In 2008, the Botswana Tourism Board conducted a skills gap analysis for the tourism sector. In this analysis, the following gaps were identified within safari and wilderness establishments as well as hotels and guesthouses: “Advanced safari and camp management-related skills, conservation and environmental sustainability [skills], business and management capabilities, advanced food and beverage knowledge and strategic understanding of the tourism industry and related industries.”(Human Resource Development Council, 2014). A further training needs analysis for the tourism sector in Botswana was conducted in 2010. In the analysis, the following skills gaps were identified in the catering and hospitality sector; “Front of house, Professional chef and patisserie, Barista (coffee maker), Cocktail service, Front office skills (customer service, reservations and telephone skills, reception and problem-solving), Housekeeping (room decorations and set up, linen services)” (HRDC, 2014, p. 22). Although these analyses were not conducted specifically on CBT projects, the skills and roles align with Table 1 of skills for CBT mentioned above. Skills identified in Table 1 for CBT is more specific in regard to the skills needed within CBT Projects. This research will, therefore, use the table of skills for CBT as the basis for the skills needed for effectively run CBT projects.
• Turap Waterfront area is very potential to be developed as a culinary tourism destination. The atmosphere is very comfortable and cool. The river scenery is very beautiful with the view of large ships crossing the river. At night, we can enjoy the view of colorful lights in the culinary area and Siak Bridge. Furthermore, the availability of traditional signature dishes of Siak, like Malay cuisines, makes this area become very potential to be developed as culinary tourism area. However, there are many things should be improved. Culinary tourism institutions of the government, private sectors and community have not been developed. Furthermore, the available amenities (hotels, restaurants, travel agents, clean water) are limited. Limited human resources, weak participation of the community in culinary tourism, weak promotion and marketing strategies, lack of planning and development of cultural potential and culinary tourism are other obstacles to overcome. Furthermore, there is hardly any support from community leaders, DPRD, and business people. There are no regulations on culinary tourism. The marketing strategy is not strong. The number of local cuisine vendors is still limited and the taste of the food is inconsistent.
This study was aimed at generating a women empowerment model through community- based education in the Bejiharjo,tourism village. The study used the research and development (R & D) method. The results of the study produce a guideline modelin the form of a compact disk (CD) ﬁ le for women’s empowerment of tourism villages through business learning groups that support tourism and community education containing an activity guideline book and interactive learning activities. Models were developed from the initial data collection on the conditions, problems, and potentials of the target community, programming, training, and program assistance. Stages of the includedata collection for candidates, selection of participants, and community-based education programs in the form of training. The community-based education programs include assessment, program socialization, program implementation, program evaluation, and mentoring. Based on the data of the expert validation, it can be concluded that the guidance model of women empowerment through communitybased education utilizing local potentials is categorized as very good.
This village tourism in this route appears in two forms. One is as an organized trekking route and the other is the homestay provisions for tourists in the local people’s houses in seven villages namely Lahachowk, Ghachowk, Machhapuchhre, Rivan, Lwangghale, Sardikhola, and Dhital (TAAN WRC, 2010) . An average of 3000 international trekking tourists has been visiting in and around MMR area per year since 2010 (Thapaliya et al., 2012) . There are around six to eight Home-stays in all villages. Home-stay business has played a major role in empowering some women by making them economically independent. They are making money and that is improving their standard of living. The households who run 10 home-stay earn an average of Nepalese Rupees 27, 000 a year depending upon the number of rooms available in their home (Personal communication with Him Kumari Gurung, President of home-stay operators committee in Lwang on 30 April 2014)
Furthermore, others are women organization which is PEWANIS and KUNITA are mostly as a attraction for this area based on their activities and programs. PEWANIS (Women Entreprenuer Group) and KUNITA (Fishermen’s Wives Group) could be empower local women by providing an opportunities for women to contribute into community-basedtourism activities thus improve their skill and creativity towards generating extra income for their family.They are officially contribute and involve into the community programme in term of leading, decision making, planning, monitoring, problem solving and training community to participate into tourism activities through financial and businessmodel. Besides, these women's organizations are also involved in social activities such as awareness of environmental conservation.
 K. Waren, Competitive Strategy Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 2002.  A. Munitic, F. Mitrovic, J. Dvornik, System dynamics simulation modelling and heuristic optimization of the business production distribution system, SCI 2004, Eighth World Multi- Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, July 18-21, Orlando, Florida, USA, ISBN: 980-6560-13-2, Volume IV, 434-440 pp., (2004).
