climate change-induced migration

Too little, too late? Assessing the current international policy response to climate change-induced migration

Executive Summary: The United Nations 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP 21) issued a landmark decree detailing states’ responsibilities to protect the rights of environmental migrants (Warren, 2016). Since then, there has been little progress towards addressing the issues of environmental migration and displacement, some of the most tangible social outcomes of a rapidly changing climate. Considering this stagnation, and as climate migration once again took center stage at the 2017 COP 23 events in Bonn, Germany, it is essential that the international community take definitive steps to implement effective policies on climate migration. The United Nations (UN) estimates that 20 million people in 100 countries were temporarily or permanently displaced since 2008 alone by climate change-related effects (United Nations, 2016)). While critics contend that this number is difficult to definitively substantiate, millions of people are at risk for climate related displacement and movement, particularly as the effects of climate change are become increasingly more severe. Yet, as more and more countries threaten to close their borders to migrants and refugees due to concerns about national security, a logical question emerges: where will environmental migrants and refugees go? Without a concrete policy strategy in place, the mobilization of millions of climate migrants will soon become a dire international problem and potential human rights crisis. As such, it is critical that effective international policy solutions be enacted to address the pressing issue of increasing climate migration. While certain NGOs and international bodies have taken tentative steps to address climate-induced migration, these actions are not adequate as environmental migrants continue to be of grave international concern. As migration is an important climate change adaptation
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Resilience and adaptation of small and medium sized enterprises to flood risk

Resilience and adaptation of small and medium sized enterprises to flood risk

Community-level flood protection schemes can be considered as the first line of defence against flooding, and is largely a preventive response. Examples for community-level flood protection schemes include storage basins, raised river embankments, coastal defences (Bichard and Kazmierczak, 2010), maintained river channels, floodwalls and barriers (Environment Agency, 2009a). Such community-level flood protection schemes attempt to reduce the risk of flooding to local communities; infrastructure, households, businesses. Environment Agency predicted that flood defences managed by them had protected about 100,000 properties from flooding in the case of 2007 summer floods which affected many parts of the UK (Environment Agency, 2009a). Still, over 55,000 properties were flooded due to the event (Pitt, 2008). As Environment Agency recognised that over 99% of flood defences performed as designed (Environment Agency, 2009a), it can be identified that flooded properties were the ones left without protection from community-level flood protection schemes. Providing further evidence, Environment Agency reckons that even with increased investment on flood risk management, about 500,000 properties, even at the most favourable scenario out of five scenarios modelled, will still be left at high risk of flooding by 2035 (Environment Agency, 2009b). Moreover, as flooding is a multifaceted risk, there is the risk of properties being affected by localised flooding, whilst having community-level flood protection schemes in place against river or coastal flooding. For instance, despite the presence of Thames barrier and other flood management initiatives, some parts of London still remains at risk of flooding (Environment Agency, 2009c), and have in fact been flooded in recent years.
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Presenting a Picture of Alaska Native Village Adaptation: A Method of Analysis

Presenting a Picture of Alaska Native Village Adaptation: A Method of Analysis

Abstract Alaska is a large state with 229 nationally recognized tribes, known as Alaska Native Villages (ANVs). Efforts to understand ANV climate change adaptation have often been limited to a particular concern (i.e., flooding and erosion) in a particular part of Alaska (i.e., the west coast). My study is the first that I am aware of attempting to identify adaptation actions, strategies and barriers across the entire state of Alaska and recommend ways for laws and institutions to facilitate adaptation. In this article, I explain a distinct method for identifying adaptation actions, strategies, and barriers that draws on literature, community plans, laws, and interviews and conversations with 153 participants (including ANV residents and those that make or influence policy affecting ANVs). Rather than coding particular segments of an interview or plan, I numerically code interviews and plans as a whole, based on themes expressed therein and from the literature. At the same time, I keep track of quotations that help clarify these themes. This method yields a complex picture of ANV adaptation that shows different views of climate change and adaptation strategies among different sources. Preliminary results of the study suggest a need for measures to improve implementation of community-level adaptation actions, rather than perpetuating a system of government-sponsored planning and data collection in narrow areas. Institutional changes need to be incremental in order to gain political support, yet they must be holistic in addressing the many challenges that ANVs face.
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