This study aimed to synthesize the related research in the realm of communitybasedtourism (CBT) in Thailand. It also explored the key gaps in knowledge for further studies. Secondary data both qualitative and quantitative were gathered between January and February 2017 from online academic databases and analyzed based on descriptive statistics and content analysis. The findings revealed that a total number of 240 published papers on CBT in Thailand have been identified. The researches were conducted mostly in 2015 and focused mainly on the local communities in the north of Thailand. Under the study of CBT, management and development as well as community participation were the major focus. In each period, the direction and an increasing number of the relevant studies are consistent with the growth of CBT and its dramatic increase in Thailand. The review findings suggest that further research is required on 1) CBT Marketing and visitor 2) CBT Hospitality and services 3) CBT Knowledge sharing 4) CBT Knowledge transfer 5) CBT Monitoring and assessment 6) CBT Management by lesson learned 7) CBT in Protected areas 8) CBT Initiatives throughout ASEAN countries and 9) Creative CBT.
As the tourism industry has become increasingly important to communities all over the world, the need for sustainable tourism development has also become a primary concern. The role of the community in the development of the cultural and economic environment has been underlined in the last few years, and has been seen from several perspectives. The community of a region is seen as a primary source on which tourism in that region depends, and their existence at a certain place at a given time may have been used to justify the development of tourism itself. The community is one of the basic reasons for tourists to travel, in order to experience other new ways of life and traditional products from different community countries. Communities are also considered as the "Natural" landscape in which many tourists consume. They are also the source of tourists, tourists are attracted by special places and social facilities that will find themselves about the experiences of tourists in the host community. Community support, in particular the community has become an essential element of sustainable tourism. The reason for sustainable tourism development lies in the sustainable economic, social and cultural benefits for the community and its environment. One of the most active and proven models that provide sustainability is the CBT Model (CommunityBasedTourism). This paper addresses this crucial issue by focusing on how local communities can contribute to sustainable tourism and what sustainable tourism can provide to local communities.
Principles for a successful CBT always highlight community participation (Tasci et al, 2013; Goodwin and Santilli, 2009). According to Pretty (1995), there are 7 types of community participation. The lowest level is “Passive participation” where the community just gets information about what is going happen or already happened. Participation is in form “Information giving” when the community participates in answering questions concerning tourism development without the possibility to influence the findings. “Participation by consultation” is a higher level of participation when the community’s attitude, suggestions are taken into account by the external parties when they make solutions. “Participation for material incentive” is a type of participation in which the community provides its resources such as human resources and facilities for tourism operations and in return cash and other material incentives. In “Functional participation”, community participation is more co-operative and collaborative by forming groups/committees. But the dependence on external parties is still considerable. “Interactive participation” is characterized by more involvement of the community in the decision-making and control of the CBT venture. The highest level of the community’s participation is self-mobilization in which the community dominates the whole process of CBT development, from the initiating stage to the controlling stage. Besides this typology, Tosun (2006) suggested another typology of community participation. He defined three levels of participation as coercive participation, induced participation, and spontaneous participation. Spontaneous participation is bottom-up participation. It means that participation is initiated by the locals. Consequently, they make the decisions and control the decision realization. Participation is thus active and authentic. Both induced
critical for the CBRT to get the support they need to enhance their resources and facilities the CBRT product . The local community could only become active participants if they have support from the government, private sector and NGOs to enable the skills and knowledge transferred to them . In addition, Salazar  in his study stresses the key importance of the local tour guides in a CBRT product as he argues that communicative power in representing and interpreting the cultural heritage would have direct and potentially significant influences to the visitors. Thus, he concluded that a CBRT needs to be supported by tour guides either from outside of the community or from the community itself. On the other hand, specific training programmes focusing on skill development, business planning and marketing specific to the needs of entrepreneurs, products and tourism committee may need to be facilitated by external trainers who are engaged or connected through networking .
Tourism development can contribute to or adversely impact upon their resources. Policies may be contradictory, poorly implemented and focused on the short term rather than longer term. Externalities may interrupt and obstruct national objectives. Tourism development in Malaysia especially by communities raises many of the issues of development confronting many larger and powerful economies and empowerment by communities (Sofield, 2003). Understanding the series of case studies seeks to understand not only how communities in Malaysia have responded to tourism within their social and geopolitical space, but whether the environment governing the power relationship between community and agents of tourism development is an enabling or disabling one, whether it is empowering or disempowering.
such as airlines, hotels and tour operators, who take the bigger share of the tourist’s expenses. The second is the purchase of the imported goods and services by tourists while on site, which allows the direct economic impact to leak out from the host community (Mowforth and Munt, 2008). Alongside the direct and indirect economic impacts emerging from tourism, the industry is also subject to the issue of seasonality, where local people are moved in and out of paid positions solely based on the volume of tourism arrivals (Fennell, 2007). However, the issue is not exclusively a problem from an economic point of view, rather it answers to many sociocultural problems of tourism. For example, since travel marketing often aims to attract as many people as possible, and often over seasonal periods of time, much development is projected to withstand visitors in very high densities. Indeed, as the ratio of tourists to residents highly correlates with seasonality (Deery et al., 2012), it could raise considerable resentment towards tourists. As substantial numbers of tourists are using community resources, this causes overcrowding, traffic jams, litter, resource scarcity and an increase of practically all negative aspects found in the tourism industry (Easterling, 2004; Deery et al., 2012; Choi & Sirakaya, 2005).
Eco-tourism provides the major contribution on Sri Lankan economy and foreign exchange earnings. Part of the income earnings from the foreigners’ expenditure are distributed among the local and rural people because of their protected natural formations and endemic resources. Even though the endangering of the indigenous species and depletion of local natural resources are happening in some areas because of their insufficient knowledge on indigenous species and their poor conservation techniques. Delft Island is facing these kinds of problems. It has renowned documented history with rich ethnic diversity in ancient time. So, the current barriers should be studied and the reason for the barriers also should be reason out. A communitybased ecotourism could help to develop the delft island in sustainable manner. The objectives of the study were: to found the endangering inland floral and aware the community regarding that species ; to analyze the issues relating residents leaving from the place; to identify the constraints related with less tourist arrival; to ascertain the community awareness related species extinction; to analysis for communitybased eco- tourism development in Delft and examine the perception of local community towards communitybased ecotourism its long-term benefits; and to make suggestions for communitybased sustainable ecotourism development. A case study has been conducted in delft east. During the research.105 plants were counted and categorized. Convenience sampling method with 170 target participants (100 local community, 50 visitors and 20 other stake holders) were participating in the primary data collection. According to the results of the study 11 species are extincted, 8 species face critically endangerd and 12 species are in endangered category. It was observed that there are 28 species in the vulnerable category and 13 species are facing near threaten, 15 species considered as least concern 13 species were not evaluated because of insufficient data. The rate of endangering species is too high. Acccording to wilcoxson signed rank test, the awareness of community about endangerd species are significantly vey low.(Z-8.0,P-0.00) The major reasons for the less tourist arrival and residents leaving from the places are poor transportation and lack of infrastructure facilities and local resources degradation. There is a positive attitude among 78% of the local community towards communitybased eco-tourism. The education level significantly influences the community attitude (χ2= 6.821, DF = 3, P = 0.00). Most of them have a significant potential of satisfactory level about participation in communitybased eco-tourism development (Z-8.374, P-0.0000).
For the Bali free market, quantitatively it has had a positive impact on various economic sectors such as the number of stands of Multi-National Corporation, job opening, Gross Domestic Product increase, the inclusion of diverse and competitive consumer goods, the availability of international experts and of course the entry New cultures of congenital free markets such as consumerism and lifestyle. However, qualitatively, the impact of the free market on the welfare of sculpture artisans in Tohpati Klungkung Village as envisioned by Adam Smith, seems not to be realized. Indicators indicate that the existence of the Multi-National Corporation is limited to the hiring of cheap labor at the operator level, the swift rush of various products and small industries from various other countries has created thousands of newly unemployed in the real sector, intellectual property rights that make everything more expensive And the most frightening is the large number of emerging import substitution industries that are not the primary industries of domestic demand and pure export orientation. Whereas theoretically, the free market is intended as an economic system to improve the unethical economic system and which is perceived to impede economic growth by providing equal, free and fair business opportunity to all economic actors.
However, the study is not without its limitations. First, the variety of places and people taken as samples provide a wide diversity to be considered, but the study also did not take into account the different ethnicities. The tourists with different ethnic groups may have differing perceptions into destination images and their re-visit intention. Second, the samples were also limited to tourists’ visiting various community-basedtourism destinations in Sarawak, Malaysia. A higher sample could provide more robust results. Third, some conceptual problems arise into the notion of destination attachment and re-visit intention. In fact, the Malaysian tourists may have more opportunities to be repeatedly visited a particular community-basedtourism destination, while it is not often easy for international tourists as various constraints are involved over there such as- visa processing, geographical distance, and financial. Thus, this study suggests to look tourists’ perceptions on re-visit intention separately for domestic tourists and international tourists.
Assessing the alignment of stakeholders in the development of CBD in the western districts of Ha Giang province, foreign tourists still rated higher than domestic visitors for most criteria such as: the coordination between local authorities, tour operators and local people through specific programs (cultural exchanges, arts, sports.. ); local authorities in conjunction with travel businesses to build programs to promote tourism images in the media; Travel businesses in combination with indigenous people organize well tour programs, Travel businesses handle quickly and meet the requirements. bridge of visitors. There is an indicators that both domestic and foreign tourists are a bit worried about the local calendar is that the timeliness and ethnicity to handle complaints and feedback from visitors about the issue of tourism management in the locality. In the future for the development of the CBD, it is necessary to have a closer link between the stakeholders such as local authorities, people and travel businesses.
The growth of nature-basedtourism has triggered further development of outdoor tourism activities by utilizing natural areas for commercial purposes. This trend is likely related to the role of tourism promotion. However, promotion is still interpreted partially as an effort to convey information persuasively to reach the phase of purchasing. In this study we used more comprehensive and integrated approach. We interpret promotion in seven phases from information sharing up until becoming a tourism promotion agent so that promotion of nature-basedtourism destinations is more effective and optimal. This study is aimed at determining the role of promotion on visitor decisions to visit nature-basedtourism destinations. A set of questionnaire was distributed to the community by considering the different income level, education, and occupation divided into three categories, namely, the upper, middle, and lower classes. In this study we used 100 respondents to assess printed promotional and audio-visual materials. Data were analyzed using One Score One Indicator System, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn test. The results of the study showed that out of the seven phases that we examined, differences of opinion occurred in three phases of promotion including recognition and consideration phase, the motivation to enjoy natural tourism services, and willingness to be tourism promotion agent. This indicates differences of opinion over the factors that influence the three categories of respondents regarding the decision to visit a promoted nature-basedtourism destination. Higher income shows a better response to the seven phases of the promotion definition of natural tourist destinations. We identified that internal factors including income characteristics, education, and occupation in addition to external factors of promotional materials (such as design and substance) together with attraction (destination attributes) can increase the the decision to visit nature-basedtourism destinations. The management implications of this study were relate to consumer behavior on visit decisions as the important factor for the success of the destinations. Also, designing effective promotional activities that are tailored to the perceptions and motivations of consumers in nature-basedtourism destinations is important.
In particular, CBT is regarded as the form of tourism that helps local communities generate additional income. Thus, CBT – usually with the support of another organi- zation (government or NGO) – focuses on the community and the adoption of tourism into the community in an appropriate way. Nevertheless, the involvement of third- party organizations raises criticism because it often fosters a reliance on Western ideas of development with little attention being paid to local views and knowledge (Dodds et al., 2018; Goodwin & Font, 2014; Kiss, 2004). This raises incongruent objectives and unachievable expectations for local socio-economic growth and leads to a dependency on third-party donor organizations (Buccus, Hemson, Hicks, & Piper, 2008; Manyara & Jones, 2007). If CBT is implemented to maximize the benefits for the local commu- nities, all three pillars of sustainable tourism development – i.e., economic efficiency, social value, and environmental sustainability – have to be respected so the commu- nity gains control of tourism from early planning stages onward. It is not surprising then, that it was found that this is best achieved when communities receive construc- tive insight into sustainable management (Mbaiwa, 2004; Muhanna, 2007). Certain cases provide evidence that these efforts in promoting sustainable tourism develop- ment lead to greater awareness of environmental issues among communities and that there are significant livelihood gains for CBET members and the community as a whole (Lonn, Mizoue, Ota, Kajisa, & Yoshida, 2018; Reimer & Walter, 2013).